Supreme Court Cases 5 Flashcards

Supreme Court of the United States
Terms Definitions
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Tinker v. Des Moines
1st Amendment
Brandenbury v Ohio
Bush v Gore
Gerrymandering/politcal process
Did florida court violate constitutions by making new election laws? Do standardless recounts violate equal protection.
No, despite the constititution, court decided against a recount but limitted it to just this case because of future constrainsts
Grutter v. Bollinger
upheld affirmative action
wallace v. jaffree
religion in school
Kids were susspended for wearing armbands that protested the war. Court ruled in their favor.1st amendment
Griswold v. Connecticut
Establishes right to privacy.
Gitlow v New York
Freedom of Speech
Lee v. Weisman
graduation prayers are illegal
24th amendment
outlaws all poll taxes as anti-democratic
Gratz vs. Bollinger
affirmative action case; determined that race was too much of a factor in point system for admissions, race can only be a tie-breaker
Schenck vs. US
Date/Era: 1919, White Court
Court's Ruling: Defendant's criticism of the draft was not protected by the First Amendment, because it created a clear and present danger to the enlistment and recruiting practices of the U.S. armed forces during a state of war
Court's Vote: unanimous
Key Rights/Liberties: freedom of speech
Other interesting information: Overturned by Brandenburg vs. Ohio in 1969, which held that government cannot punish inflammatory speech unless it is directed to inciting and likely to incite imminent lawless action, made "clear or present danger" test
Miranda v. Arizona
sets guidelines for police quiestioning of accused persons to protect them against self incrimination and to protect their right to counsel
separate but equal is legal
Plessy V. Ferguson
abington v schempp
ruled school sponsored prayer unconstitutional.
US v Nixon
(1974) executive privilege doesn't extend to criminal cases
Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier
Principal deleted articles on pregnancy and divorce. The school district won case because the Court said that censorship was ok if there material was not suitable for school (violated moral codes, beliefs, etc. of community/school)
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Contracts and States Laws
Mapp v. Ohio
Exclusionary rule (re: tainted evidence) applied to state courts
Clinton v. Jones(1997)
Issue: Economic Activity, Governmental Liability
Decision: Seperation of powers does not protect the president from allegations of the past
Miranda v. Arizona (1965)
rights of the accused
Powell v. Alabama
held the 14th amendment, defendant must be given counsel
Plessy v. Ferguson
Segregated facilities for blacks and whites are constitutional under the doctrine of separate but equal, which held for close to 60 years
Roth v. US
(1957) Defined obscene publications as those that attract "prurient interests" and lack any "redeeming social importance."
Texas v. Johnson 1989
Johnson established that burning American flag was free speech
Miranda v Arizona
Due process/ Rights of the Accused
does interrogation without being aware of rights violate the the 5th amendment?
Yes, police must make individuals known of rights before interrogation.
Williams vs. Mississippi (1898)
Allows literacy tests for voters
Miller v. California
Obscene Materials not protected under Free Speech. Adult material mailing
Wallace V. Jafrree
1985. authorized teachers to conduct religious prayer during school. Violation of establishment clause.
Guinn v. United States (1915)
declared unconstitutional the grandfather clause, which exempted persons - or the legal descendants of such persons who were able to vote before the fifteenth amendment was adopted - from literacy tests on similar voter qualifications
held that giving preference to minority business enterprises in awarding of municipal contracts was unconstitutional. (equal protection clause)
Schechter v. U.S.
Sometimes called "the sick chicken case." Unanimously declared the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) unconstitutional on three grounds: that the act delegated legislative power to the executive; that there was a lack of constitutional authority for such legislation; and that it sought to regulate businesses that were wholly intrastate in character.
Dennis v US
conspiracy to overthrow the government rescinds the 1st amendment rights
Mapp vs. Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court) 1961
Marbury v Madison
The Supreme Court established the doctrine of judicial review in this case.
Buckley v. Valeo 1976
1st Amendment protects campaign spending; legislatures can limit contributions, but not how much one spends of his own money on campaigns.
butler v. U.S
first AAA to be unconstitutional: power to regulate agriculture belonged to the sates, and federal govt. had no right to interfere
Engel vs. Vital
state sponsored prayer out of school
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819. Established that the authority of the federal law triumphs over state law.
Alabama didn't do voting lines right ; 2nd apportionment case. (1964) The court sided with the people of Alabama. 14 amendment
Planned Parenthood v. Casey(1992)
Issue: Right of Privacy
Decision: States can regulate abortion as long as an "undue burden" is not placed on women. A 24-hour waiting period, counseling on alternatives to abortion, and parental consent for minors were constitutional restrictions on the right to an abortion.
Incorporated the right to assembly. The government cannot make it a crime for a member of a radical group to merely to conduct and participate in a public meeting. 1937
DeJonge v. Oregon
United States v Lopez
Congress had exceeded its commerce clause power by prohibiting guns in a school zone
Gideon v Wainwright (1963)
Granted indigents the right to counsel
Engle vs. Vitale (1962)
requiring the recitation of a non-sectarian, goverment-sponsored prayer in the public school violates the principle of the separation of church and state; ban on prayer in the public schools
Furman v. Georgia
Stopped all executions in the United States in 1972.
Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)
Found Keating-Owen Child Labor Act that prohibited shipment of manufactured products by children under 14. to beunconstitutional.
Ableman v. Booth
Upheld the fugitive slave law included in the Compromise of 1850, 1859
Little vs. Barreme (1804)
President may not issues orders contradicting an act of Congress
Van Orden v. Perry
Establishment Clause. Ruled that the 10 commandments were OK because they were of historical significance
Muller vs. Oregon-1908
Court upheld an Oregon law that provided 10 hour work days for women. Set precedent for future social laws
New Jersey vs. T.L.O.
1985; 4th amendment; smoking in bathroom; principle searched her purse-said it was against her rights; voted in favor of school
Robinson V. California
Was convicted of being addicted to narcotics. Dealt with Cruel and Unusual punishment.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Declared that labor unions were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon.
Kelo v. New London
(2004) Town government can take private property and sell it to private developers in order to benefit the public good [imminent domain case]
Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)
struck down an apportionment system that allowed for congressional districts that varied significantly in size
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell
public figures cannot recover damages because of intentional infliction of emotional distress without proving actual malice; caricatures of public figures possess constitutional value no matter how objectionable
Veronia V. Acton
(1995) Court ruling that schools do not violate the privacy rights of students by conducting a random drug test on athletes
Dred Scott v Sandford
Questioned whether Scott could gain freedom by moving to a free state. Court ruled that Scott could not be free.
Tinker v Des Moines School District
1969; 1st amendment; Tinker
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
required separate seating for blacks an whites on railroads; separate but equal
Giibbons vs Ogden (1824)
Nat. govt to regulate interstate commerce
McCulloch vs. Maryland
State govt. = subordinate to Federal govt. where laws conflict (i.e. establishing federal banks)
Lemon v. Kurtzman 1971
Allowed states to provide textbooks and busing to students attending private religious schools. Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated: nonsecular purpose, advances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with government.
Gideon vs. Wainwright
Free legal counsel necessary in case the defendant in any criminal case cannot afford it
Regents of Univ. of California v. Bakke
Can't reverse discriminate.
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
Ruled 14th amendment protected inidviduals against state action and not individual action; legalized segreation on private property
Plessy V Ferguson
laid the groundwork for the "seperate but equal" doctrine
Gibbons v Ogden (1824) Marshall
Can states regulate interstate commerce?
No, supremacy clause
Gideon v. Wainright
1963 - All defendants in serious criminal cases were entitled to legal counsel, even if they were too poor to afford it. Overruled Betts v. Brady.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 1842
Edward Prigg, a slave catcher, appealed to the Supreme Court that his conviction in Pennsylvania of capturing a slave and attempting to return her to Maryland should be overturned because federal law made that action legal.
Court ruled in Prigg's favor, which angered northern abolitionists, but continued to assert that federal power was supreme.
Weeks v. U.S. (1914)
unanimously held that the warrantless seizure of items from a private residence constitutes a violation of the Fourth Amendment. It also set forth the exclusionary rule that prohibits admission of illegally obtained evidence in federal courts.
Korematsu v. United States
upheld legality of Japanese internment under war powers
Pittsburgh v ACLU
Can have a nativity if it features more than one religion
Gitlow v NY (1925)
Incorporated the free speech clause of the 1st Amendment, ruling that the states were not completely free to limit forms of political expression
McCollum v. Board of Education Dist 71
1948 (Vinson)
1st Amendment, 14th Amendment
Religious Classes
Cruzan v. Director (1990)
held that a competent adult patient has the right to decline any and all form of medical intervention, including lifesaving measures --resulted in the Patient Self Determination Act --The US Supreme Court ruled that the parents of Curzan, 32 y.o. female, who had been unconscious since 1983 car accident, could have her feeding tube removed.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Declared that states could not force you to inform your spouse of an abortion because that would be a violation of privacy protections. Furthermore the constitutional right to an abortion was upheld.
Barron v. Baltimore
The Fifth Amendment does not apply to the states (overturned later)
Hazelwood School district v. Kutlmier
school newspaper can be limited (freedon of pres) because they are a teaching tool and part of corriculum not a political forum.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools
extended the Brown decision, could use busing to accomplish desegregation of schools
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
Pennsylvania amended its laws against abortion in 1988-89. This required a 24 hrs. waiting period. Consent from parents, if she is a minor, and consent from husbands. Consent by one parent or judge for a minor to have an abortion. Must be a 24-hr delay for all abortions. Reaffirmed Roe v Wade but upheld certain limits on its use
Brown v Board of Education
Plessy v Ferguson is declared unconstitutional in regards to public schools
Marbury v. Madison
• Secretary of State [email protected]#$ did not deliver commission of justice of peace for DC to [email protected]#$ appointed by President John Adams due to new President Jefferson's orders. • [email protected]#$ filed suit, asked for a writ of mandamus requiring [email protected]#$ to deliver the commission. • Chief Justice Marshall declared that Supreme Court cannot issue this writ because Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional • [email protected]#$ still is entitled to the commission.
Reynolds v. U.S.
"..." to have a law that out-laws peligamy. YES. establishment clause and free exercise.
Brown vs. Board of Education
- segregation of races - "separate but equal" - declared unconstitutional in Topeka, KS
Bakke v. University of California
Supreme Court case dealing with affirmative action that ruled that affirmative action programs in principle are constitutional, but a strict quota system wasn't.
dred scott v. sanford
african americans were not citizens of the u.s. and scott had no right to sue, the missouri compromise was unconstitutional, slaves were property and protected as such under the constitution(slavery and property rights(1857)
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S. (1964)
discrimination in public accommodations. The Supreme Court upheld the portion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which outlawed discrimination in public accommodations, even though privately owned.
Schenck v. US (1919)
Government can limit speech, esp. in wartime (Schenck urged men to resist the draft)
Mapp vs. Ohio (1961)
The exclusionary rule was applied to state and local criminal prosecutions (meaning that materials found during an illegal search could not be used at trial.)
Bethel v. Frasier
Schools can limit student speech if it interferes with the educational process of the school.
Employment Division v. Smith
Year: 1990 Summary: Smith was fired for using the illegal plant peyote, and was denied unemployment insurance because of the reason he was fired. Smith sued saying that it was interfearing with his free exercise. The Court concluded that a law would be constitutional if it was for the general protection and application of all citizens and not specifically targeting a religion.
Bush v. Gore (2000)
The court ruled that manual recounts of presidential ballots in the Nov. 2000 election could not proceed because inconsistent evaluation standards in different counties violated the equal protection clause. In effect, the ruling meant Bush would win the election.
Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
"One person, one vote" upheld for state elections; all voting districts must be approximately equal in population
Regents of University of California vs. Bakke
Date/Era: 1978, Burger Court
Ruling: In favor of Bakke
Vote: 5-4
Key Rights/Liberties: Racial equality
Other Info: Bakke claimed that he had been denied from medical school on account of racial minority quotas. He claimed that this was a form of descrimination against Caucasians.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)
Supreme Court case in which Edward Prigg appealed to the US Supreme Court on the grounds that the Pennsylvania law arrogated the State powers over and above those allowed by the US Constitution The court held that Federal law is superior to State law, and overturned the conviction of Prigg as a result.
Gitlow v. New York
set limits on speech and press- incorporated the freedoms of speech and press- begins incorporation process of bill of rights
Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton
Schools may require random drug testing
Miranda vs. Arizona (1966)
prior to questioning by the police, a person in custody must be informed of the following: his or her constitutional rights to remain silent, that anything said can be used against him or her, that he/she has right to have an attorney present during questioing, and to have an attorney appointed if he/she cannot afford one; Miranda Warning
minimum wage laws. The court struck down a Congressional act authorizing a Wage Board for the District of Columbia from setting minimum wages for women workers. In a dissent, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote: "The criterion of constitutionality is not
Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923)
Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois (1886)
Declared state-pasted Granger lawas that regulated interstate commerce unconstitutional.
Heart of Atlanta Hotel v U.S
14th amendment. Congress could pass Civil Rights Act under interstate commerce
Everson vs. Board of Education
The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment is incorporated against the states. Government can not interfer with any Religious activities national or state level.
Dennis V. United States
Dennis is part of Communist Party and teaches to overthrow government. He's found guilty because of potential violent overthrow of government.
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
homosexual Boy Scout leaders not allowed
warrant-less vehicle search
the result of the Carroll v U.S. case in 1925. Also known as the 'Carroll Doctrine'.
Wesberry v. Sanders 1963
Ordered House districts to be as near equal in population as possible.
Santa Fe School District v. Doe
Year: 2000 Summary: permitting student led, student initiated praying at football games prohibits the establishment of religion clause of the first amendment.
Katz v. United States
1967; A warrant must be issued in order to wiretap. Overturns Olmstead v. United States.
Gideon v. Wainwright
gideon was a poor man, a thief, served 4 prison terms, however asked for an attorney and didnt get one, he was guilty in lower courts; final ruling in favor of him
Clinton v. New York City
Ruled that the law granting the president the line item-veto was unconstitutional, 1998
Bethel School District v. Fraser
Obscenity case. Court ruled that it was appropriate to discipline students for use of obscenity. School Assembly
Northern Securities Co. vs. U.S.
The first case in which the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was successfully invoked to break up a business monopoly
Dennis v. United States (1951)
gave a measure of credibility to this red scare when it upheld the convictions of numerous communist defendants for teaching and advocating the overthrow and destruction of the government
New York Times v. U.S.
1971; Papers on Vietnam War should be printed because it was the Pentagon's fault for not protecting them
Boy Scouts of America v Dale
14th amendment. Boy scouts can exclude gays as scoutmasters
Abington School District v. Schempp
"..." that each school day begins with readings from the bible. No. Establishment clause & free exercise clause. Government must have strict Neutrality
Cruzan v. Missouri Dept. of Health
Right of Privacy- right to refuse treatment or right to die
Brown v. Board of Education
girl was denied admission to an all white school that was closer to her house; court decided it violated the 14th amendment because separate facilities are inherently unequal; overturned "separate but equal"; tests showed segregation cause psychological damage
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819, Marshall)
New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
The Supreme Court ruled that, under the 1st Amendment, corporations had the right to fund their own political broadcasts and not be limited in doing so.
Regents of U. of California v. Allan Bakke
Quota systems are unconstitutional in college admissions.
Keo v. City of New London
gov. can take private property to sell out, for public use
brown v. board of education of topeka 1954
segragation is unequal in education (racial)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
African American applied to white school and was rejected
National Socialist Party v. Skokie (1977)
neo-Nazis wanted to hold a rally in a small town that passed several ordinances against the group specifically; ruled a deprivation First Amendment rights
West VA Bd of Ed v Barnette
you don't have to do pledge, pledge should be done because it means something
Gibbons v Ogden - Court ruled congress has right to regulate navigation as part of "interstate trade." Congress has no right to regulate trade within a state.
New York gave right to 2 people to operate steamboats within state jurisdiction, led to friction because some states required to pay fees, steamboat owners challenged this. Questioned the "Commerce Clause of the Constitution Article 1 Sect. 8" Does Congress have right to regulate navigation as part of interstate trade.
Earl Warren
smoking in bathroom
Civil Rights
Brow v Board(1,2)
U.S. v Leon
"Good Faith" Exceptions
Brown V. Board
African American Rights
Gottschalk v. Benson
1978 (Berger)
Article 1 Section 8, Patent act of 1952
Related to software patents
In re Gualt
Set requirements for juveniles
1973; 9th&14th amendments; wanted to end pregnancy; doc wouldnt give abortion; court ruled in favor of ending pregnancy in 1st trimester
Dartmouth College v Woodward (1819)
Constitutional Issue:
Romer v. Evans
A law cannot prohibit anti-discrimination laws for homosexuals (founded on the Equal Protection Clause)
Everson v. Board
Reimbursement of schools for busing
Zenger Trial
Criticism of the government is alright.
Brown v Board
"Separate but equal" is unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v Ferguson. Linda Brown had to walk a mile to the segregated school when the white school was next to her house. Court ruled that segregation has a detrimental effect on self-esteem of black children.
Roe v. Wade 1973
Established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st, state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd. state may regulate to protect health of unborn child in 3rd. Inferred from right of privacy estab. in Griswold v. Connecticut.
muller v. oregon
10 hour days for women
D- considered Marshall's most important interpretation of the Constitution, because it dealt with the division of power between the federal government and the states. Maryland, to protect local banks, place an annual tax on the U.S. bank and other foreign banks. The Maryland bank sued when the U.S. bank refused to pay. Marshall upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S. Said that the Bank's legality was implied in many of the powers specifically granted to Congress. Maryland's tax was unconstitutional.
S- strengthened federal authority and the implied powers of Congress. - Loose Constructionist.
Buckley v. Valeo
After Watergate scandal, Congress tried to restrict financial contributions to campaigns with the FEC Act of 1971, which set limits on the amounts of money an individual could contribute to a campaign. Senator Buckley sued Valeo (Secretary of State) because he felt the law violated 1.
DECISION: restricting individual contributions to campaigns and candidate did not violate 1 because it helped keep corrupt practices from ruining the integrity of our political system.
Baker v. Carr
constitutionality of state election districts, " equal protection of laws" 14th amendment
beginning of slavery
happens in virginia as english settlers support african slave trade
Roth vs. U.S.
Defined obscene publications as those that attract "prurient interest" and lack any "redeeming social importance".
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
declared unconstitutional a minimum wage law for women on the grounds that it denied women freedom of contract
Brandenburg v. Ohio
"imminant" lawless actions is new standard
Furman v GA
Abolished death penalty (violated 8 and 14 amend)
Korematsu v US
From constitution. Law to intern Japanese Americans during WWII was ok
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
~Gag Law... freedom of press~
Minnesota gag law said that they could prevent release of articles found "malicious, scandalous and defamatory." Court found this to be unconstitutional. Governments cannot stop a article from being published even if the material is controversial.
reed v. reed 1971
sex discrimination is unconstitutional (14th amend)
Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
Ernesto Miranda was arrested, interrogated and confessed to rape without the police informing him of his right to remain silent or have an attorney after his arrest.
Civil Rights Cases-1883
employers have the right to discriminate. overturns the 1875 civil rights act
Benton v. Maryland
incorporated the right against double jeopardy provision of the 5th Amendment in 1969
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) Clarified the commerce clause and affirmed Congressional power over interstate commerce.
students must go to school until they were 16 .parents refused to send kids to school
1953-1969 The Warren Court
Judicial activism; Promoted social programs; Established rights for those accused of crimes
Edwards v Aguillard
Louisiana law requiring that creation science be taught in public school was unconstitutional
Citizens United v. FEC
corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited (1st amendment)
Stenberg v. Carhart
Nebraska "late term" or "partial birth" abortion prohibition was vague and uneforceable
Gibbons v Ogden
1824 (federal control of interstate commerce) Two steamboat operators clashed over their respective charters to control steamboats in NYC harbor. ONe had a charter from the fed government; the other had a monopoly grant from the state of NY. The decision affirmed exclusive control of interstate commerce even in the absence of fed legislation or action.
Indiana v. Edwards
may a criminal defendant be competent to stand trial yet simultaneously not competent to represent himself at that trial?
Ex parte Milligan
Citizens must be tried in civilian courts, not military tribunals, as long as civilian courts are still operating
Mapp v. OH, 1961
evidence illegally gathered by police may not be used in a criminal trial
Cohens v. Virginia
State laws in opposition to national laws are void. The U.S. Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction for any U.S. case and final say.
McCulloch v. Maryland(1819)
maryland attempt to tax the national bank of the US. court must decide whether bank is legit under the elastic clause and whether maryland can tax it
john marsall declares "the power to tax is the power to destroy". the supremacy clause of the constitution prohibits state taxation of a federal insitution
Hamdan v Rumsfeld
Due process/ Rights of the Accused
Was GWB's military commission to try Guantanamo detainees unconstitutional?
Yes, Violates the laws of war. Illegal under the Code of Military justice and Geneva convention.
In Re Gault
juveniles have same due process rights as adults
Printz v US
The Court invalidated a federal law that required local police to conduct background checks on all gun purchasers
U.S. vs. Nixon
The Court decided that the President must hand over incriminating tapes because Presidential power is not above the law.
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
The University of Michigan's College of Literature denied two students based on race. The school wanted a diverse range of students. The school mostly excepting African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Critical mass is constitutional because it is an individual approach to applicants
Schenck v. U.S.
upheld conviction of a socialist who advocated resisting the WWI draft; the government CAN limit free speech if it provokes a "clear and present danger"
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
~Double Jeopardy~
Man tried twice for the same case in state court.
Court upheld the man's conviction on the basis that the Double Jeopardy appeal was not "essential to a fundamental scheme of ordered liberty." Decision later overturned.
Engle v. Vitale
NY board of regents prayer violated the "establishment clause"
Maryland v. Buie
A Limited Protective Sweep of a Residence
Officer must articulate an individual posing a danger to those on the scene.
US vs. Nixon
Executive privilege can't be used to cover up a crime
Schechter v US
(1935) the "Sick Chicken case"- the court invalidated the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) for several reasons, including that the federal government could not constitutionally regulate wholly intrastate commerce
Bakke v. Board of Regents-1978
supports reverse discrimation and limits affrimitve action
Gregg v. Georgia
1976- held that punishment of death does not violate Constitution
baker v carr
whether or not the unequal voter representation was in violation of the 14th amendments equal protection clause
Schenk v U.S.
socialist who passed out leaflets to draftees
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)
Ohio's law, prohibiting public speech that advocates illegal activity, violated right to free speech. Extended the scope of political speech? - allows virtually all political speech, unless it is demonstrably linked to immediate lawless behavior. 2-pronged test: Speech can be prohibited if "directed at...lawless action" and "likely to incite action"
Gideon v Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Korematsu v. U. S.
(1941). The court upheld the constitutionality of detention camps for Japanese-Americans during World War 2.
Rostker vs. Goldberg (1980)
ruled constitutional the law that required only males to register for the draft; the exclusion of women was justified under the heightened scrutiny test because the military needs to have flexibility in the use of its troops, for example, the issue of women in combat
Zorach v. Clauson
public schools may excuse students who are absent for religious reasons
Sheppard v. Maxwell
Which is more important, a person's right to a fair trial or the press's right to cover the trial?What threshold must be crossed before a trial is said to be so prejudicial, due to context and publicity, as to interfere with a defendant's Fifth Amendment due process right to a fair trial?
the Court ruled that the publicity of a case can influence a jury's opinion. The Court found that Sheppard did not receive a fair trial. Noting that although freedom of expression should be given great latitude, the Court held that it must not be so broad as to divert the trial away from its primary purpose: adjudicating both criminal and civil matters in an objective, calm, and solemn courtroom setting
Texas v. White
(1869); favored Pres. Johnson in the issue of Reconstruction; ruled that the Union was "indestructible"
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Case guaranteeing right to attorney for poor
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Abortion rights fall within the privacy implied in the 14th amendment, The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy. Based on 4th Amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons.
Amistad Case (1841)
Africans destined for slavery in cuba seized a ship and tried to sail it to africa but the US navy seized it and held the africans as pirates; court declared them free because of the international slave trade had been illegal.
Scott v. Sandford
Slaves who escaped to free states had no rights of a citizens and Congress could not ban slavery in the territories.
Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.
government agencies' interpretation of its own mandate from Congress is entitled to judicial deference if the authority is ambiguous and the agency's interpretation is reasonable.
Roe v. Wade
Right to privacy does extend to the right to get an abortion
Rochin v. California
Can police pump a suspect's stomach to get evidence?
Reed v. Reed (1971)
Turned the tide in terms of constitutional litigation, ruling that the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited unreasonable classification based on sex.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
decision holding that school segregation was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. This case marked the end of legal segregation in the United States.
Katz v. U.S.
Is a search warrant required under the 4th Amendment to tap a phone?
District of Columbia v. Heller
Second Amendment applies to private gun ownership, not just militias
South Dakota v. Dole
(1987) Court case that stated that Congress may give money to states with "strings" attached
Miranda vs. Arizona
Your rights must be read to you..., 5th, 6th and 14th amend. confession was illegally, must be warned prior that he has a right to remain silent and other rights that are given to you.
Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918).
Declared the Keating-Owen Act (a child labor act) unconstitutional on the grounds that it was an invasion of state authority.
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
first case to use the "Brandeis brief," recognized a ten hour work day for women laundry workers on the grounds of health and community concerns
McCollough v Maryland
("MC= tax free")
States can't tax nation's gov't stuff
Wabash v. Illinois - 1886
State laws regulating RR were unconstitutional.
Gregg v Georgia
Man found guilty of armed robbery and murdered and sentenced him to death; Court found it to be a valid form of punishment if it didnt involve unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain and was proportionate to severity w/ the crime
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
burned American flag in protest of regan
Fletcher v. Peck
supreme courts right to act in state matters
Smith v. Allwight (1944)
The denying of African Americans the right to vote in a primary election was found to be a violation of the 15th amendment.
1857 Dred Scott v. Sanford
Ruled African Americans were not citizens, declared that enslaved people were property of owners, Missouri Compromise ruled unconstitutional
10 Commandments: McCreary County, Ky v. ACLU & Van Orden v. Perry(2005)
Issues: First Amendment, Establishment of Religion
Decision: Thomas Van Orden sued Texas in federal district court, arguing a Ten Commandments monument on the grounds of the state capitol building represented an unconstitutional government endorsement of religion. Orden argued this violated the First Amendment's establishment clause, which prohibits the government from passing laws "respecting an establishment of religion." The district court and the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against Orden and said the monument served a valid secular purpose and would not appear to a reasonable observer to represent a government endorsement of religion
Hazelwood School District v Kuhlmeier
The Court held that public school curricular student newspapers that have not been established as forums for student expression are subject to a lower level of First Amendment protection than independent student expression or newspapers established (by policy or practice) as forums for student expression.
Clinton v New York City
ruled that the law granting the president the line item-veto was unconstitutional
Burstyn v. Wilson
Can a state ban a movie for being sacreligious?
Weeks v. United States (1914)
no warrantless seizure from a private residence
New York Times Company v. U.S. (1971)
"Pentagon Papers Case." Nixon administration tried to prevent publication of information regarding U.S. activity during the Vietnam War . The Court ruled that the papers could be published
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
the states may prohibit abortions in public hospitals and clinics and by public employees; limitation on abortion rights
Scott v. Sanford (1857, Taney).
Speaking for a widely divided court, Chief Justice Taney ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court; Scott's residence in a free state and territory had not made him free since he returned to Missouri; Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory (based on the 5th Amendment right of a person to be secure from seizure of property), thus voiding the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Scott v. Sanford
ruled Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court, voiding the Missouri Comp of 1820 (1857)
Dred Scott vs Sanford (1857)
Upheld slavery; U.S. Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories
Dred Scott v. Sandford
(1857) The court ruled that slaves are property, not people. (Before 14th amendment)
Lochner v. New York (1905)
Baking was not hazardous enough to warrant state interference in the workplace. Supported the laissez faire economics and limited state regulation aimed at protecting workers.
Milliken v. Bradley
(1974) court ruled to end a plan that promoted desegregation in Detroit by merging inner city school districts with cities suburban districts.
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad Co. v. Minnesota (1890)
Found that Granger law regulations were violations of the 5th Amendment right to property.
escobedo v. illinois
A man was arrested and taken to a police station for questioning. Over several hours, the police refused his repeated requests to see his lawyer. this man's lawyer sought unsuccessfully to consult with his client. He subsequently confessed to murder.
Was he denied the right to counsel as guarunteed by the 6th Amendment?
The Supreme Court rule that the man was not appropriately informed about his right to remain silent during a police interrogation, and it was viewed as an interrogation of a specific suspect rather than general questioning of witnesses.
Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka
Segregation itself denial of equal protection, 1955 re-argument- "all deliberate speed"
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.
Upheld the 1964 Civil Rights Act; commerce clause of racial discrimination hurts U.S. business
Bakke v. Board of Regents
US court case in which Bakke was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.
Michigan Dept. of State Police v. Sitz
Highway sobriety checkpoints do not violate the Fourth amendment.
McCreary County, KY v. American Civil Liberties Union of Kentucky (2005)
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) sued three Kentucky counties in federal district court for displaying framed copies of the Ten Commandments in courthouses and public schools. The ACLU argued the displays violated the First Amendment's establishment clause, which prohibits the government from passing laws "respecting an establishment of religion." The district court and the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the displays violated the establishment clause. The majority held that the displays violated the establishment clause because their purpose had been to advance religion. In the case of each of the displays, the Court held, an observer would have concluded that the government was endorsing religion. The first display for presenting the Ten Commandments in isolation; the second for showing the Commandments along with other religious passages; the third for presenting the Commandments in a presentation of the "Foundations of American Law," an exhibit in which the county reached "for any way to keep a religious document on the walls of courthouses."
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831, Marshall).
"The conditions of the Indians in relation to the United States is perhaps unlike that of any two people in existence," Chief Justice John Marshall wrote, "their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian. . .(they were a) domestic dependent nation." Established a "trust relationship" with the tribes directly under federal authority.
Ware v. Hylton (1796)
was the first time a state law was declared unconstitutional
dread scott vs sanford
slave thought he could go to free soil and then come bac home and still be free, wasn't free in that state
United States v. Nixon (1974)
The President of the United States is not above the law (he is a crook)
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)
contracts and the community's rights. The Charles River Bridge Company contended that under a charter granted by the Massachusetts legislature, it had a right to be free from competition. The Supreme Court ruled that rights granted in a legislative charter should be construed narrowly and any ambiguity should be interpreted in the public interest (Gilder Lehrman Institute). A second bridge was regarded as being in the public interest. Taney argued that no charter granted to a private corporation permanently vested rights that might harm the public interest (ARCO).
Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections
poll tax in conflict with equal protection clause - paved way for eliminating all restrictions on voting
antitrust laws. The Supreme Court ordered the breakup of the oil giant as a monopoly in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890. The court adopts the "rule of reason"—that a business combination was illegal only when it was engaged in unreasonab
Standard Oil of N.J. v. United States (1911)
Green v. County School Board of New Kent County
(1968) Banned a freedom-of-choice plan for integrating schools, suggesting that blacks and whites must actually attend racially mixed schools
Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith (1990)
A state can deny unemployment benefits to a worker fired for using illegal drugs (even if its for religious purposes, like Native Americans and peyote)
Brown v. Board of Education II (1955)
desegregation plans to be developed by local school boards with oversight by federal district courts; desegregation to proceed with 'all deliberate speed.'
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
Congress has the power to prohibit the nation in private business based on authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
marked a limitation on the right of a contract in corporate charters
Shaw v. Reno (1993), Miller v. Johnson (1995)
Race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative district boundaries (cannot segregate voters based on race).
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