The Bureaucracy Flashcards

Civil service
Terms Definitions
Privatization/Deregulation
...
JFK management style
circular
initially, the prevailing interpretation of the constituion held that agencies could not exercise these unless congress first sets down clear standards
regulatory powers
FTC
Federal Trade Commission. Protects consumers from misleading and fraudulent advertising. Reviews advertising claims. Can order a company to change their ad
govt. corporations
not many of these
AMTRAK
Merit System
The selection, retention, and promotion of government employees on the basis of competitive examinations
Recruitment System
has changed; become more decentralized; can use the excepted service mode which does not require a competitive exam
Teddy Roosevelt
Progressive Era (Dual Fed'ism) expanded bureaucracy & created regulatory function (ICC)
SEC
an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors
oversight
the effort by congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies
Issue Network
Relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and the government agencies that share a common policy concern.
Laissez-faire
An economic theory that gobernment should not regulate or interfere with commerce.
National Labor Relations Board
regulates labor-management relations
Committee Clearance
the ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law
Bureaucracy
refers to departments and agencies in executive branch
Regulation
rules governing part of a government program that has the force of law
Government Corporations
Businesses that the federal government runs.
Spoils System
Another phrase for political patronage - that is, the practice of giving the fruits of a party's victory, such as jobs and contracts, to the loyal members of that party.
Factors -> Growth
reasons for growth of bureaucracy:technology, national emergency
Senior Executive Service
A special classification for high-level civil servants created by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Members of this service can be hired, fired, and transferred more easily than ordinary civil servants. They are also eligible for cash bonuses and, if removed, are guaranteed jobs elsewhere in the government. The purpose of the service is to give the president more flexibility in recruiting, assigning, and paying high-level bureaucrats with policy-making responsibility.
weberian model
a hierarchically organized model with formal rules and regulations with power flowing from top down. Decisions are technical in nature
Discretionary authority
The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws.
red tape
the maze of government rules, regulations, and paperwork; makes government so overwhelming to citizens that many people try to avoid contact
it is very difficult to fire one
a bureaucrat
major event brought about the modern bureaucracy
The Depression
18th century
When did the Bureaucracy start to become very large?
legislative veto
authority of COngress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The SC has held that Congress does NOT have this power
Sophomore Surge
An increase in the votes congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection
Administrative Agency
A federal or local government unit established to perform a specific function. Administrative agencies are created and authorized by legislative bodies to administer and enforce specific laws
open meeting law
1976 Law requiring all governmental agency meetings to be open to the public unless classified information will be discussed.
A group of particiapnts in bureaucratic policymaking with technical policy expertise and intellectual and emotional commitment to the issue is called
an issue network
clientele groups
groups of citizens whose interests are affected by an agency or department and who work to influence its policies
quasi-legislative
having to do with powers that are to some extent legislative.
Independent agencies
Federal Agencies that are not part of the cabinet-level executive departments. Members of these agencies serve fixed and overlapping terms and cannot be removed, which limits the president's control of them.
Merit principle
the idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill.
INS v Chadha
1983, the Supreme Court case that ruled legislative vetoes were unconstitutional, but Congress continues to enact laws containing them.
example of an independent agency
GSA- general service administration ( also a line agency) which constructs public buildings and manages property
Government in the Sunshine Act
A law that requires all committee-directed federal agencies to conduct their business regularly in public session.
Accountability
who is in charge and to whom does that person answer? where does the buck stop?
Office of Personnel Management
The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
ex parte quirin dissenting arguments
they had second thoughts later becasue the case was very rushed and thought maybe congress should authorize the president's want to detain people
Media & Special Interest Groups[ Issues of Control]
Media coverage of the bureaucracy is critical and draws attention to misbehavior--- they are the WATCHDOG.
What are the 5 features of edge cities?
Nothing there years agoMore people during day than nightno real downtown>surrounds mall, companyNo classic city featuresno political infrastructures
Bureaucrat
...
Nixon management style
pyramid
quasi-legislative agencies
indepenent agencies have responsibility for filling in genera term gaps and writing rules
NASA
National Aeronautic and Space Administration - a US government agency in charge of the space program
bureaucrats
career government employees (90 percent). Carry out policies of elected officials, answer to president and political appointees.
Iron Triangle
A three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests
Hatch Act
Aka Political Employees Act-protect officials from political machines, forbidding them to run in partisan or contribute to partisan
Devolution
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
regulatory agencies
departments, bureaus, or independent agencies whose primary mission is to impose limits, restrictions, or other obligations on the conduct of individuals or companies in the private sector
US Postal Service
competes with private services
Authorization Legislation
legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency
President and Congress
Who shares control of Bureaucracy?
Implementation
law being put into operation by bureaucracy
FRB
Federal Reserve Banks. 12 banks that form a major part of the Federal Reserve System.
Privacy Act (1974)
laws protecting peoples privacy; protects all private information that cannot be shown unless given permission to do so
annual authorization
The practice of a legislative committee determining the amount an agency can spend on a yearly basis. This practice is a recent one and curtails the power of the appropriations committees.
regulatory agency
a governmental agency that regulates businesses in the public interest/ watches over a particular sector of the economy or national interest
trust funds
funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget.
regressive tax
taxes everyone at the same time regardless of income
Tenure
law that says that a government person could not be fired when a new Presidential administration cam in
laissez faire
eco theory that gov should not regulate/interfere with commerce
bureaucracy bureaucratic imperialism
a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials
Decentralization
The spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments.
Protects individual representation but leads to many gridlocks.
Capture
The act by which an industry being regulated by a government agency gains direct or indirect control over agency personal and decision makers
Federal Reserve Board
a regulatory board whose policies directly affect the buying power of the public
the weberian model views bureaucracies as
efficient and necessary
hierarchy
a clear chain of command exists in which all employees know who their bosses or supervisors are, as well as for when they are in turn responsible
quasi-judical
having to do with powers that are to some extent judicial.
pendlton act
puts in merit system for US government system
had to take tests
buddy system
A job description by an agency which is tailor-made for a specific person.
Office of personnel Management (OPM)
Responsible for hiring for most agencies.
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Hatch Act 1939
take off pressure of civil servants to work for the election of parties and candidates
department of homeland security
US federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism
name-request job
A Job that is filled by a person whom an agency has already identified
Managerial Presidency [Issues of Control]
President has the power to fire people within the bureaucracy & the Executive Office of the President & White House staffers within the bureaucracy
The creation of the Office of Management and Budget provides an important tool of bureaucratic control because _______
it helps the president to monitor and analyze agency budgets
Waste
Waste in federal money
ICC
Interstate Commerce Commission, a federal regulatory agency that governed over the rules and regulations of the railroading industry.
2nd largest policy area
higher education
Rule Making
A quasi-legislative process that results in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act.
Patronage
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
which cabinet department is charged with overseeing the nation's national resources
interior
Cabinet Departments
3 executive departments were first bureaucracy; today there are 14 cabinet agencies, plus new Director of Homeland Security
- all headed by a single individual appointed by President; 13 'secretaries' & the attorney general; these are supposed to be the President's 'closest advisors' but Cabinet / Bureaucracy has gotten so big that 'White House Staff' really is
- Health & Human Services largest in $$$ (social security = 40% fed spending)
- Dept. of Defense is largest in personnel (3 branches total 1.4M in uniform & 1M civilian)
Max weber
German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society.
agency capture
commissions tend to become creatures of the very interests they are supposed to regulate
Entitlement Program
Program that ALL CITIZENS can benefit from based on certain qualifications such as age, income or disability.
Exs.
Social Security - age
Medicare - age
Medicaid - income or disability
congress control over bureaucracy
through creating and eliminting agencies,controls budgets,oversight function
division of labor
skilled workers each have a specialized function, resulting in increased productivity
Civil Service Commission (Merit)
Responsible for evaluating job applicants through competitive examinations and establishing promotion guidelines.
Responsibilities were then taken over by the Office of Personnel management
Inspectors General
-Regular staff members who just check how the Bureaucracy is doing
-look for porbs that might be emerging
-work for congress
regulatory commission
concern with $ and the economy ex:Interstate Regulatory Commission
president
official who has the power to remove appointed department officials
Policy implementation
The translation of the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program.
The Health Care Financing Administration is part of an even larger federal bureaucracy, the _____
Health and Human Services Department
bureaucratic imperialism
Refers to the tendency of agencies to grow without regard to the benefits their programs confer or the costs they entail
Hatch Act (1939)
people in the bureaucracy can't carry political parties into the office; can't let partisanship get in way of work
Independent agency
an executive agency that is not part of a cabinet department
Who are the homeless people?
Mentally ill: halfway housesHuge growth in low-wage workersfoster kidsprison dischargedrug abuseveterans
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
Congress recognized that many high-level positions in the civil service have important policy-making responsibilities and that the president and his cabinet officers ought to have more flexibility in recruiting, assigning, and paying such people.
How many people work for US bureaucracies?
2.7 million civilian employees
handi v. rumsfeld supporting arguments
arrest was unwarranted and unlawful; he had the right to have fed courts deicde if Handi was lawfully detained
Division of Labor [ Primary Characteristic]
Experts are coordinated to perform complex Tasks
which of the following statements about plum book appointees is FALSE
plum book appointees are often instrumental in changing and reforming their agencies
Chapman's Rules of Committees
1) Never arrive on time, or you will be stamped a beginner.
2) Don't say anything until the meeting is half over; this stamps you as being wise.
3) Be as vague as possible; this prevents irritating others.
4) When in doubt, suggest that a subcommittee be appointed.
Role of Bureaucracy in every day life
Huge role in how the quality of our drinking water, power plant regulations, nutritional facts, safe guidelines etc
Code of Federal Regulations
Indexing
Providing automatic increases to compensate for inflation.
incentive system
system of regulation whereby market-strategies are used to manage public policy; a more effective and efficient policy
secretaries
Official heads of the executive departments such as secretary of state, agriculture and treasury. As both department heads and advisers to the President, Cabinet members often are confronted with conflicting loyalties.
executive orders
Regulations originating from the Executive Branch. Executive orders are one method presidents can use to control the bureaucracy.
street-level bureaucrats
phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion
Weberarian Model
Rational application of government to deliver rational services
-useful
patronage system
An approach to managing the bureaucracy whereby people are appointed to important government positions as a reward for political services they have rendered and because of their partisan loyalty
Three key roles of bureaucrats
policy implementation, policy administration, and regulation
qualified
beginning of civil service had to do with hiring _______ people
civil service system
the practice of hiring goverment workers on basis of open competitve examinations and merit
Monopolistic model
bureaucrats try to gain as much power as they can
General Schedule (GS) Rating
salaries determined by rating and experience
Bureaucracy can be descirbed as
Quasi legeslative and Quasi judical
chief of staff
directs all of the operations of the white house office and most influential of all presidential aides
why new departments are periodically added to the federal bureaucracy
To address specific problems in society
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