Arch Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ancient poop
 related to
Gaza Strip
Deir el-Balach
 – one who
Carl Blegman
discovers Troy VII
study of ancient (civilization)
culture, before 11,500 RCYBP
We are
hominids, all fossil bipeds
25-5m, Antarctica ice sheets rainforest disappear and Australopithecenes burst on the scene
Age of Mammals
Gardener and greenhouse designer. Designs glass and iron structures using all mass produced components. Designed the Crystal Palace.
Wrote book on Greek Architecture
________ the details: acropolis, temples = simple geometric forms, procession through site
chronological ordering of artifacts in which similar ones are adjacent to one another-frequency seriation-linguistic dating-climatic chronology
area between two adjoining arches
the Exodus
586 BC-- Nebuchadnezzar captures Jerusalem, leads 800 people out. Destroys the city (evidence in black ash and arrowheads). Esdras II implies that the Ark of the Covenant was destroyed with the city.
george bass
the father of underwater archaeology.
lithic experimentation
archaeologists trying themselves to make stone tools.
The period during which modern behavior becomes apparent in the archaeological record is the?
Type of architecture continuously used in England and part of search for Germany's own architecture
Wrote "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture"
someone who designs and builds buildings
artificial, stonelike material made of sand and gravel
significance of Jerusalem Toilet
excavation revealed coprolites... found undigested food that was not the usual plants that would be expected (barley, wheat) but rather backyard grasses and plants. SIGNIFICANCE FOR HISTORY: toilet was used during the siege, so ppl couldn't get out to get real food. evidence of tape worm and whip worm.
Stephen J. Gould
Punctuated equilibrium- evolution is stable for long periods of time the followed by a period of rapid change.
Published Book entitled "Contrast or a parallel between the noble edifices of the middle ages and corresponding buildings of the present day, shewing the present decay of taste" - Leans toward medieval buildings
True Gothic
Outward Forms + Internal Elements =
Viollet Le Duc
Restored several churches including Notre Dame.
Cottage Residences
begins american love affair with suburban living
excavation method used on very deep sites (tells) in which excavation proceeds downward in a series of gradually narrowing steps to see the remains of every time period
domed circular temple at Rome, erected AD 120 124 by Hadrian, used as a church since AD 609
The last layer of sediment will occur at the top and the last layer of soil will be at the bottom.
formal attributes
the shape and size of an artifact
Liz Smith
Wife of Mark Smith, did her dissertation on Judahite burials
THree Age System
a classification system by C.J. Thomsen that establishes the idea of ordering things into sequences1)Stone2) Bronze3) Iron
tuscan order
Roman order that resembles the Doric order but without a fluted shaft
Principle of Association
"Artifacts found near each other are inferred to have been used and deposited at around the same time."
Nazca Lines
called riddles in the sand they are huge designs in the sand in Peru. Made popular by Erich Von Daniken's book chariots of the gods who said they must have had to have been made by space craft. AD 525.. pretty much have been attributed to Nazca peoples because of their similarity.
cape gelidonya
place of one of the oldest shipwrecks, from the bronze age. 1200 BC, excavated in 1960
priams treasure
found by Schliemann and claimed it to be the treasure of the king of troy.
Law of Superposition
states that , where one layer overlies another, the lower was deposited first
Enter your front text here.
Palace of Westminster/Houses of Parliament (Sir Charles Barry and Pugin) 1840-1852
Bab edh-Dhra and Numeiria
the destruction of these two sites were thought to be S and G but realized that they were destroyed far too early to be witnessed by Abraham.
Most proponents of the replacement model trace the first human beings to?
Evolution in Africa 100k-200kya in Africa
methods used at Kabri to determine the extent of the palace and the extent of the unexcavated part where avocado trees were planted
conductivity and magnetometry -- showed that the palace was significantly larger than thought. Has helped to reconstruct palace, locate Minoan style frescoes, radiocarbon samples of artifacts.
The sites of Sima de los Huesos and Arago contain fossil evidence that supports?
Neanderthals coming 200,000 years ago
what is different about the naming of layers of Troy?
numbers are opposite... Troy I is oldest (3000 BC) and Troy IX is on top
Tel Heshbon
evil spirit
excavated at Jericho
 – first angel
Dennis Pardee
letter writing conventions
a collection of artifacts
Mississippian Time period
900-1,500 A.D.
Randall Price
2009-Latest "pseudoarchaeologist" to claim to have found Noah's Ark. Turkey on top of Mt. Aratat, but is "raising funds" to return to excavate.
Louis and Mary Leakey
Olduvai Gorge
Colonial Style
"Georgian", modified english palladianism
New Engineering Technology: Build fast, cheap, light, _____
ground penetrating radarmeasures the depth of changes in ground through pulses of sound
1600-1100 BC. excavated by heinrich schliemann in 1876. thought he was excavated the tomb of Agamemnon but wasn't-- tomb dated to 16th c BC and he would have lived around 1300 BC.
French volunteer in U.S. Revolution; chosen by Washington as planner, Jefferson = consultant
Nazi projects for national monuments: __________ -scale stage sets for political spectacles of domination and unity
Wrote the "seven lamps of architecture"
a place where records are preserved
Troy I
3000 BC. Troy IX is top
Turkana Newcomer
Erectine, 1.8 mya
First human fossil out of Africa
Bridge = commuters = office buildings = _______
Believed a building was not one technology but needs all four (fire, mound, roof, enclosure)
an engraved stone that is standing with an absolute date
story above the entablature and below the cornice in classic architecture
objectives of classification
organizing data into accessible units, describing types, identifying relationships between types, studying assemblage variability in the records.
Peasant Revolt Model
Mendenhall and Gottwald, Israel was composed of native Canaanite peasants who revolted against Canaanite lords (apiru and Amarna letters)
Greek Classicism
"Belongs" to Germany as much as Greece
Place Royale
Paris was overcrowded and dense; First open space in Paris
Believes it is crucial to relate house and nature
open-area excavation
the opening up of large horizontal areas for excavation; used where single period deposits lie close to the surface
Kenyanthropus platyops
Flat faced man of Kenya, Lucy's Pretty Sister?
3.5-3.2 BP
Small ear holes, flat face, smaller molars
nonintrusive methods of subsurface detection
bowsing, resistivity survey, magnetic survey, ground-penetrating radar (GPR)... can save money and time, aid in formulating an accurate research design before a dig.
test sites
digging small holes to test for the appearance of material
Washington Mall
Used by Vaux and Olmsted for Central Park in NYC
Winckelmann's Influence
If Greek high classicism is the "Best Ever", why choose anything else?
unsystematic survey
walking and scanning the ground of a site and recording the location of artifacts and surface features
Tollund Man
found in Denmark Peat Bog from the 4th century .
Washington DC and Paris
Cities where Streets point to the monuments
Charles Darwin's theory of Evolution
All plants and animals have their origin in other pre-existing types.
List six of the characteristics of the Upper Paleolithic that were mentioned in class?
Larger sites
Exotic goods
bone antlers, shell tools
elaborate burials
James Van der Kam
one of the best written intros to the DSS
Katanda is an important site because it?
Harpoons and bone tools. 50,000 years ahead of European sites.
The bone tools from the Katanda sites in Zaire are significant because they show?
It was earlier than in Europe.
50k years before Europe.
·      Edward Tylor- “Knowledge, beliefs, morals, law, custom, other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”
o   Structural components of society (law, religion, etc)
·      Franz Boas- “Social habits of community, reactions of individuals as affected by habits of the group—product of human activities”
o   Contextual not evolutionary  (social)
·      Clifford Geertz- “Denotes an historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols of system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms—communicate, perpetuate, and develop knowledge”
o   Meaning and mental aspects of culture (learned behavior)
·      Lewis R. Binford- “Man’s extrasomatic (added + body) means of adaptation”
o   Functional aspects as adaptive system (cannot say meaning or ideology of anything)
Study of pottery
TOOLS are: 
-change and vary but don't evolve 
-a material object that is put to use 
Non-artifactual organic and environmental remains that shed light on past human activities
    E.G. Pollen remains, animal bones, spilliothem
Identificatin of prominent archaeological remains in a landscape (quick and dirty)
    - Working up to the excavation
    - Usually done in the context of a specific intellectual question or
= Hypothesis formation: goal is to develop some novel ideas or ways of looking at a problem that lead to looking for certain kinds of data
   - Survey evidence helps provide justification for excavation
   - Walk around; look for features in a landscape such as remnants
      of walls structures or burial mounds
   - Aerial or satellite photos
     + Provides wide area perspective
       e.g. canals, large fortifications, field systems, art
     + Won't work in landscapes with a high density of plant life
   - Maps: topography
   - Location of other sites in relation
   - Ask people who live in the area!
-a zooarchaeologist
-discovered cut marks on bones from early human sites (Olduvai and others) dating back 1.5-1.8 mya
ABORIGINAL TASMANIANS had the _______ human tool inventory with about ______ types. 
Lifeway (?)
Nomadic, between 13,000-7,000 BC
    - Very little archaeological evidence of these early nomadic hunter-gatherers
      + Big arrows, popular channgel flake for spearfit
= Trademark items are Clovis and Folsom spearheads
Solar radiation strikes the atomosphere and coverts a small amount of atmospheric nitrogen into a radioactive isotope 14C
    - When organism dies, the 14C trapped in its cells begin to revert
       to nitrogen because 14C is unstable
=Half life for 14C is 5,730ish years
    - Estimate the time an organism has been dead by measuring the amoung of 14C against the stable isotopes 12C and 13C remaining in its cells
= After 50,000 yrs not enough 14C left to be measurable on standard laboratory equipment, although large samples and the most powerful equiment can date up to 100,000 yrs
    - Works best on wood and charcoal, but paper, leather, bone, skin,
      peat, and many other organics can be dated with this method
    - Poor sampling procedures can contaminate samples with 14C
E.G. Site of Cuello in Belize—charcoal bits found from two different areas combined together before dating. Ended up showing that charcoal was 1,000 yrs older than it really existed. They also did not refill the excavation site and now a Rum company uses it for a dump

    - Contaminiation from ground water or breathing/touching it
      (adds 14C)
E.G. Old Crow River in Yukon, Alaska—controversial evidence for early human occupation. In 1966 a caribou bone fleshing tool was found and dating set it to 26,950 BP +/- 3000 (very, very early). 1986 bone collagen AMS dated to 1350 +/- 150.

   - There is a "correction curve" with 14C because the amount in
      the atmosphere hasn't been constant over the past 50,000 yrs
      + Use dendrochronology to measure amount of 14C in trees
   - Amount of 14C is not the same for all environments
     + North v. South hemisphere
=Recent advance in radiocarbon dating with the use of particle accelerators (AMS or accelerator mass spectrometry)
   - Samples the size of a match-head can now be tested
   - Samples more easily purified on contaminants
E.G. In Feb. 1989 an international team of 21 scientists took 3 50mg samples of the Shroud of Turin, a flax cloth that appears to bear the image of a man who has been whipped and crucified and has been thought to be used to wrap the body of Jesus Christ. Samples sent to 3 different labs around the world which independently concluded that the flax used to weave the Shroud was grown well after the death of Christ (13th/14th c). NOT PATCHED.

=Dates that agree with one's supisitions are welcome, while dates that don't agree are intrusive

Commonly occuring crystalline minerals (quartz and felspar) "soak up," radioactivity from the naturally occuring radioactive elements in the matrix in which they were found
   - They record how long they have been exposed to these
     radioactive elements
      + Heat to high temperature or bleaching by sunlight causes the
         exposure of natural radiation to erase, setting radiological
         "clocks" to zero
          ~ Materials cool or are removed from sunlight through burial,
              minerals start to record contact again
   - Dark laboratories can cause accumulated energy to be released
     as light and measured with a device called a photomultiplier
= Date to the last heating or burial of a crystal
= Age determinants from 0 to 1 million ya are possible
although dif groups of ppl make similar tools it is _________ that they would make them using the same OPERATIONAL SEQUENCE. 
when did the domestication of plants begin? 
10,000 ya 
Attempts to summarize and capture the essence of the appraoch is doomed because there is no single approach, no unified perspective
    - Derived from post-modernist perspective

Ian Hodder: first described as an attempt to overcome perceived shortcomings in processual archaeology
   - Processual neglects the influences of culture
       + Concentration on norms rather than individuals
       + Rarely attempts to incorporate the ideas used by societies to
          structure how material culture fits into a society's world view
   = Archaeological interpretation is a hermeneutic circle-- a
      process of continual interpretation and reinterpretation
    - The seatch for an empirical sicence of artifacts is useless
      + A few scientific methods are helpful (e.g. radiocarbon dating),
         but archaeology will always be a humanistic enterprise and
         fundamentally interpretative excercise, NOT an
         observational one.  
Assumption that archaeology can be a neutral, value-free, empirical science of artifacts is wrong. 
= "History is what a living society does in the past," vs.
the processualists notion; "history iswhat happened in the past."
Bruce Trigger: four main tenants of post-processualism
    1. "No one sees the world objectively: what we perceive, and
         even more what we interpret what we perceive, is influenced
         by what we believe"
    2. Assumption that "sensory data or observational evidence is
        rarely capable of refuting strongly held beliefs"
    3. "'holism' -- the idea that in order to understand any part of a
         system or an issue we must first understand the whole."
    4. "Science is a social activity. This implies that science is only one
         source of knowledge among many, including common sense,
         religious beliefs, and perhaps even delusions."
=We create the past and our interpretations of the past are limited by, and arise out of, our own cultural context
    - An archaeologist's interpretations of the past is a function of
      their own sociocultural context (their own lives and personalities
     determine how they interpret artifacts)
    - Archaeology is profoundly political
       + If there are many 'true' readings of archaeology then
          nonarchaeologists have as much a right as archaeologists to
E.G. Ian Hodder and the goddess statues-- interns have goddess tourguide duty
What other archaeological data was found in the close proximity
Comparative way of saying an object is older or younger than another
    - Three-Age System: Christain Thomsen & J. Worsae first to
      clearly state and develop 
Stone --> Bronze --> Iron
    - Stratigraphy: organization by layers
    - Seriation: how stylistic attributes change with time
    - Deep Sea Cores: oxygen isotopes
    - Palynology: study of pollen to construct the Paleoclimate
Cultural Formation
The deliberate or accidental activities of human beings as they make or use objects, build or abandom buildings
    - A process: reuse, discard, disturbance, recover
E.G. The process of making and using stone tools
   1. Acquisition of raw materials
   2. Manufacture the tool
   3. Use tool
   4. Discard when broken or no longer necessary
The precise location of the archaeological data in space
    - Region, site, sector, unit, feature, artifact
A portable object used, modified, placed, or made by people
    - E.G. baskets, tools, pottery, etc.
    - Classify items on the basis of the material they are made out of
       + Largest part of the archaeological record is made up of stone
           tools and pottery fragments (shreds)
 -analyzing functions of ceramics based on their shape 
 storage jars= smaller openings, less access to what's inside
 cooking bowls=  big opening, easy access to whats inside
serving plate= shallow, plate-like
 ceremonial vessel= more highly decorated than other stuff
-deep bodies
-wide openings
-thermal damage from heating and cooking 
-a kind of technology
-highly variable thru time, culture, inside cultre
-found in all human culture
-a uniquely human tech strategy 
-the analysis of plant macrofossils from arch sites
-most plant remains are carbonized (burnt)
-water logging and extreme aridity may also preserve plants 
Parent/Daughter Material
Parent material degrades into daughter material
    - Age is determined by looking at the amoung of daughter material
      compared to parent material
Meadowcroft Rockshelter,
Layers of alluvial sediments were deposited by tributary of the Ohio River. Interspersed in these alluvial sediments are many clear indications of human occupations including...
    - Prismatic flint blades
    - Basketry
    - Hearths
Millennia of reoccupation left a 16 foot "layercake" of tools, bones, baskets, and other debris.
    - Charred basketry from bootom was radiocarbon-dated to
      19,600 +/- 2,400 and 19,150 +/- 800
    - Charcoal from level beneath basketry dates to as old as 37,000
      + But no associated artifacts
    - Stone tools of Meadowcroft's earliest levels are similair to typical
      Clovis of 11,500 ya, but some blade sizes and types are different
= Suggestion that samples were contaminated by groundwater and that the site's stratigraphy has been misunderstood
    - Animal bones found also troubling; not expect these types this
      close to the glaciers that would have pushed far down into the
      northeastern US in the late Pliestocene
= If early dates of Meadowcroft accepted, it means peeps were in U.S. before last glacial advance and that the ice sheets weren't actually a barrier
    - Scarcity of sites dating this far back is due to inadequate
      searching, low population densisities, and the post-depositional
      destruction of sites
= Preservation makes finding more sites like this difficult
    - Mississippi area: alluviation has been so great that sites would
      be buried under tens of meters of soil
    - In South and East, where glacial ice sheets never extended, present land surface is millions of years old
      + Soft-drink bottles and ancient artifacts found in virtually same
         ~ Accumulation of soil over these areas has been so slow
= Cactus Hill, Virginia might corraborate dates...
Study of the formation of layers-- both geological and cultural
    - different layers of debris removed in the reverse order in which
       they were deposited
= Law of superposition: sedimentary layers are deposited in a time sequence, the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top (a profile view)
    - Requre that the analyst reconstruct different processes that
      produce the sequence of deposits
= Stratigraphic analyses are a fundamental part of field archaeology because they provide the primary data for looking at change over time in all aspects of cultures
    - Geological disasters (earthquakes/mudslides) and animal/human
       digging can interrupt stratigraphy

E.G. Neandertals came to the Tabun Cave in Palestine every year for a few months and built fires, made tools, butchered animals, etc. adding to the layer of debris each year. Excavators can now tease apart layers of debris to see history of change in their culture
Peel by layers which correspinds to time period
   - Emphasis on exposing and recording plan view
   - Bird's eye view of an entire cultural layer
= Synchronic research strategy- in-depth study of a specific time period
Focuses on the material remains-- art, history, literature-- of ancient Mediterranean world (Greece, Rome)
Study of living or recent human societies.

Analyze lifeways
The scientific study of past human cultures through their materials and remains.
Deals with cultures that were NOT urban and did NOT have writing.
=Prior to a historical record
Analyzes he evolution of things over time

- Allows for assessment of change throughout history

= Effects of variable change on something to postulate why this certain state exists
The result of both natural events and cultural activities
    - The prinicple of Thermodynamics, matter is never destroyed nor
      lost in the universe
      + Best preservation of organic remains (which degrade the
         quickest!) where there is not enough water, heat, pH balance,
         or oxygen for the chemistry of decay to occur
E.G. Dry caves, under thick layers of volcanic ash, peat bogs, permafrost, or deep, dark, cold water
= The preservaion of organics is almost an accident
    - The greatest destruction is caused by people
       + Renovation of ancient monuments/successive settlements
           e.g. In NY, Rome, etc, nearly every construction project disturbs the
                  archaeological record of earlier times
High tech methods of un-intrusive survey, particularly useful for remains that are not visible on the surface
   - Aerial photographs
     + Won't work on landscapes with high density of plant life
   - Satellite images
   - Ground-penetrating radar: sends signals that "bounce" off
     sub-surface anomalies such as structures, burials or other
    + Inexpensive, easy to use in the field, capable of digitally storing
      ~ Does NOT penetrate all substances (no, no on limestone)
      ~ Good where slah and burn occurs
= Archaeological sites can be mapped, recorded or excavated
   - Depends on project's resources and objectives
-informative about transport and butchery
--lots of meat as opposed to bone
--found at base camp
--pelvis, femur, humurous, scapula
--little meat, lots of bone
--usually left at kill site
--head and lower limbs 
4 conditions necessary for CONCHOIDAL fracture: 
1.  brittle
2.  isotropy- material responds equally from every direction
3.  cryptocrystalline
4.  sillicate 
ANCEINT vs MODERN ceramic vessels: 
ancient=animal motifs, elaborate designs
modern= elaborate decoration, inmpractical designs 
HERVE-BOCHERENS et al showed that: 
-neanderthals were carnivorous by showing that their bones were high in 15N and 13C 
-in africa
-about 1.5-2 mya 
 -study and analysis of animal remains from arch sites
-identify species, body parts, and damage pattern on bones
-reconstruct what kinds of animals humans ate and how they acquired them
-how people get food for themselves
a FLAKE is: 
-a piece of waste stone 
Folsom, New Mexico: JD Figgins found a long, "fluted" (two long strips removed near the base and parallel to the length of the point) projectile point  in 1926
    - Embedded in the robs of a species of bison that had been extinct
      for about 10,000 yrs
= Folsom points prove that people were on the continents the same time as megafauna at the end of Pleistocene ca 10,000 ya
Asians and
Native Americans
- Similarities: dark brown eyes; black, coarse, straight hari,
         and relatively widely spaced cheekbones
      - Differences: less pronounced epicanthic folds (part of the
         eyelid) and more prominent noses that east Asians
   - Impressive diversity of languages in the New World; none of
    which bore any obvious resemblance to Old World languages
=Although they might have descended from Asians they must have lived in America for a long time for such physical and linguistic divergence to occur
   - That people have lived in the New World for at least 11,000 yrs
      has been evident for a while
Cactus Hill,
Cactus Hill, Virginia occupation is on a relict sand dune and include both Clovis period occupation and, underneath that, a pre-Clovis horizon names "Blade" because it yieled quartzite blades
    - Radiocarbon dates on natural wood particles from the lowest sand
      deposite show that sand dune was forming around 19,000 ya
    - Date of 16,900 ya was obtained from natural charcoal in sterile
      deposits immediately below the "Blade" occupation
    - Overlaying Clovis horizon is radiocarbon dated to 10,900 ya
= Age bracket for "Blade" occupation is between 10,900 and 16,900 ya
A type of ground survey where the location of artifacts on the surface is recorded
    - Helps acquire money for excavation
      + Justifies the purpose for digging
      + Marks good places to start excavation

Settlement survey- systematic coverage of a site to produce a complete map of all features

Theoretical Anthropology
Focus on models and theories to explain human behavior
Linguistics of
New World
Native American languages have been screened for signs of common origin
    - Joseph Greenberg: New World languages reflect 3 periods of
       1. Amerind: 9000 BC
       2. Na-Dene: 7000 BC
       3. Eskimo-Aluet: 2000BC
=Each of these three language groups probably originated from separate Old World language families
=Nichols claims all New World languages came from Siberia over 20,000 ya
the stone tool making techniques from oldest to newest are: 
-hard hammer percussion
-soft hammer perc
rocks that fracture CONCHOIDALLY are: 
flint, chert, basalt, quartz, quartzite, obsidian, jasper, shale 
-the outside surface of the core/fracture, the part has been exposed to weather/ing 
a BULGE is: 
-a literal bulge on a flake
-corresponds to the striking platform 
-small bulge=soft hammer
large bulge=hard hammer 
what shape do carnivores teeth leave? 
U shape in cross section 
the 3 FOOD PROCESSING activities are: 
1.  aquiring food
2.  preparing food
3.  distributing food 
-a set of desicions humans make about how to make and use tools
-dynamic, change and vary according to costs and benefits
-the sequence of gestures involved in tech strategies give us clues to the tech knowledge of the ppl who made the tools
tools for DISTRIBUTING and STORING food are: 
-especially highly visible in arch record
-used, broken, and discarded at habitation sites
-pots and such, often ceramic
a RACHIS is: 
-the part of the cereal plant that the seed attaches too 
-used as temper in ceramic 
Initial Peopling Ideas:
Lost Cities
Native Americans the descendents of people who fled "Atlantis" or other lost cities that had been destroyed by volcanic eruption
Initial Peopling Ideas:
Lost Tribe
Native Americans the descendents of the "lost tribes of Israel," Jews that had been evicted from Palestine around 11,000 BC
a.    Incorporated into the doctrines of the Church of Latter-Day Saints, whose Book of Mormon concludes that Natives Americans came from Israel by ship hundred of years before Columbus
Use of sequence of tree rings to infer time
    - Most trees add a single ring each year to their circumference
number of rings = age of tree
      + Grow faster in wet years, so a unique series of changes in ring
         widths occur
Take cross sections of trees and match up the unique ring patterns to overlap back into time
    - Able to compare beams, posts, and other artifacts to cross
      sections taken from old trees in the same primary context
      + Can determine exact year in which tree was used to make the
    - Problems: Dry climates use lumber over and over because it's a
      rare resource
      + Date the tree was cut may be centuries earlier than it was
         used for a beam in a house
      + Location tree was cut may be miles and miles away from the
         context of the artifact
=Limitations when woord is reused
House --> Canoe --> Paddle
:date that tree was cut to build house, not the other events

E.G. Chronologies established to
8,600 yrs- American Southwest (Pine)
11,800 yrs- Northwest Europe (Oak and Pine)
wild cereal plants have ____ rachises because...: 
-this allows the seeds to break off and disperse more easily which protects them from predators 
-the method we use for making tools 
-similar operational sequences suggest either imitation (shared culture) or adoption (cultural convergence) 
-the study of OS tries to track variability in tech knowledge as seen through choice of materials, tools, and technique 
did early humans scavenge meat and how do we know? 
-on large mammal bone carnivore tooth marks were found in the proximal (meat bearing) part while tool marks were found on both proximal and distal ends
-this indicates that humans were scavenging, probably by driving the carnivores away from the kills 
the 4 components of any TCHNLGCL STRATEGY are: 
1.  materials
2.  tools (supporting tech)
3.  action
4.  technical knowledge 
the study of cut marks on bone or other material
1. Make a map of site so objects and features can be given precise 3D coordinates, the provenience
2. Site gridded into blocks (e.g. 5x5) and a sample of these blocks is selected for excavation
3. Diggin is done with dental tools, paint brushes, trowels, shovels, bulldozers, or dynamite (depending on objects and context)
= Objective is to obtain a chronometric date: age expressed in years
Crossing the Atlantic
from Europe
People traveling by skin boats crossed the northern Atlantic from Europe
    - Denis Stanford and Bruce Bradley's theory
      + Model is directed at explaining the origins of the Clovis
         tradition in the Americas
    - NOT necessarily the first migrants to arrive in the Americas
    - Permanent sea ice linked Ireland to Newfoundland during the
      period of maximum extent of the last glacial period
       + Presence of ice front theoretically created conditions that
          allowed a weak, warm sea current that flowed counter-
          clockwise in the right direction
          ~ Maritime adaptations in parts of western Europe allowed for
             crossing of 2,500 km along the ice front
         ~ Hunting of sea mammals and fishing to provide food and oil
            for heating and cooking
= Line of evidence used by Stanford and Bradley is the resemblance of Clovis stone artifacts in N. America to those of Upper Paleolithic tradition from Spain and France called the Solutrean
    - Stone flaked bifaces-- points or spearheads-- are very similar in
      appearance and in the technological processes used to
      manufacture them
      + Artifacts made of bone, antler, and ivory are similar in Clovis
         and Solutrean assemblages
    - Study of mtDNA shows presence of X haplogroup, a European
     genetic lineage, in some Native American populations
     + X haplogroup entered Americas via Solutrean peeps traveling
        the Atlantic
=NOT accepted as a feasible idea by most archaeologists
   - Chronology of Clovis and Solutrean
      + Solutrean sites in France and Spain fall into the interval
         between 21,000 and 17,000 ya while Clovis is dated between
         11,500 and 10,900 ya
         ~ Solutrean bifaces and well as techniques used to
            manufacture, are about 5,000 radiocarbon years older than
            supposed Clovis tradition counterpart
= NO Solutrean biface-making people in Europe at time that Clovis appeared in Americas
       + At height of last glacial period, which is when S & B propose
          that people crosses the Atlantic, there is NO evidence of
          human occupation north of Paris
        + NO proof that Solutreans had the adaptations for deep-water
           fishing or hunting of sea mammals
= Independent invention could account for similarities between the points
    - Making stone artifacts is a reductive process-- person making a
       stone tool can only fashion it by reducing it
      + Only so many ways this can be done!
    - Haplogroups explained by Beringia crossing as well
-a tool used in aquiring food
-highly visible in the record
-polished due to repeated use cutting grain
-discarded at habitation site 
how do archs interpret symbols? 
by linking them to known symbols in past cultures 
-a tool used to shape a core rock
-made of antler/bone/wood/anything else other than metal/stone 
/ 159

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