Archaeology, Lecture Flashcards

Terms Definitions
First archaeologist
Nabonidus
stains are...
...features
qualitative uses...
...descriptive attributes
graviturbation
movement by gravity
Cortex
exterior, whethered rock surface
An archaeological construct consisting of a stratum or set of strata that are presumed to be culturally homogeneous
component
argilloturbation
wet-dry cycle cracks clay
phases combine...
...space and time
artifacts separated into...
organic, inorganic
Homo ergaster
homo erectus in Africa
Archaeology
reconstructing human behavior from past human remains/material remains (types: anthropological, classical, historical, biblical, geoarchaeology, bioarchaeology, underwater, paleoantrhopology, zooarchaeology)
a complete qualitative and quantitative documentation of artifacts and ecofacts
cataloguing
phases are defined by...
...temporal types
Established modern discipline of archaeology
Pizzicolli
you can cluster assemblages into...
...components
a complete qualitative and quantitative documentation of artifacts and ecofacts
cataloguing
The overarching framework, often unstated, for understanding a research problem. It is a researcher’s “culture.
paradigm
Fire
used for cooking, light, heat, protection. needed in Pleistocene, with ice ages
Cave Artists
these Upper Paleolithic individuals were recognised, appreciated, and specialized
Major cultural transitions, such as the appearance of ceramics, settled life, or agriculture
horizons
3 types of anthro
biological, cultural, linguistic
examined linguistics of 40+ tribes, excavated burial mound on his property, concluded that Native Americans built them
Jefferson
arid environment
masada is an example
great preserver
Who integrated chronological information into a regional framework?
Willey and Phillips
form attributes include...
physical characteristics and measurable dimensions
An area bounded by topographic features, an area encompassing a particular culture related by cultural material
region
Hypothesis that links archaeological observations with the human behavior or natural processes that produced them
middle-level/range theory
Homo erectus
anatomically identical to homo habilis below the neck, but skull features are more archaic. used handaxe: round on one side, sharp on other (incredibly useful/widespread)
Middle Paleolithic
200,000 YA - 38,000 YA
Mousterian Tools
Neanderthals (some signs of homo sapiens)
Laevowa Point
-Consistent in size and shape
about 63 different types of tools (very specialized)
-scrapers, spears, composite tools
Necessit to get really close to game
Omo, Ethiopia
earliest homo sapiens sapiens, 195,000 ya
Culture
non-biological means we use to adapt and survive. it is observed and taught
_____ are a first step toward developing ideas about regional patterns and trends
phases
A culture from the Middle Paleolithic period that appeared throughout Europe after 250,000 and before 30,000 years ago.
mousterian
in temporal typing, artifacts are grouped based on...
...time period
Types of artifacts that change systematically and observably through time
time markers
Fascinated with lore of Native Americans
Nes Nelson
Promoted controlled excavation and analysis
A.V. “Ted” Kidder
what is cataloging done prior to?
formal analysis
_____ are a first step toward developing ideas about regional patterns and trends
phases
in morphological typing, artifacts are grouped based on...
...overall similarity
loss can occur during...
...acquisition, manufacture, or use
The study of contemporary peoples to determine how human behavior is translated into the archaeological record
ethnoarchaeology
A living behavioral system wherein artifacts are part of the on-going system of manufacture, use, reuse, and discard
systematic context
Archaeological time
subdivides human past based on changes in culture
Atapuerca, Spain
city with sites discovered by 1860 railroad. sites: Gran Dolina, Sima Del Elefanta
wheree homo erectus was found , shows intentiality in burials, cuts on bones signifies cannibalism
Monte Verde
earliest found site of homo sapien sapiens in new world. 13,000 YA
functional types can...
exist in association with a particular site/time period or independent of it
3 ways to secondary classify
function, meaning, chemical make-up
Info/ideas used to assess meaning of remains/traces of human activity
archaeological theory
Led to rediscovery of past by those in Western European intellectual tradition
Petrarch
items of material culture that show patterned changes over time
temporal types
temporal types can estimate ages where _____ can't
radiocarbon dating
the human and natural actions that work together to create an archaeological site
site formation
70 MYA
when did a meteor hit, causing a punctuated equilibrium
why is conservation done?
to ensure the preservation of recovered materials
Refined techniques to place stages of pottery development (seriation), which helped in establishing chronology of findings
James A. Ford
3 characteristics of a typology
minimize differences within, maximize differences between; must be objective/explicit
3 attributes of projectile points
size, notch position, notch angle
What happens to the materials from the time they are deposited to the time they are found?
site transformation
An unprotected location exposed to the elements, can contain sub-surface (not underground) deposits, which are remains that were deposited at the surface and then were buried
open geographic context
Clovis, New Mexico
site with first stone tool found in dead animal fossil (hunting), proved that Native Americans were heree 9-10,000 YA
how does one inventory?
document the numbers and types of remains recovered from a site.
why is cleaning done?
to remove obscuring traces of the matrix from the remains.
The upper part of a soil, where active organic and mechanical decomposition of geological and organic material occurs
a horizon
North East Siberia to Alaska
most obvious route of movement from old world to new world
what is cataloguing usually done with?
coding sheets designed for the particular materials
types can be based on ____, ____, and/or _____ attributes
stylistic, form, and/or technological
feature fill is removed from a feature to (2 reasons)
show size/shape of feature, reveal materials inside feature
first name of a projectile point refers to...
site or region they were first discovered
what are the 5 ways to sort in an inventory?
lithic, ceramic, metal, floral, faunal
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