The Bureaucracy 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Amtrak
...
bipartisan
supported by 2 parties.
Oversight
Actions of Congressional committees investigating wrongdoing or wasteful spending in Congress, Federal Agencies or the Exective and Judicial branches.
NTSB
national transportation safety board, investigates plane crashes
The government machinery that turns laws into regulations and services that affect virtually every aspect of public life is the ________
bureaucracy
Cabinet Departments
The 15 major administrative organizations within the federal bureaucracy that are responsible for major governmental functions such as defense, commerce, and homeland security.
Bureaucracy
A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials.
Fdic
a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
bureaucrats
people who work within the bureaucracy. Also known as civil servants.
Laissez-faire
An economic theory that government should not regulate or interfere with commerce
rationality
the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results as the right way to approach human affairs
NASA
administers the United States space program, financing ventures in to space since 1958
Iron Triangle
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
appropriation
a legislative grant of money to finance a government program
Authorization legislation
Legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency.
Spoils System
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
Discretionary Authority
The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws.
total quality management
a management philosophy emphasizing listening closely to customers, breaking down barriers between parts of an organization, and continually improving quality
conflict
A bureaucratic pathology in which some agencies seem to be working at cross-purposes to other agencies.
Hatch Act
required employees, once they were hired, to have as little to do with political parties as possible
pendleton act
an act proposed and passed by republicans which had begun a slow but steady of transfer of federal jobs from the patronage to the merit system.
Independent Regulatory Agencies
agency outside the major executive departments charged with making and implementing rules and regulations
Trust Funds
funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget.
Controlling Bureaucracy: Senate
Advice and Consent on presidents appointments
Power of the purse- budget
Limit scope of federal agency's responsibilities or eliminate completely.
Public hearings- considerable say on the status of federal programs in the most open manner possible.
Can write laws more specifically.
Issue Networks
Issue networks are an alliance of various interest groups and individuals who unite in order to promote a single issue in government policy.
Privacy Act
A law passed in 1974 requiring government files about individuals to be kept confidential.
Administrative discretion
Authority given by Congress to the federal bureaucracy to use reasonable judgment in implementing the laws.
amtrak and the united states postal service are examples of
governmental corporations
Implementation
the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy.
Reinvent Government
efforts to do this may help matter, but they CAN'T solve the problem
Merit Principle
the idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill
Civil service commission
created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees
monopolistic model
negative view where each dept. is seen as the sole entity providing a service
Corporation for Public Broadcasts
operates public radio and television stations
noncareer executive assignments
persons brought the civil service at a high level position
Revenue Agencies [Agencies for maintenance of the union]
Internal Revenue Service
(Collects taxes for US government-- pressured to stop tax fraud)
Congress & IRS in constant push and pull
privatization of services
led to the gov't contracting out many services to private groups
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
recognized that many high level positions in the civil service have important policy making responsibilities and that the president and his cabinet officers ought to have more flexibility in recruiting, assigning, and paying such people.
Office of Personnel Management
The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
Whistle Blower Protection Act
1989; the law created the Office of Special Counsel, charged with investigating complaints from bureaucrats that they were punished after for reporting in their agencies.
Freedom of Info Act (1966)
set rules on access to information or records held by government bodies; specifies process in which to make reviewing gov't documents legal & public
pp who control government in everyday lives
What is it important to study the Bureaucracy?
Street Level Bureaucrat
uK
red tape
needlessly time-consuming procedure
Cabnient Department
large single purpose agencies
TVA
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
Clinton advantages
informal, good relationships, effective speaker
Execuative Branch
Where is the budget prepared?
Executive orders
regulations originating in the executive branch.
Incrementalism
Policymaking characterized by a series of decisions, each instituting modest change.
Interagency council
working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
Percent of federal employees who work in executive departments
60%
GS rating
a schedule for federal employees, ranging from 1 to 18, by which salaries can be keyed to rating and experience.
Government corporations
business owned by government. Preform services that could be done by private sector, similar to business but more free of rules and regulations of agencies and IRCs. Ex: U.S. postal service, AMTRAK...
Highly Structured
Personal attitudes do not really affect _____________ roles (tasks that are routinized, closely defined by laws and rules, or closely monitored by others.
Deregulation
a bureaucratic reform by which the government reduces its role as a regulator of business.
waste
spending more than is necessary to buy a product( gov doesn't need to make a profit and needs to please)
Merit System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability
Competitive Service
The government offices to which people are appointed on the grounds of merit as ascertained by a written examination or by having met certain selection criteria (such as training, educational attainments, or prior experience).
quasi-judicial process
• the bureaucracy will try to resolve the issue with you, to avoid full judicial proceedings
Clinton disadvantages
lied to people and almost impeached, lack of communication
Capture
The act by which an industry being regulated by a government agency gains direct or indirect control over agency personnel and decision makers.
the short name for the case in which the supreme court ruled the legislative veto unconstitutional
Chadha
gov corps
a business that the federal gov runs and could be run by private businesses and created by congress to carry out business-like activities, produce income that goes back into the business, not given money from gov but gov mus approve budget
Independent Regulatory Agency
An agency outside the major executive departments charged with making and implementing rules and regulations
Legislative Veto
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power.
fire alarm oversight
a method of oversight in which members of Congress respond to complaints about the bureaucracy or problems of implementation only as they arise rather than using constant vigilance
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
1993, liberated Hatch or Political Employees Act, can run in non-partisan and contribute to partisan
Independent agency
an agency that is not part of a Cabinet department.
independent government executive agency
the government not accounted for by the cabinet departments, independent regulatory commissions, and government corporations
Humphrey's Executor v. United States
The Supreme Court held that presidents could not fire members of regulatory agencies without just cause.
Pendleton Civil Service Act:
passed in 1883, it created the federal Civil Service.
4 questions to ask about suburbs?
What happens to national policies now?In what ways will our economic policies play out/shape our suburbsIf we face energy/environmental crisis>what will happen to densityWill we begin to think in new patterns, regionalize our problems?
congress tries to control the bureaucracy through
the rewriting laws and budgets and holding hearings
July-Sept
OMB complies requests
Bureaucracy powers to implement/regulate/spend
...
FTC
Federal Trade Commission. Protects consumers from misleading and fraudulent advertising. Reviews advertising claims. Can order a company to change their ad
NLRB
National labor Relations Board: (established by Wagner Act) Greatly enhanced power of American labor by overseeing collective bargaining; continues to arbitrate labor-management disputes today
most regulatory agencies adopt specific ___ to carry out a policy, based on what they believe was the intended purpose of the specific policy at hand.
guidelines
Iron triangles
A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. They dominate some areas of domestic policymaking.
Department
Largest unit of exec branch, departments are broken down (agencies, bureaus, offices, services), department heads from pres. cabinet. Appointed by pres, 14 secretaries and attorney general
imperialism
tendency of agencies to grow irrespective of programs' benefits and costs
excepted service
employees must have a security backround check and are in a competitive field where the merit system won't work( but may primarily operate on merit system basis), most have national security or intelligence functions, (FBI)(teachers); but do have fewer appeal rights ( compared to competitive service, barred generally MSPB or federal courts)
Principal-agent model
A model explaining the relationship between Congress and the Bureaucracy, which states the relationship is similar to that between an employer who seeks to have work done (the principle) and an employee who does the work (the agent)
subsidies
a grant or contribution of money, especially one made by a government in support of an undertaking or the upkeep of a thing
Reagan disadvantages
anything can happen within the framework because workers are given free range, prez responsible for everything, prez not always aware of what is going on within staff
government by proxy
washington pays state and local governments and private groups to staff and administer federal programs
Executive order
rules or regulations issued by the president that have the effect of law.
Regulations
Rules that govern the operation of all government programs that have the force of law.
What do Bureacrats do?
* Communicate-- coordinate their specializations
* Maintain- red tape, or paperwork of all communications
* Interpret vague laws --> actions/ Concrete Policy [ Rule- making or discretionary authority]
10-year award system
award system for productivity, can't be achieved when you hit ten or twelve mark, can't be fired, you get protection from legislatures trying ot get you what they want you to do, and being held accountable by the people for bad choices
Smith's Principle
Never do anything for the first time.
Issue network
A network of people in Washington, D.C.- based interest groups, on congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media, who regularly discuss and advocate public policies.
Whistle blower
A bureaucrat who leaks information to congress or to the media, moves against an agency head, or oppose a course of action
Hatch Act in 1939
1939, congressional law that forbade govt. officials from participating in partisan politics and protected govt employees from being fired on partisan grounds; revised in 993 to be less restrictive.
implementation, rule making, adjudication
What are tasks of the Bureaucracy?
FOIA [Issues of Control]
Freedom of Information Act, requires disclosure of all governmental information unless exempt under Act.
3 Kinds of excepted employee appointments so the president can select people in agreement with his policy views
1) Presidential appointments authorized by statute (cabinet/subcabinet officers, judges, U.S. Marshals and Attorneys, Ambassadors, and members of various boards and commissions).
2) "Schedule C" appointments to jobs that are described as having a "confidential or policy-determining character" below the level of cabinet or subcabinet posts (includes executive assistants, special aides, and confidential secretaries).
3) Noncareer executive assignments (NEAs) given to high-ranking members of the regular competitive civil service or to persons brought into the civil service at these high levels. These people are deeply involved in the advocacy of presidential programs or participate in policy-making.
patronage system
a hiring and promotion system based on political reasons rather than aon merit or competence
the securities and exchange commision
protects investors by regulating stock markets and policing corporations to prevent false and misleading claims of profits in an effort to inc stock prices
Task specialization
a clear vision of labor in which every individual has a specific job
Acquisitive Model
A model of bureau that views top level bureaus as seeking to expand the size of their budgets and staffs to gain greater power
Senior Executive Service
An elite cadre of about 9,000 federal government managers, established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, who are mostly career officials but include some political appointees who do not require Senate confirmation.
bureaucrats work hard to
secure their job and the success of the bureaucracy
Name-request Job
A job that is filled by a person whom an agency has already identified.
In order to deal with the tragedy of the commons, rules must be changed. Give some examples of how those rules may be changed
Capital system: property rightsgovernment regulationUse taxes to pay other people not to grazeSocialism: own the sheep in commonsProgressive: find most efficient personImperialism: take another common etc
Administration
Government's many administrators and agencies
Indexing
providing automatic increases to compensate for inflation
resources
Many well-laid policies fail because of lack of ______________, there is simply not the means or authority to carry it out
Patronage
The act of appointing people to government positions
policy implementation
translating goals and objectives of a party into an ongoing program
street-level bureaucrats
A phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion.
Which of the following is an example of a cabinet-level executive department?
Justice Department
Civil Service Reform Act
1979: replaced the Civil Service Commission with the OPM and MSPB
know what some of the executive department do or what they are responsible for- department of T
FAA located within
demographic representativeness
the idea that the bureaucracy will be more responsive to the public if its employees at all levels are demographically representative of the population as a whole.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
Agency that administers civil service laws, rules, and regulations.
House Ways and Means Committee
the chief tax writing committee of the United States House of Representatives
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