A&P Fourth addition Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Intracellular
within a cell
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
A MUCOSA
FAT
A TRIGLYCERIDE MOLECULE
Neutral Fat
A triglyceride
LYSOSOME
A MEMBRANE-BOUNDED ORGANELLE CONTAINING A MIXTURE OF ENZYMES WITH A VARIETY OF INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR ROLES IN DIGESTING FOREIGN MATTER, PATHOGENS, AND EXPIRED ORGANELLES.
cytosol
A clear, featureless, gelatinous colloid in which the organelles and other internal structures of a cell are embedded.
DESMOSOME
A PATCHLIKE INTERCELLULAR JUNCTION THAT MECHANICALLY LINKS TWO CELLS TOGETHER.
Metabolite
Any chemical produced by metabolism.
Cytoskeleton
A system of protein microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubles in a cell, serving in physical support, celluar movement, and the routing of molecules and organelles to their destinations eithin the cell.
Flagellum
A long, motile, usually single hairlike extension of a cell is the only functional flagellum in humans.
MESOTHELIUM
A SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM THAT COVERS THE SEROUS MEMBRANES.
Appendicular
pertaining to the extermities and their supportin skeletal girdles
Lipase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes a triglyceride into fatty acids and glycerol.
Glycocalyx
A layer of carbohydrate molecules covalently bonded to the phospholipid and protein molecules of a plasma membrane; forms a surface coat on all human cells.
Conformation
The three-dimensonal structure of a protein that results from interaction among its amino acid side groups, its interactions with water, and the formation of disulfide bonds.
Glycerol
A viscous three-carbon alcohol that forms the structural backbone of triglceride and phospholipid molecules; also called glycerin.
Hypotonic
Having a lower osmotic pressure than human cells or some other reference solution and teding to cause osmotic swelling and lysis of cells.
Dynein
A motor protein involved in the beating of cilia and flagella and in the movement of molecules and organelles within cells, as in retrograde transport in a nerve fiber.
LONGITUDINAL
ORIENTED ALONG THE LONGES DIMENSION OF THE BODY OR AN ORGAN.
GLAND
ANY ORGAN SPECIALIZED TO PRODUCE A SECRETION; IN SOME CASES A SINGLE CELL, SUCH AS A GOBLET CELL.
CAPSULE
THE FIBROUS COVERING OF A STRUCTURE SUCH AS THE SPLEEN OR A DIATHROSIS.
ENDOCRINE GLAND
A DUCTLESS GLAND THAT SECRETES HORMONES INTO THE BLOODSTREAM; FOR EXAMPLE, THE THYROID AND ADRENAL GLANDS. COMPARE EXOCRINE GLAND.
SKELETAL MUSCLE
STRIATED VOLUNTARY MUSCLE, ALMOST ALL OF WHICH IS ATTRACTED TO THE BONES.
AREOLAR TISSUE
A FIBROCONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH LOOSELY ORGANIZED, WIDELY SPACED FIBERS AND CELLS AND AN ABUNDANCE OF FLUID-FILLED SPACE; FOUND UNDER NEARLY EVERY EPITHELIUM, AMONG OTHER PLACES.
Centrarl
Located relatively close to the medial axis of the body, in the central nervous system; opposite of peripheal.
Evolution
A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over a period of time; the mechanism that produces adaptations in human form and function.
Frontal Plane
An anatomical plane that passes through the body or an organ from right to left and superior ro inferior; also called a coronal plane.
Cytology
The study of cell structure and function.
Monomer
One of the identical or similar subunits of a larger molecule in the dimer to polymer range; for example, the glucose monomers of starch, the amino acids of a protein, or the nucleotides of DNA.
Enzyme
A protein that functions as a catalyst.
Bulk Transport
The movement of particles or fluid droplets through the plasma membrane by the process of edocytosis or exocytosis.
Cisterna
A fluid-filled space or sac, such as the cisterna chylu of the lymphatic system and cisterna of the endoplasmic reticlum or golgi complex.
Osmosis
The net diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
TISSUE GEL
THE VISCOUS COLLOID THAT FORMS THE GROUND SUBSTANCE OF MANY TISSUES; GETS ITS CONSISTENCY FROM HYALURONIC ACID OR OTHER GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS.
ELASTIC FIBER
A CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBER, COMPOSED OF THE PROTEIN ELASTIN, THAT STRETCHES UNDER TENSION AND RETURNS TO ITS ORIGINAL LENGTH WHEN RELEASED; RESPONCIBEL FOR THE RESILIENCE OF ORGANS SUCH AS THE SKIN AND LUNGS.
OSTEOCYTE
A MATURE BONE CELL FORMED WHEN AN OSTEOBLAST BECOMES SURROUNDED BY ITS OWN MATRIX AND ENTRAPPED IN A LACUNA.
MAST CELL
A CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELL, SIMILAR TO BASOPHIL, THAT SECRETES HISTAMINE, HEPARIN, AND OTHER CHEMICALS INVOLVED IN INFLAMTION; OFTEN CONNECTED ALON THE COURSE OF BLOOD CAPILLARIES.
INTEGRATION
A PROCESS IN WHICH A NEURON RECIEVES INPUT FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES AND THEIR COMBINED
Receptor
A cell or organ specialized to detect a stimulus, such as a taste cell or the eye.
Antebrachium
The region from elbow to wrist; the forearm.
Enzyme Amplification
A series of chemical reactions in which the product of one step is an enzyme that produce an even greater number of product molecules at the next step, resulting in a rapidly increasing amount of reaction product. Seen in hormone action and blood clottin
Macromolecule
Any molecule of large size and high molecular wieght, such as a protein, nuleica acid, polysaccharide, or triglyceride
Fatty Acid
An organic molecule composed of a chain of an even number of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other; one of the structural subunits of triglyerides and phospholipids.
Selectively Permeable Membrane
A membrane that allow some substances to pass through while excluding others; for example, the plasma membrane and dialysis membranes.
Osmotic Pressure
The amount of pressure that would have to be applied to one side of a selectively permeable membrane to stop osmosis; proportional to concentration of nonpermeating solutes on that side and therefore serving as an indicator of solute concentraion.
Cellular membrane
Any unit membrane enclosing a cell or organelle.
ACINUS
A SAC OF SECRETORY CELLS AT THE INNER END OF A GLAND DUCT.
Bipedalism.
The habit of walking on two legs; a defining characteristic oth the family hominidae that underlies many skeletal and other characteristics of humans.
Aerobic exercises
Exercise in which oxygen is used to produce ATP; endurance exercise.
INFARCTION
A PATCH OF TISSUE IN AN ORGAN SUCH AS THE HEART OR BRAIN THAT HAS DIED FROM LACK OF BLOOD PERFUSION; ALSO CALLED AN INFARCT.
Insulin
A hormone produced by a B cells of the pancreatic islets in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration; accelerates glucose uptake and metabolism by most cells of the body, thus lowering blood glucose conentration.
ADIPOCYTE
A FAT CELL.
ERYTHROCYTE
A RED BLOOD CELL.
Celiac
pertaining to the abdomen
Actin
A filamentous intracellular protein that provides cytoskeletal support and interacts with other proteins, especially myosin, to cause cellular movement; important in muscle contraction, ciliary and flaellar beating, and membrane actions such as phagocytos
Differentiation
Development of a relatively unspecialized cell inot one with a more specific structure and function.
Organic
Pertaining to compounds of carbon.
Microtubule
An intracellular cylinder composed of the protein tubulin, forming the anonemes of cilia and flagella and part of the cytoskeleton.
DENTRITES
PROCESSES OF NEURON THAT RECEIVER INFORMATION FROM OTHER CELLS OR FROM ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI AND CONDUT SIGNALS TO THE SOMA, SENDRITES ARE USUALLY SHORTER, MORE BRANCHED, AND MORE NUMEROUS THAT THE AXON AND ARE INCAPABLE OF PRODUCING ACTION POTENTIALS.
INVOLUNTARY
NOT UNDER CONSCIOUS CONTROL, INCLUDING TISSUES SUCH AS SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLE AND EVENTS SUCH AS REFLEXES.
CHONDROCYTE
A CARTILAGE CELL; A FORMER CHONDROBLAST THAT HAS BECOME ENCLOSED IN LACUNA IN THE CARTILAGE MARTIX.
Superficial
Relatively close to the surface; opposite of deep. For example, the ribs are suberficial to the lungs.
Pleura
A double-walled serous membrane that encloses each lung.
Glycogen
A glucose polymer synthesized by liver, muscle, uterine, and vaginal cells that serves as an energy. Storage polysaccharide.
Hydrophilic
Pertaining to molecules that attract water or dissolve in it because of their polar nature.
Denaturation
A change in the three-dimensional conformation of a protein that destroys its enzymatic or other functional properties, usually caused by extremes of temperature or pH.
Hypertonic
Having a higher osmotic pressure than human cells or some other reference solution and tending to cause osmotic shrinkage of cells.
Symport
A carrier protein that moves two solutes simulanesously through a plasm membrane in the same direction, such as the sodiumdependent glucose transporter of the small intesitine.
Organelle
Any structure within a cell that carries out one of its metabolic roles, such as mitochondria, centrioles, endoplasmic reticlum, and the nucleus; an intracelluar structure other that the cytoskeleton and inclusions.
Gradient
A difference or change in any variable, such as pressure or chemical concentration, from one point in space to another; provides a basis for molecular movements such as gas exchange, osmosis, and faciliated diffusion.
Golgi Complex
An organelle composed of several parallel cisternae, somewhat like a stack of saucers, that modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins and sythesizes carbohydrates.
LOBE
A STRUCTURAL SUBDIVISION OF AN ORGAN SUCH AS A GLAND, A LUNG, OR THE BRAIN, BOUNDED BY A VISIBLE LANDMARK SUCH AS FISSURE OR SEPTUM
HISTAMINE
AN AMINO ACID DERIVATIVE SECRETED BY BASOPHILS, MAST CELLS, AND SOME NEURONS; FUNCTIONS AS A PARACRINE SECRETION, BRONCHONSTRICTION AND VASODILATION.
PARENCHYMA
THE TISSUE THAT PERFORMS THE MAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF AN ORGAN, ESPECIALLY A GLAND, AS OPPOSED TO THE TISSUES THAT MAINLY PROVIE STRUCTURAL SUPPORT.
FIBROSIS
A DEGENERATIVE TISSUE CHANGE IN WHICH AN EXCESSIVE AMOUNT OF FIBER IS PRODUCED, FOR EXAMPLE, IN TUBERCULOSIS.
Cell.
The smallest subdividion of a tissue considered to be alive; consists of a plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm and, in most cases, a nucleus.
Axial
Pertaining to the head, neck and trunck; the part of the body excluding the appendicular portion.
Mesentery
A serous membrane that binds the intestines together and suspends them from the abdominal wall; the visceral coninuation of the peritoneum.
Monosaccharide
A simple sugar, or sugar monomer; chiefly glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Adenosine Triphosphate
A molecule composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups that functions as a universal energy-transfer molecule.
Pinocytosis
A form of endocytosis in which the plasma membrane sinks inward and imbibes droplets of extracellular fluid or specific molecules concentrated from that fluid.
Dextrose
The D-Isomer of glucose; the only form of glucose with a normal role in physiology.
Axoneme
The core of microtubles, usually in a "9+2" array, at the center of a cilum or flagellum.
Hydrostatic pressure
The physical force generated by a liquid such as blood or tissue fluid, as opposed to osmotic and atmospheric pressures.
VISCERAL MUSCLE
SINGLE-UNIT SMOOTH MUSCLE FOUND IN THE WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS AND THE DIGESTIVE, RESPIRATORY, URINARY, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACTS.
LAMINA PROPRIA
A THING LAYER OF AREOLAR TISSUE IMMEDIATELY DEEP TO THE EPITHELIUM OF A MUCOUS MEMBRANE.
LAMELLA
A LITTLE PLATE, SUCH AS THE LAMELLAE OF BONE.
Serous Membrane
A membrane such as the peritoneum, pleura, or pericardium that lines a body cavity or covers the external surfaces of the viscera; composed of a simple squamous mesothelium and a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.
Stimulus
A chemical or physical agent in a cell's surroundings that is capable of creating a physiological responxe in the cell; especially agents detected by sensory cells, such as chemicals, light and pressure.
Proximal
Relatively near a point of origin or attachement; for example, the shoulder is proximal to the elbow. Compare distal.
Triglyceride
A lipid composed of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol; also called a triacylglycerol of neutral fat.
Ameboid movement
Movement of a cell by means of pseudodos, in a manner similar to that of an ameba; seen in leukocytes and some macrophages.
DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
A FIBROCONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH A HIGH DENSITY OF FIBER, RELATIVELY LITTLE GROUND SUBSTANCE, AND SCANTY CELLS; SEEN IN TENDONS AND THE DERMIS, FOR EXAMPLE.
HYALINE CARTILAGE
A FORM OF CARTILAGE WITH A RELATIVELY CLEAR MATRIX AND FINE COLLAGEN FIBERS BUT NO CONSPICUOUS ELASTIC FIBERS OR COARSE COLLAGEN FIBERS BUT NO CONSPICUOUS ELASTIC FIBERS OR COARSE COLLAGE BUNDLES AS IN OTHER TYPES OF CARTILAGE.
Position Emission Tomography
The method of producing a computerixed image of the physiological state of a tissue using injected radioisotopes that emit positrons.
Cofactor
A metal ion that binds to an enzyme and activates its catalytic function.
Comuterized Tomography
A method of medial imaging that uses x rays and a computer to create an image of a thin section of the body.
Polypeptide
A chain of more thatn 10 to 15 amino acids.
SUBCUTANEOUS
BENEATH THE SKIN
OSSEOUS
PERTAINING TO BONE.
Anatomy
Structure of the body.
Fusiform
Spindle-shaped; elongated, thick in the middle, and tapered at both ends, such as the shape of a smooth muscel cell or a muscle spindle.
X Ray
A high-energy, penetrating electromagnetic ray with wavelengths in the range of 0.1 to 10 NM; used in diagnosis and therapy.
Nucleus
The cellular organelle containing DNA and surrounded by a double unit membrane.
Endothelium
A simple squamous epithelium that lines the lumens of the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels.
Golgi Vesicle
A membrane-bounded vesicle pinched from the golgi complex, containing its chemical product; may be retained in the cell as a lysosome or become a secretory vesicle that releases the product by exocytosis.
PERICHONDRIUM
A LAYER OF FIBROCONNECTIVE TISSUE COVERING THE SURFACE OF HYALINE OR ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
PERICOSTEUM
A LAYER OF FIBROCONNECTIVE TISSUE COVERING THE SURFACE OF A BONE.
HISTIOCYTE
A MOBILE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MACROPHAGE DERIVED FROM A MONOCYTE.
APOCRINE
PERTAINING TO CERTAIN SWEAT GLANDS WITH LARGE LUMENS AND RELATIVELY THICK, AROMATIC SECRETIONS AND TO SIMILAR GLANDS SUCH AS THE MAMMARY GLAND; FORMERLY THOUGHT TO FORM SECRETIONS BY PINCHING OFF BITS OF APICAL CYTOPLASM.
PLASMA
THE NONCELLULAR PORTION OF THE BLOOD.
Negative Feedback
A self-corrective mechanism that underlies most homeostasis, in which a bodily change is detedted and responses are activated that reverse the change.
Physiology
The functional processes of the body.
Glycolysis
A series of anaerobic oxidation reactions that break a glucose molecule into two molecules of pyruvic acid and produce a small amount of ATP.
Cohesion
The clinging of identical molecules such as water to each other.
Microvillus
An outgrowth of the plasma membrane that increases the surface area of a cell and functions in absorption and some sensory processes; distinguished from cilia and flagella by its smaller size and lack of an axoneme.
Base
A chemical that binds protons from solution; a proton acceptor.
Concentration Gradient
A gradual change in chemical concentration from one point to another.
Recticlular Fiber
A fine, branching collagen fiber coated with gycoprotein, found in the stroma of lymphatic organs and some other tissues and organs.
GAP JUNCTION
A JUNCTION BETWEEN TWO CELLS CONSISTING OF A PORE SURROUNDED BY A RING OF PROTEINS IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF EACH CELL, ALLOWING SOLUTES TO DIFFUSE FROM THE CYTOPLASM OF ONE CELL TO THE NEXT; FUNCTIONS INCLUDE CELL-TO-CELL, NUTRIENT TRANSFER IN THE DEVELO
MUSCLE FIBER
ONE MUSCLE CELL, ESPECIALLY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Adaptations
An Evolutionary process leading to the establishment of species characteristics that favor survival and reprodution.
Deep
Relatively far from the body surface; opposited of superficial. For example, the bones are deep to the skeletal muscels.
Mediastinum
The thick medial partition of the thoracic cavity that separates one pleural cavity from the other and contains the heart, great blood vessels, and thymus.
Maltose
A disaccharide composed of two glucose monomers.
Gate
A protein channel in a unit membrane that can open or close in reponse to chemical or electrical stimuli, thus controlling when substances are allowed to pass through the membrane.
Cytoplasm
The contents of a cell between its plasma membrane and its nuclear envelope, consisting of cytosol, organelles, inclusions, and the cytoskeleton.
Fluid-Mosaic Model
The current theory of the fluid structure of a plasma membrane, depicting it as a bilayer of phospholipids with embedded proteins, many of which are able to move about in the lipid film.
Inclusion
Any visible object in the cytoplasm of a cell other than an organelle or cytoskeletal element; usually a foreign body or a stored cell product, such as a virus, dust particle, lipid droplet, glycogen granule, or pigment.
MUCOSA
A TISSUE LAYER THAT FORMS THE INNER LINING OF AN ANATOMICAL TRACT THAT IS OPEN TO THE EXTERIOR, SUCH AS THE RESPIRATORY, DIGESTIVE, URNARY, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACTS. COMPOSED OF EPITHELIUM, CONNECTIVE TISSUE, AND OFTEN SMOOTH MUSCLE (MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE)
RIBOSOME
A GRANULE FOUND FREE IN THE CYTOPLASMA OR ATTACHED TO THE ROUGH ENDOPLAMIC RETICULUM, COMPOSED OF RIBOSOMAL RNA AND ENZYMES; SPECIALIZED TO READ THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF MESSENGER RNA AND ASSEMBLE A CORRESPONDING SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS TO MAKE A PROTEI
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
A THIN LAYER OF HYALINE CARTILAGE COVERING THE ARTICULAR SURFACE OF A BONE AT A SYNOVIAL JOINT, SERVING TO REDUCE FRICTION AND EASE JOINT MOVEMENT.
SACCULE
A SACLIKE RECEPTOR IN THE INNER EAR WITH A VERTICAL PATCH OF HAIR CELLS, THE MACULA SACCULI; SENSES THE ORIENTATION OF THE HEAD AND RESPONDS TO VERTICLE ACCELERATION, AS WHEN RIDING IN AN ELEVATOR OR STANDING UP.
RETICULAR TISSUE
A CONNECTIVE TISSUE COMPOSED OF RETICULAR CELLS AND RETICULAR FIBERS, FOUND IN BONE MARROW, LYMPHATIC ORGANS, AND IN LESSER AMOUNTS ELSEWHERE.
INTERCALATED DISC
A COMPLEX OF GAP JUNCTIONS AND DESMOSOMES THAT JOIN TWO CARDIAC MUSCLE CELLS END TO END, MICROSCOPICALLY VISIBLE AS A DARK LINE, WHICH HELPS TO HISTOGICALLY DISTINGUISH THIS MUSCLE TYPE; FUNCTIONS AS MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL LINK BETWEEN CELLS.
EXOCRINE GLAND
A GLAND THAT SECRETES ITS PRODUCTS INTO ANOTHER ORGAN OR ONTO THE BODY SURFACE BY WAY OF A DUCT; FOR EXAMPLE, SALIVARY AND GASTRIC GLANDS.
Partietal
Pertaining to a wall, as in the partietal cells of the gastric glands and parietal bone of the skull.
Abdominal cavity
The body cavity between the diaphragm and pelvic brim.
Crus
The leg proper; the region from the knee to the ankle.
Carboxyl group
An organic functional group with the formula -COOH, found in many organic acids such as amino acids and fatty acids.
Amino Acids
Small organic molecules with and amino group and a carboxyl group; the monomers of which proteins are composed.
Dehydration synthesis
A reaction in which two chemical monomers are joined together with water procuced as a by-product; also called a condensation reaction. compare hydrolysis.
Ligand-Gated Channel
A channel protein in a plasm membrane that opens or closes when a ligan binds to it, enabling the ligand to determine when substances can enter or leave the cell.
Second Messenger
A chemical that is produced within a cell or that enters a cell in response to the binding of a messenger to a membrane receptor and that triggers a metabolic reaction in the cell.
Channel Protein
A protein in the plasma membrane that has a pore thhrough it for the passage of materials between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
ANY BODY FLUID THAT IS NOT CONTAINED IN THE CELLS; FOR EXAMPLE, BLOOD, LYMPH AND TISSUE FLUID.
Dynamic Equilibrim
A state of continual change that is controlled withing narrow limits, as in homeostasis and chemical equilibrium.
Midsagittal plane
The plane that divides the body inot equal right and left halves. Compare sigittal plane.
sagittal plane
Any plane that extends from ventral to dorsal and cephalic to caudal, dividing the body into right and left portions. Compare midsagittal plane.
Cholestrerol
A steroid that functions as a part of the plasma membrane and as a precursor for all other steroids in the body.
Peripheral
Away from the center of the body or an organ, as in peripheral vision and peripheral blood vessels.
Functional Group
A group of atoms, such as a carboxyl or amino group, that determines the functional characterstics of an organic molecule.
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