The Beginnings of Buddhism Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mindfulness
...
Vedana
Sensations
kaatabbam
6
Sorrow,misery
dukkha
Buddha
Enlightened one
satori
enlightenment experience,
Samajivita
balanced life-style
mahayana
large vehicle
Samadhi
one-mindedness.
access concentration.
sangha
buddhism's religious community
the Buddha
enlightened one
Caga
growth in giving
Festival of Lights
...
Jodo
"Pureland", school, emphasizes Nembutsu
The Four Sights
-sickness(leprosy)
-Eldery Man
-Death
-renouncer-(once he sees this he decides to become one) leaves home at 29
Mandalas
Patterned icons/visuals that excite.
bodhi tree
tree of enlightenment
Who is Siddhartha Gautama?
Buddha
Hinayana
the lesser way; Theravada Buddhism
live a monastic life
the ideal
Five Skhandas
form (body); feelings; conceptions/thoughts; dispositions (things one likes or is good at); consciousness
Siddhartha Gautama
prince who became enlightened
Avijja
ignorance, delusion, root of suffering
lotus sutra
tradition:mahayana
definition: texts
parable of the burning house, skillful means, related to Mahayana
Dukkha
Usually translated to "suffering", that it equals life is the 1st Noble Truth. It encompasses the pain that to some degree colors all finite existence (out of joint).
Jack Kornfield
-founded Insight Meditation Society
-wanted to offer buddhism without the rituals, robes, chants, basically without the religious traditions
Dukka
-is usually translated as "suffering" or "sorrow"
-also means "dissatisfaction" or "dis-ease"
-refers to the the fact that life, when lived conventionally can never be fully satisfying because of its inescapable change
buddha, dharma, sangha
three jewels (refuges)
Parinirvana
Great state beyond nirvana, full nirvana, complete liberation without any ties remaining to pull one back into another lifetime of samsara.
miracles
He traveled, preached, and performed what
Kathina
A Buddhist alms-giving ceremony at which new robes and other requisites are offered to members of the Sangha at the end of the 3-month rainy season
bhavacakra
Mandala, Shows different places you can be reborn into, 3 animals in middle; Wheel of Existence
engaged buddhism
buddhism that emphasizes social action
Samgha
Community of Buddhists monks & nuns.
5 skandas
body, sensations, thoughts, feelings, general consciousness
MARA
Evil spirit/god who tempted Siddhartha with sensuality and fear
Wats honor the ______ god Vishnu
Hindu
devotional style
practiced more by the lay-people
mahayana school
buddha becomes more than just a teacher and template, but a supernatural being worthy of DEVOTION
Mara:
Unenlightened parts of Siddhartha, god who is trying to stop Siddhartha from getting to enlightenment
Zen
A Buddhist practice that focuses on meditation and mental discipline.
Vipassana
meditation based on watching one's own thoughts, emotions, and actions
vajra
The "diamond" scepter used in Tibetan and other types of Buddhist ritual, symbolizing compassion.
four noble truths
buddhas ideas about enlightenment
life is full of suffering, which comes from desire; you end suffering by ending desires, by following the 8 fold path
avalokitesvara
the bodhisattva of compassion. As male in Tibet watches over people and is incarnate in the Dalai Lama. Female in China and Japan.
lamas
important figures, very high level of monk that are born (reborn) into it, they are reincarnations of bodhisattvas
Pali
Ancient language of India. Similar to Sanskrit but more commonly understood.
Tripitika
"three baskets" of the Pali Buddhist scriptures
Madhyamika
The Middle Way according to Indian Mahayana philosphy. Neither affirms nor denies statements about reality, considering them all equally empty of absolute truth. Shunya, voidness
Nirvana
the release from suffering and rebirth that brings beings inner peace
Siddartha Guatma
Ancient Indian religious leader, known as the Buddha, who founded Buddhism
vesak
The Holiday where we celebrate the Buddha's birth.
Devadatta:
Nemesis and cousin tried to kill Buddha and take spot on multiple occasions
Middle Way
A path between extreme self-indulgence and harsh self-denial that avoids attachment to all extremes.
three marks of buddhism
anatta (non-self), anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering)
Tharavada
Buddhism sect - little change over the centuries.
Buddhism
Buddhisme oppstod i India, i år 413 F.V.T
Pali Canon
the only complete canon among the early collection of Buddha's teachings, in this case in the Pali language derived from Sanskrit; it is split into three divisions: Vinaya (monastic code), Sutras (sermons), and Abhidhamma (advanced teaching formula)
Tagatha
One who comes/goes, who has true inner reality
Three Marks of Existence
Characteristics that summarize the changing nature of reality. "anatta(no-self)" "anicca(impermanence)" "dukka(suffering)"
Patipassaddhi-vimutti
Menta Release from Kilesa by virtue of attainment of Ariya-phala through Ariya-magga
Four Passing Sights
sickness, old age, death, poverty; what Siddhartha encountered instigating his spiritual quest
Buddhist Peace Fellowship
An organization working for peace, non-violence, anti-war, helps displaced peoples, makes loans, teaches meditation in prisons. Mostly on the west coast and mostly zen-style Buddhism. Non-sectarian within Buddhism.
In Buddism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe.
enlightenment
The Middle Way
Gautama discovered the ration life- avoiding the 2 extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification
Impermanence (anitya)
the property of not existing for indefinitely long durations
Bon/Bon Po
Often described as the shamanistic and animistic tradition of the Himalayas prior to Buddhism's rise to prominence in the 7th century. Bonpo (a person, or people, who follow(s) the path of Bön)
4 Noble Truths
1. Life is suffering
2. Suffering comes from desire
3. There is a way out - get rid of desire
4. 8 Fold Path
Om mani padme hum
Buddhist Mantra that invokes the powerful benevolent attention and blessings of Chenrezig, the embodiment of compassion.
Briefly describe Obon.
a japanese holiday paying homage to the dead...
Right Effort
balance of energy; being one with what you are doing; living in the moment; no laziness/slacking; need for balance (detachment)
Temple
a place to prayer and is devoted to The Buddha
Amitabha Buddha
The Buddha of the Western Paradise, a bliss-body Buddha in Mahayana.
Gender
This was not just an issue of system it was also to keep the nuns down in terms of power Men Buddhists wanted to keep females in their place. Discriminating minds. We know that the larger society was not all negative about women because of the psalms of the nuns there were early practitioners of women and early documents prove that there were early lay women and early Queens supported the monestary.
Deccan Plateu
Much of indias wealth is found here, in the middle of inida, Central.
Made from multiple pieces, unwanted material (stained), non-primary colors
Rules for monastic robes:
New texts and ways of thinking were used in...
Mahayana Buddhism
Vimalakirti Nirdesha Sutra
Sutra dealing with form, judgement and compassion.
Place Of Orgin
Northern India then died out and it was established as Shri Lanka
pilgrimage n
a very long journey or search of great moral significance
Japanese Zen means that you are buddha by
just by sitting
multiples gods and the caste system
The Buddha rejected these Hindu concepts
1893 World Parliament of Religions
First time America was really exposed to Buddhism (besides immigrants).
What is the path of Vajrayana?
mudras, mantras, and mandallas( riding the energy of the senses)...like using a bulldozer
The Doctrine of the Middle Way
states that a healthy spiritual life depends on a healthy physical life
What is the Eightfold Path? ***
outlines the steps a person should take
Five precepts for nuns and monks
do not eat after noon/watch dancing or shows/use garlands, perfumes, ornaments/use a high bed/accept gold or silver
by izanagis spear dipping into the ooze
how was japan created according to the myth of creation
Buddha was very sheltered until when... what did he see?
29 - chariot ride - saw sick man, old sufferening, dead man, serene calm monk
Bhikkhuni
nuns
pubbe
3
meditation teacher
roshi
Shanga
Buddhist followers
Vipassanna
Intellectual Meditation
attitude
Right________________---avoid desire and strive for enlightenment.
Zazen
sitting in meditation
vimalakirti sutra
emptiness sutra
thervada buddhism beliefs
...
upacara samadhi
access concentration
compassion
chief virtue of Buddhism
old age
1st sight siddhartha
Sadhu
A Hindu holy man.
jataka tales
TRADITION: Mahayana
SIGNIFICANCE: Tales of the Buddha's past lives. When the Buddha referred to his past lives showing great deeds of compassion. he referred to them as Bodhisattvas and the Mahayana see this as and the tales as a call to action. the Mahayana's see this saying that everyone can some life time become a buddha but they must live the life as the Bodhisattva.
What is nirvana?
lasting peace.
Sadu
a buddhist monk 





dvesa
hatred (three poisons, snake)
anatta
lack of a permanent identity
spiritual
4th noble truth; isolation, hopeless
rules for the monks
Vinaya Pitaka
Vidhuro
Capable of management and administration
Theravada (key points)
Privileged (monk, nun)
individual
unfriendly universe
wisdom (bodhi)
Arhat (saint)
Practical
stupas
Mound like structure containing buddhist relic inside
Dharmakaya
"Truth body" how the universe looks to a Buddha at the moment of enlightenment
Gautama's dissatisfaction with the teachings of ___________ led him to a set of new beliefs.
Hinduism
Chenrezig
Tibetan word for Buddha of compassion
Code
Buddhism stresses Cult, Creed, or code?
historical buddha
480-400 bce, siddhartha guatama, established dharma (buddhist doctrine)
dana
one of the four merit-making activities in Buddhist culture, "self-less giving" to diminish desire
Skandhas
..., "Bundles". The five shifting components of human nature: physical form, sensations, cognitions, character dispositions, and consciousness. "The five factors of human nature are suffering", providing no basis for stability
samsara
Constant rebirth and the attendant suffering; the everyday world of change
Soto zen
sitting meditaiton practice developed by dogen.
parable of the prodigal son
TRADITION: Mahayana
SIGNIFICANCE:
Story of a father and son. The son ran away and renounced everything and happened to return back to his home village. The father doesn't tell the son that he is his father and is very wealthy until just before his death. He leads him into the idea of what the truth was but used expedient means to give the information in the end.
-he wasn't ready for the truth
Bodhisatva
mainly Mahayana.
Lesser than Buddha. On the brink of Nirvana but denies it in order to help others reach it.
Ascetism
Renounce the pleasures of the world
The Eightfold Path
Prajna: wisdomSila: moralitySamadhi: mental cultivation/meditation
Nagarjuna
-Greatest philosophical force in the emergence of Mahayana Buddhism
-Two main principles
-Nirvana and Samsara are not different
-The cosmos is void
-The secret is wisdom or prajna- seeing things without attachment
brahman
power inherent in speech
AND the ultimate reality
suffering is caused by desire
2nd noble truth
Zen and new art forms
tea ceremony
haiku-Basho
flower arrangement
gardening
archery
Pratityasamutpada
how the world works/ death and rebirth
Main stream Buddhism
Hinayana Buddhism (lesser vehicle) Theravada (school that is still in exisitance)
Arhant
Saint, one who has reached spiritual perfection
Koan meditation
Riddles, a form of spiritual discipline in Rinzai Zen
Buddha's father
Wealthy landowner, chief of a kshatriya clan
Tanha
One of the Four Noble Truths; suffering is caused by desire; we cause our own suffering
Karma
-huansare not constants, compsted of 5 skandas (aggregates)
indian consitution
it outlawed discrimination because of a person's caste
Benedict
founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; known for establishing Benedictine Rule; paralleled development of Basil's rules in the Byzantine Empire
Theravada
way of the Elders; Pali Canon; monastic discipline, Dharma teachings, scholastic treatises; Triple Gem (The Buddha (Enlightened One; honoring him as supreme teacher/model); Dharma (teachings); Sangha (community of realized beings); samatha (calm); vipassana (insight); Mahaparinibbana Sutta (what Buddha wanted after death)
bodhisattva
one who has achieved enlightenment but purposely holds herself back in order to help others reach enlightenment, buddha in training
Terton
someone who translates a sacred text (i.e. Joseph Smith)
Avalokiteshvara
"Hearer of the crys of the world". Bodhisattva of compassion. Responsible for making sure people get into the western paradise.
when did the buddha live
2,500 years ago
Five Precepts*****
the basic moral requirements that are binding for all Buddhists
adherents today
350 million(ish), only 4 million of whom are in India
Founder of Buddhism
Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)- Born in Gautama in 563 BC, son of warrior-caste parents, wise man predicted he would either be a great monarch or a great ascetic, grew up in palace and trained to be a monarch, life changed when he decided to leave the palace and go see the world
Bodhidharma
an Indian monk who traveled to a monastery in Northern China
to blow one's mind
nirvana can be described as?
Enlightenment
Being made able to see or comprehend the truth: free from ignorance, prejudice or superstition.
Right meditation
Applies mental discipline to quiet the mind and develop single-pointed concentration
Great Enlightenment
When the Buddha gained wisdom and became free of life's sufferings
Doctrine of Grace
1. more personal grace, amita Buddhism, personal buddha
2. More structural grace, no personal buddha, but something is awakened inside of you and can come out of nowhere
prayer flags
Used in Tibetan Buddhism; prayers and mantras are written on the flags, and when the the wind blows the flags, goodwill and compassion are spread throughout the world
the ideas of Buddhism are personified in such artistic work as a
Tanka Painting
Amitabha/Amituofo/Amida
the the cosmic Buddha who is believed to preside over the Pure Land.
Amitaba was the founder of Pure Land Buddhism
Tripitika
**COME BACK TO THIS**
foundational scriptures of Theravada Buddhism
means "3 baskets"=3 major divisions of the Pali canon:
1. rules for Sangha
2. teachings of the Buddha
3. esoteric knowledge
In what caste was Siddhartha born?
Kshatriya - warrior
buddhism that looks on Buddha as a man and teacher
Theravada
The Four Noble Truths
according to Buddah, four principles for living that lead to happiness
1) All things in this world entail sorrow and suffering.
2) The cause of suffering is desire, the craving of the pleasures of life.
3) The end of suffering will come only when the craving for pleasure is ended; one must let go of one's desires.
4) The end of craving will come if a person follows the Eightfold Path.
right handed tantra
1. absorbtion in one own breath (yoga)
2. tantrikas tangue (rise internal nectar)
3. nectar internally drunk into cranial values
4. drawing inner knowledge
5. supreme essence of which all knowledge/power arise
Theravada bodhisattva
Being who is on the way to enlightenment or buddhahood but has not fully entered it.
Triratna AKA Trisaranam
The "Three Jewels" that all Buddhists take refuge in, including the Buddha, the Sangha, and the Dhamma.--These can be called Buddhist
Third Noble Truth
Overcoming Tanha. The way is found within Dukkha itself. Leads one to Nirvana
1st noble truth
the noble truth of suffering an acknowledgement of existence of suffering
importance of Ashoka
reason why Buddhism took hold; great king who spread non-violence all over his empire
Mudra is
symbolic hand gestures, can be used to invoke spirits
body (kaya), sensations (vedana), consciousness (sita), mental objects (dhamma)
4 foundations of mindfulness (sati-patthanas)
Buddhist Rite of Passage
Shaving of young boy's head, before entering monastic life
Triple Refuge
I take refuge in the Buddha. I take refuge in the Dharma. I take refuge in the Sangha.
the buddha recieved _____ in the city of ______
enlightnment and varanasi
purpose of First Council
to determine the course of Buddhism after Buddha's death
Bodhisattva Ideal
takes a vow; Main Vow = one will not enter into Nirvana, until all enter Nirvana; Sacrificial Praxis (fell sorrow and compassion- help others escape from suffering)
The Eight-fold Path
The path is like a stair case, you must master one step at a time to attain enlightenment:wisdom and understandingg
The Three Marks of Existance include..
1) No self (anatta)
2) Impermanence (anicca)
3) Suffering (dukkha)
What is the Third Noble Truth?
The way to liberate oneself from suffering is by eliminating all desire.We must stop craving that which is impermanent.
2 Key Results of Mah. Buddhism:
1) non-reality of objects - people began to see that external, material things are bogus
2) great personal compassion - social caste system gone; love one another is central message of Buddha, wants you to attain nirvana
The three goals of the noble eightfold path
1. see objectively
2. live kindly
3. cultivate inner peace
What do earliy christianity and Isalm have in common?
They both can be accepted as universal religions
pilgramage to places
prayer
fasting
anicca
impermanence
Puja
Worship
bhikkhu
22
samatha
calm surroundings
Nichiren
Japanese teacher
Mundras
hand movements
Burning House Parable
...
hereditary
past down, genes
trilakshana
anitya, duhkya, anatman
upekkha
equanimity (four brahmaviharas)
Founder
Siddarthat Gautama 520 B.C.E
tripitaka
three bskets
1. vinaya pitika-rules/conduct of asetics
2. sutra pitika-about buddha and his teaching & lives
3. abhidharma pitika- philosophies behind the dharma
historical
siddhartha, a material body
3Ms are...
1) mandalas
2)mudra
3)mantra
kamacchanda
sensual desire (five hindrances)
physical
2nd noble truth; injuries, suffering
3 major "poisons"
COCK=greed (attachment)<raga>; snake=hatred (aversion),<dvesha>; and root poison, PIG= illusion/ignorance/confusion<moha>
Devata-bali
making offerings to the deities
dharma
Buddha's teachings--The Four Noble Truths
Bodhi
General word&#10;for enlightenment in Buddhism
anatman
“No-Soul”. Doctrine that human person is impertinent, a changing combination of components. Not worth clinging to anything since you are constantly at a state of change. Analogy of stepping into a moving river. Opposite of Atman.
Indus River
where India's oldest civilization began
mudras
Choreographed hand movements used in the rituals of Vajrayana Buddhism.
shunyata
The Mahayana notion of emptiness, meaning that the universe is empty of permanent reality
Sambhogakaya
Enjoyment body & together w/the nirmanakaya they are the "Form Body" (Rupakaya). Awe-inspiring, gigantic & glorious. Tanka, or sacred picture. Depicts an entity
shunyat
the Mahayana notion of emptiness, meaning that the universe is empty of reality
chinese liberation/tibetan occupation
tradition: tibetan
definition: chinese liberation- modernized infrastructure, gave wealth, took down feudal system
tibetan occupation: illegal occupation of their state, culture clash, many temples, religious implements, images destroyed
Prajna: wisdom
right views (knowledge)right intent (intentions, aspirations)
prajna
The spiritual wisdom or insight necessary for enlightenment.
5 hindrances
sense desire (kamacchanda), ill-will (byapada), laziness (thina-middha), worry and restlessness (uddhacca-kukkacca), doubt (vicikiccha)
koan
in Zen Buddhism, a paradoxical puzzle to be solved without ordinary thinking
Three Bodies of Buddha
"Trikaya"
1. DharmaKaya=(truth body) shouldnt be attached all things are finite.
2. SambhogaKaya=(enjoyment body) nirvana is an enjoyment to be in
3. NirmanaKaya=(transformation body) manifest in human body:sakyamuni
Therevada, Mayayana, Vajrayana
The 3 types of Buddhism
Tantric Buddhism
Another name for Vajrayana, practical techniques related to a religious manifestation of a universal power. Conceived in masculine and feminine form
Theravada Countries
Sri Lanka, Myanmra, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia
Tibetan chant types
Don (Recitation), Rta (Melodic), Dbyangs (Tone Contour).
ramayana
it teaches about love and devotion between husband and wife
Shakyamun
is a title of Siddartha which indicates tha he is the "sage" of his clan
Who carried Buddhas message to people of other lands?
Missonaries
Siddhartha Guatama
Founder of Buddhism, becomes first Buddha at 35.
Right Livelihood
one must not earn anything from violence or from following their religion
lotus buddhism
very political active budd, like an evangelical form, claim they are the right type of budd and advertise it
Right mindfulness
Distinctive feature of the Path; the way to liberation requires discipline and the cultivation of awareness, moment to moment
Anatta Doctrine
the doctrine of "no-self"; doing your best to help the future
Noble silence
the buddhist conviction that you cant speak on anything unless it illeviates suffering
they view life as a desert and religous experience as the refreshing ____ in the desert
oasis
A person who spreads his or her religious beliefs to others is a ____________.
missionary
Three Jewels of Buddhism
the bhudda, the dharma, the sangha
describe a buddha
one who has been enlightened, reached nirvana
eight fold path
described way to end dukha
1. right view
2. right intention
3. right speech
4. right action
5. right livlihood
6. right effort
7. right mindfulness
8. right concentration
Upaya-Kausalya=skillful/expedient means
Esp. in Mahayana, teaching is a tool that must be applied appropriately. Transform the mind (trick?) to teach the childlike thinker.
meditation n
quieting the mind and focusing on the present to shut out the distractions of the world
vipassana meditation
find nature of your mind
(step 7 of eightfold path)
3 days
After _____, there are signs that the subtlest energy-consciousness has separated from the body - usually blood or pus oozing from the eyes, nose, mouth or crown of the head - and now the body can be cremated
why would the government not like Buddhism?
no functionalist aspect
What is a yogin?
One who practices a self-controlled, meditative postition prescribed by yoga
Noble Eightfold Path
the fourth of the four noble truths, defines the basic practices of buddhism to lead to nirvana, "prescription for the cure"
Bodhisattva vow in Mahayana B.
Dedicating oneself first and foremost to the salvation of all living beings, so as not to be self-centered, as they viewed arhats.
The 3 Jewels
1. Buddha - serves as ideal in Buddhism
2. Dharma - Teachings of Buddhism
3. Sangha - Monastic Community
tao te ching
the teachings of lao tzu are found in what text
What did Asita prophesize
The buddha could embrace the world and rule it or renounce it and save it.
What are the stages of the Eightfold Path?
-Right views
-Right intentions
-Right speech
-Right conduct
-Right livelihood
-Right effort
-Right mindfullness
-Right meditation
what is the bodh gaya tree?
the tree under which buddha reached enlightenment
Did Mahayana buddhists believe in socail caste system?
No, they believed that salvation (aka Nirvana) is for all.
Describe the life of Buddha?
he was a wealthy prince who had never witnessed old age, sickness, or death.
3.How did Gautama try to understand suffering? ***
How he tried to understand was by meditating.
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