arrangement of electrons in atoms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1m=
10^9 nm
wavelength
distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
energy sub-levels:
s, p, d, f
Continuous spectrum
Three types of electromagnetic radiation given off: *Visible- Balmer Series, UV- Lyman Series, IR-Paschen Series
In the Electromagnetic Spectrum, what part can we see?
400-700nm
quntum numbers were derived from
schrodingers equation
One wave second is called a____________.
hertz (Hz)
inference
two types: destructive, where the wave crest and the trough meet (Negative). Becomes a straight line constructive: when wave crests meet (Positive) and become big line
quantum
the minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
photon
a bundle or particle of light energy
Colors of light in the visible spectrum in order of increasing frequency.
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Aufbau principle
an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
amplitude
magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each oscillation within an oscillating system
magnetic quantum number
symbolized by m, indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
Angular momentum quantum number
L, indicates shape of orbital
principal quantum number
indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
has 8 electrons in the outer energy level, very stable
octet
Which has a longer wavelenth, green or yellow light ?
...
example of continuous spectrum
visible light through rainbow (ROYGBIV)
emission
the process in which an electron falls to a lower energy level and emits a photon.
the photon's energy level is equal to the energy difference between the initial higher energy level and the final lower energy level.
planck's constant
constant value used to relate the frequency of an electromagnetic wave to its energy
frequencies
as the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usuall 1 second
noble gas configuration
an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons
excited state
when an atom has a higher potential energy than its ground state (electrons are in higher energy levels than the ground state)
electron-configuration notation
gives all the electrons, but not their spins
hertz
SI unit of frequency defined as # of cycles per second
Visible Area Wavelength
goes from 400 nm to about 750 nm
quantum theory realized that the
electron can not be precisely located
noble gas
an element in group 18 of the periodic table
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Einstein -The Next Big Breakthrough
1905 - Einstein
-- elaborated on how electromagnetic radiation is quantized.It can be thought of as a stream of particles called photons.
-- Names and describes the "packets" that Planck theorized were associated with EM radiation --> they are photons, or "particles" of energy
How many electrons can occupy the s sub-level at each energy level?
Two, if they have opposite spins
A certain element emits a red light and another elements emits a blue light when heated. Describe the process by which light is emitted from an atom. What is the difference in frequency, wavelength, and energy between the two colors of light?
the process by which light is emitted from an atom comes from the photoelectric effect. First, light (energy) is absorbed and this makes the electrons get excited, making them move from their ground state to the excited state. T off he electron releases a quantum of energy (photon) which appears as a different color as it returns to the ground state. Different elements have different number of electrons, which means they have different wavelengths and frequencies which corresponds to giving off different colors. The red light has a high wavelength,but a low frequency and energy. The blue light is the opposite from the red light. The blue light has low wavelength, but a high frequency and energy.
diffraction
bending of waves
the frequency of electromagnetic radiation is inversely proportional to the
wavelength
wavelenght
is the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
this scientists discovered that light shining on a metal could cause electrons to be emitted from it
Hertz
Niels Bohr
Danish physicist who studied atomic structure and radiations
Distinction
Photon = "particle" of light
Quantum = measure of "size" of energy
Two major shortcomings of Bohrs madel of the atom.
...
Atomic orbitals
the regions around the nucleus within which the electrons have the highest probability of being found
noble-gas configuration
an outer main energy level occupied, in most cases, by 8 electrons
Max Planck
studied emission of light from hot objects in 1900. Assumed that energy can be either released or absorbed by matter (atoms) in discrete amounts of some minimum size called a quantum.
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
quantum theory
the study of the structure and behavior of the atom and of subatomic particles from the view that all energy comes in tiny, indivisible bundles
Planck
Found that when a metal was heated until it glowed, as the temperature of the metal was increased the frequency of light emitted by the metal also increased.
Hund's rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
Frequency
The number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second.
violet and gamma rays
the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequency
photoelectric effect
the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
If the frequency of one color of light is lower than the frequency of a second color, then the wavelength of the first color is ___________ than the wavelength of the second.
longer
ground-state electron configuration
the lowest energy arrangement of the electrons for each element
bohr model of the atom
the hydrogen electron can exist only in certain specified energy states; the electron can absorb only certain amounts of energy; when excited hydrogen atoms lose energy, they lose only certain amounts of energy, emitted as photons; the different photons given off by hydrogen atoms produce color lines
when energy is radiated,
we see visible light and the atom returns to its ground state
In the Electromagnetic Spectrum, where does red and violet lie in high or low energy?
red- low energy (low frequency, high wavelength)
violet- high energy (high frequency, low wavelength)
What is the pricipal quantum number?
Symbolized by n , indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron. ( positive intergers only )
What is the speed of all forms of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum?
3.0 x 10 (8) meters per second
interference
colliding of waves
What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
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electromagnetic spectrum
all forms of electromagnetic radiation
When wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation increases, its frequency
decreases
Highest occupied level
The electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
angular momentum
indicates the shape of the orbital
Theory of light, wave or particle, that best explains the photoelectric effect.
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Planck's constant (formula)
h= 6.626 x 10ˉ³⁴ J∙s
Louis De Broglie
Suggested that electrons be considered waves confined to the space around an atomonic nucleus.
What relationship does Frequency and Wavelength have?
An inverse relationship
region where a pair of electrons are likely to be found in an atom
orbital
What is meant by the highest occupied energy level in an atom ?
...
orbital notaion
shows all the electrons, which are represented with arrows representing their spins and shows all orbitals as lines
Electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
inner-shell electrons
electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level
spin quantum number
the quantum number that describes the intrinsic angualr momentum of a particle
Which has a higher frequency, an X ray ir a microwave?
...
electron outer shell
the valence electrons in this shell determine the chemical properties of that atom/element.
quantum theory- mathematical equation that
treats electrons moving around the nucleus as waves
bright line emission spectrum
a diagram that shows distinct lines of color with the respect to wavelength
electron dot notation (lewis notation)
shows only those electrons in the highest or outermost main energy level
Explain this formula:
E = hγ
E = energy (Joules, J)
h = Plank's constant (6.626 x 10^-34 J*s)
γ = frequency (Hertz, Hz)
It is a direct relationship; energy depends on frequency
What information is given by the spin quantum number ?
Indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
two properties of the electron of H that keep it moving around the nucleus
it can only move to certain distances or energy levels and the higher, the higher the electrons energy and it can move only at certain velocities
Radiant Energy
has wave-length characteristics
Describle the major similarities and differences between Schrodingers madel fo the atom and the model proposed by Bohr.
...
distance between 2 crests of a wave
wavelength
What unit is used to express frequencies of electromagnetic waves?
...
quantum numbers
numbers that specify properties of atomic orbitals and of their electrons
Rutherford Model
Incomplete model, did not explain how the atom's negatively charged electrons are distributed in the space surrounding the nucleus.
Quantum (quanta)
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an electron
-- Quanta are "discrete," meaning there is no "in-between"
* Stair steps vs. inclined ramp *
The part of the atom where electrons CANNOT be found is the
nucleus
line spectrum
each element will only give off certain wavelengths "fingerprints"
Planck's constant (theory)
introduced by German physicist Max Planck
Albert Einstein expanded on Planck's constant by introducing the idea that electromagnetic radiation has a dual wave-particale nature: it has wavelike properties and can be thought of as a stream of particles (each particle of light carrying a quantum of energy)
principle quantum number
the quantum number that indicates energy and orbital of an electron in an atom
Frequency (v)
(v) number of waves that pass a specific point in a given time
-- Hertz (Hz): one cycle/second
orbital quantum number
indicates the shape of the orbital; different shapes indicate different sublevels
The Bohr Model
Niels Bohr 1913
-- proposed a model of the hydrogen atom that linked the atom's electron with photon emission
-- Orbits - electron can circle nucleus only in allowed paths called orbits
-- When an electron is in one of these orbits, atom has a fixed amount of energy
-- Energy lowest when atom is closest to nucleus; highest when atom is farther away from nucleus
-- Called "solar system model" because of the way the electrons orbited the nucleus in fixed positions
the bohr model's problems
it only worked for H (one electron) and did not fully explain chemical behavior
Relate the frequency and wavelength of any form of electromagnetic radiation.
They are mathematically related to each other,
written as c=yv
What is meant by the dual wave-particle nature of light?
Light has both wave and particle like characteristics.
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