Speech Science, Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Malleus--touches TM
Stapes--touches OW
Lower respiratory system
complex periodic signals
mulitple lines
Meters, Kilograms, Seconds

Metric system measurements of pressure
Inhalation is always _________ pressure.
parietal pleura
costal pleura

lubricated membrane lining the inner surface of the thorax
scientific method
empirical: based on data; deterministic: obeys physical laws; predictive: if you do this...then that will happen; parsimonious: use the simplest explanation possible.
sampling too slowly will inaccurately record the original signal so you'll miss what happens in between the signals, to fix set the filter to the Nyquist frequency.
fourier analysis
mathematical procedure to identitfy the individual sinusoids in a complex sound
double walled sac
visceral and parietal pleurae
substance within each alveolus, which keeps the alveoli inflated by lowering the surface tension of the walls of the alveoli
Structures of the bronchial tree
upper cavity

contains the lungs and respiratory passageways (respiratory system)
Gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Low Pass
allows low frequencies through, holds back higher frequencies
sound spectrograms
display reflects the contribution of many structures and movements, much detail is present for even simple utterances, need to be selective, specific in interpreting the display
Cochlear Duct
structure that divides the cochlea along most of it's length; aka cochlear partition
restorying frce that brings an object back to its orginal size, shape, or position after having been displaced or deformed
continuous spectrum
displays the frequency content of aperiodic sounds
amount of mass per unit of volume
Why understand technology?
SLP needs to know disordered/abnormal physiology, if the data is mysterious how would we provide treatment? need to know what the #s from machine represent, provide the expert interpretation.
Tube Acoustics
they don't generate sound but their dimensions allow resonance, max resonance for waves with a length of 4x that of the tube
Organ of Corti
sensory nerve receptor for hearing, consisting of rows of inner and outer hair cells
unit of measure of force and pressure in cgs system
fundamental frequency
lowest frequency of a complex periodic sound
area of negative pressure in a sound wave traveling through a medium
Types of lung capacities
vital capacity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity
At lung volumes above 38% of VC, relaxation pressure is _________. Passive forces are ___________. Air flows _________.


A force that acts perpendicularly on a surface
laminar flow
air that flows smoothly with molecules moving in a parallel manner and at the same speed
At lung volumes below 38% of VC, relaxation pressure is _________. The passive forces are _________ and air flows __________.


pleural linkage
negative pressure in the pleural space keeps the lungs and thorax connected
periodic signal spectrum
is a frequency domain description of the signal.
Limitations of Acoustic Analysis
acoustic patterns reflect vocal tract movements with some ambiguity, acoustics can not reveal all details of movement, motor equivalence

Imbedance mismatch
measure of the opposition of a system to a flow of energy through it, measured in ohms.

difference in impedance between two mediums
Abdominal muscles
4 muscles of the abdomen compress the contents of the abdominal cavity during exhalation

Pressure from the muscles is exerted upward on the diaphragm
Left lung
Smaller than right to make room for the heart
2 lobes
What is considered high lung volume?
Above 55% of VC
Normally the lungs and thorax act as a _______.
Source, Filter (in theory)...but...
in theory, glottal source and vocal tract filter are independent. filter can influence the source and source can influence the articulators.
sensorineural HL
HL due to disease or damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve
Hearing Impairment
People who are deaf or hard of hearing seem to have trouble controlling the airstream for speech

Respiratory system itself is not deviant but coordinating is difficult
At lung volumes below 38% of VC, exhalation requires _________.
active (muscular) forces
Tidal Volume
Volume of air that we breathe in OR out during a cycle of respiration

Varies depending on age, build and degree of physical activity
What is a Digital Sound?
music is stored in numeric form, played back in analog form, discrete, can be fully represented by a table of numbers, there are unknowns between the points
Function of the organ of corti
contains hair cells embedded in basilar membrane. transmits sound into electrical impulses as BM vibrates and stimulates HC's
What changes in speech breathing happen when we age?
Declination of surface area of alveoli

Lung size decreases

Ossification/Calcification of ribs

Vertical dimensions of thoracic cavity become smaller

Force and rate of muscle contractions change (meaning slower movements)

Less blood volume
What are the considerations of breathing for life and breathing for speech?
Breathing for life: usually an unconscious, automatic process; amount of air taken in varies with the needs of our bodies at the time

Breathing for speech: more complicated because it needs to be linguistically appropriate (at appropriate times, enough air to produce the full utterance) and have prosodic considerations
What determines air flow?
It is strongly related to the larynx and the articulators.

Modified by various resistances to the flow of air
What determines the relaxation pressure at any lung volume?
The combined passive forces of the lungs and chest wall
What is the normal range of F0 for males?
100 to 120 cps
What are the pressures necessary for speech and where are they?
Alveolar pressure - inside the lungs

Subglottal pressure/Tracheal pressure - below the vocal folds

Oral pressure - inside the mouth
What are the biological differences between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Location of air intake (life: through the nose, speech: throught the mouth)

Ratio of time for inhalation vs. exhalation (life: almost equal, speech: inhalation time = 10% of cycle)

Volume of air inhaled per cycle (speech: more and differs depending on length of utterance)

Muscle activity for exhalation (life: passive, speech: active)
What happens to harmonics as they get higher?
They get progressively weaker in amplitude
Why do we inhale to larger lung volumes for louder speech?
To take advantage of positive relaxation pressure at high lung volumes.
Residual volume
-What is it?
-Is it greater in infants or adults?
Amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation

Much less in infants than adults
How does whispering influence speech breathing patterns?
We use less lung volume than for voiced speech

We tend to terminate speech at lower lung volumes (often below REL)

We use more air flow per syllable, which means we have fewer syllables per breath

We have a lower subglottal pressure
What happens at high lung volumes (above 55% of VC)?
Both lungs and chest wall want to recoil to a smaller size

There is a high positive alveolar pressure
What aerodynamic events need to happen for inspiration?
Make the pressure gradient in favor of air flowing inward
How does speaking task complexity influence speech breathing patterns?
When the task is more complex we tend to use more air per syllable (due to slower speech) so we have fewer syllables per breath
What is different for breathing in trained singers?
They tend to use nearly all of their VC while singing so they need to learn and focus on optimal breathing techniques
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