Test Medical Anthropology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Disease:
???
Bias:
preconceived notion
Mycobacterium leprae
Leprosy
Function of Family:
???
rheumatic disease
muscle/joint/bone pain diseases/disorders
Emic:
"my perspective," insider perspective
Etic:
"Your perspective," outsider perspective
Hegemony
The political, economic, ideological, or cultural power exerted dominant group over other groups
human variation
different characteristics shown phenotypically and genotypically; not the all the same though they so resemble the parent generation
Subfields of Anthropology:
Biological, archeology, socio-cultural, linguistic
Prejudice:
interpersonal hostility that is directed against individuals based on their membership in a minority group
Cholera
acute diarrheal disease usually accompanied by vomiting, produces extreme dehydration with high rate of mortality
SYMPTOMS are interpreted thru ______al SYSTEMS
CULTURAL
DISEASE AND ILLNESS are ______ly measured, according to the MECHANISM and PERMANENCY of the sickness
OBJECTIVELY
Adaptation
The evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat
disease
deviation from the clinical norms (biological)
Political Ecology 
 
Effects of political conflict, economics and resource inequality 
 
Example:Malaria has different distributions in different places based on SES, wealthy people don't get it
Gender:
social role, usually associated with sex
Positivism:
Universal, objective truth can be discovered by rational methods, that scientific explanations involve reducing complex effects to their simpler determining causes, and that those procedures ultimately will unify knowledge from all domains of experience into one theory of everything
Analytical levels of culture:
infrastructure, structure, superstructure
Enculturated:
lifelong process of socialization into one culture
Dependency:
the argument that poverty and underdevelopment are a consequence of capitalist colonial intervention in otherwise thriving independent societies
William Budd
1811-1880, English doctor, contra miasma theory, believed person to person, early contagionist-rural doctor
Sverdlovsk
– inhalation anthrax outbreak in Soviet Union affected at least 94 ppl, killed at least 64, covered up by government
Earth as Humor
Black Bile-represents Autumn. Spleen. cold/dry. excess means melancholy personality
a medical cure helps the patient recover from illness, but sometimes __________ WORKS as its own MEDICINE (placebo effect)
ETHNOCENTRISM
the LATINO PARADOX occurs despite lack of SOCIAL _____ in AMERICAN SOCIETY as a whole, but they have very CLOSE-KNIT GROUPS
INCLUSION
Power
Ability to act or produce an effect
Shaman
A part time religious practitioner who mediates between ordinary people and supernatural beings and forces
Cultural Relativism 


a society's customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that society
analytical position 
does not approve or disapprove of different cultures
Anthropology:
The study of human nature, human society, and the human past
Imperialism:
the forceful extension of a nation's authority by territorial conquest establishing economic and political domination of other nations that are powerful
Bubonic plague
disease attacking lymph nodes, bubos develop on groin, armpit, neck, subcutaneous hemorrhaging, poisons nervous system
Inhalational anthrax
– rare but fatal (flu-like symptoms), 1 wk or so short breath, close to 100% fatality
Lepromatous (multibacillary)
Leprosy: many skin lesions, nodules, skin, nerves, bones affected, is infectious
in 1948, the WHO said that PHYSICAL, MENTAL, & SOCIAL well being are NOT merely the ABSENCE of _____
DISEASE
Belmont report
Report created by Health and Human Services; Respect for persons, beneficence, and justice
Medical pluralism
The employment of more than one medical system or the use of both conventional and complementary/alternative medicine
Arawaks
Some of the indigenous peoples of the West Indies; they were the first natives Christopher Columbus encountered; described by the Spanish as peaceful and primitive
medical ethnobotany
cultural use of various plants as medicine
Medical Ecology 
Health and disease as reflection of relationships (within a population, between population, among the physical component of a habitat)
Internal colonization:
the imposition of a new cultural system leaves those who are colonized with a lack of identity and limited sense of their past. The indigenous history and customs once practiced and observed slowly slip away. The colonized become hybrids of two vastly different cultural systems
Structural Barriers:
factors in the social, political, and economic organization or a society that limit life chances and social mobility through discrimination
Father Damien
Belgian Catholic Priest 1873 cared for lepers at Kalaupapa Leprosarium, died 1889
Anthrax
can survive long period of time by spores, decades dormant (in soil or grass)
Cutaneous anthrax
spores enter wound on skin, most common but not fatal; kills skin tissue, blackened mass dead tissue, scar
the PERSONALISTIC EXPLANATION of ILLNESS says that illness is due to ACTS or WISHES of other ppl or _______ FORCES
SUPERNATURAL (i.e. spirit possession, bewitching, intrusion of foreign objects)
Female genital mutilation
All procedures that involve partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons
Rheumatism/cold blood
pain or stiffness in the joints or back, this according to Bwa Mawegans was due to coldness
Skeletons in the Closet and Reinventions of Anthropology:
Skeletons:
Studied dominated people, instrument of colonial rule, understanding the people aided the imperialists, scientific racism, pretended to be a neutral science, discouraged liberation struggles, representations of other as entertainment
Reinventions:
understand and help people,
Dreaming new medicine
when rapan women find a new medicine, they "dream" about it and make new medicine according to dream
What explanation does evolutionary medicine offer for morning sickness?
increased sense of smell triggers nausea product of natural selection. sensitivity to odors and lack of appetite reduces chances of eating toxic plants etc, vomiting allow her to rid of toxic chemicals. having MS gives a lower rate of miscarriage, premature labor, and stillbirth
illness versus disease
illness is the social aspect of being sick
disease is the biological aspect of being sick
World Systems Theory:
the theory that capitalism is a world system because the system included territories all around the world united by economic means alone. Replaced the dependency theory as too simplistic in 1980's.
What important roles does the placenta play in the development of the embryo and fetus?
provides oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to embryo and fetus and removes waste from fetal blood
2001 bioterror in the US
22 cases, 11 inhalation, 11 cutaneous, 7 states, 5 deaths; inside job, infectious strain (ames), milled, antistatic, lab worker suspected
Why may North American women experience depression at a relatively high rate after childbirth?
most vulnerable stages of becoming a parent - social isolation, financial pressure, and dearth of supportive activities. baby shower med checkups, etc were all before. woman may feel they have failed if they had a c section or agreed to pain meds after they sought a natural birth.
How many infants annually are affected by pregnant women consuming alcohol?
about 40,000 infants born in US
Pingelap- the island of the colorblind
 
 
 
 
island in the Pacific ocean in which many of the inhabitants are colorblind.

There was a terrible storm with few survivors. One was colorblind and after generations of inbreeding the number of colorblind people greatly increased.
Achromatopsia- a vision disorder 
they have good night vision and wear sunglasses during the day 
What are some of the most important ways that childbirth management differs in Nisa's, Doña Lola's, and Alison's societies?
Nisa - (Juhoansi) women kept working right up to labor. physical courage isolated themselves; used whatever position was most effective for birthing: sitting, lying on 1 side, squatting. birthing alone= lower chance of infection. in the case of an abnormal baby, mother decides what to do. women taught not to be afraid & not to cry out, fear might cause their death. deliver baby w/o pain relief, sometimes mothers cut chord by herself. cultural idea - solitary birth. some would have female relatives. no midwives in population. 1 in 5 babies died in first year of life.
Dona Lola - (mayan) birth is family affair. husband sees how woman suffers. mother is there. Lay in hammock in her home. others do "birth talk" to encourage her. After, rests in hammock w baby on belly. midwife waits for placenta to pass, examines placenta. sponges mother, dresses stump, washes baby and puts in blankey. girl - ears pierced. meal is served to midwife and helpers. modest fee negotiated later. Midwife prevented complications thru prenatal massage. infection was low. midwife concerned of fetal position.
Oksana - went to hospital early labor allowed to walk in halls. 12 hrs later, midwife broke the water. but fetus at risk, moved to standard delivery table, episiotomy done.
What might happen to a pregnant woman if she is calcium deficient?
calcium stores of her teeth and bones may be depleted during pregnancy.
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