The Digestive System 2 Flashcards

Digestive System
Terms Definitions
Molar
three
esophag
esophagus
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
odonti
teeth
sub
below
-pepsia
digestion
pharyng/o
throat
abdomin/o
abdomen
Swallowing
aka deglutition
PROCT/O
ANUS, RECTUM
cholangi/o
bile vessel
postprandial
after eating
Digestion Process
.ingestions.propulsion.Mechanical breakdown.Chemical breakdown.Absorption.Defection
fundus
-space inside stomach
acinus
exocrine secretory units
Spincter
Muscullar rings in stomach
where is protein digested
stomach 
omentum
Double folds of peritoneum.
halitosis
offensive or "bad" breath
gloss/o, lingu/o
tongue (2) (root word)
emesis
vomiting; results from reverse peristalsis
The esophagus enters the abdomen by penetrating the diaphragm at _____.
T10
Approximately 20ft in length
small intestine
glycogenesis
glucose molecules converted to glycogen molecules which are stored in liver
obstipation
intestinal obstuction; also called severe constipation.
Alimentary Canal
oral cavity,pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Epiglottis
Closes when shallow, opens when breath
uvula
finger-like projection in back of throat
pepsin
begins digestion of dietary protein into polypeptides
trypsin, chymotrypsin, carbozypeptidase
3 types of proteases
2 regions of large instestine
cecum, colon
Liver histology
lobules (central vein), hepatocytes, portal triad, sinusoids (hepatic macrophages...WBC reside in sinusoids)
nucleotidases and phosphatases
small intestine;breaks down nucleotides to their building blocks
salivary glandsalimentary canal or associative structure?
associative structure
constipation
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces. This term could be classified as either a symptom or a disease. patients can subjectively relate that they are experiencing the discomfort of constipation, and it can be the diagnosis.
gastric ulcers
-erosion of stomach wall-helicobacter infections cause 90% of all ulcers-vomiting
pharynx
Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.
gastric juice
secretions from the gastric glands
enamel
hard, outermost layer of a tooth
Enterohepatic circulation pathway
Ilium reabsorbs bile salts-->hepatic duct--> resecreted as bile
chymotrypsin
aproteolytic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins into polypeptides and amino acids
gastrin
a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach lining; stimulates the secretion of fluid by gastric glands in the stomach
adventitia
replacement of serosa on outside os esophagus and retroperitoneal organs. connective tissue
alveolar sacs
thin walled out pouchings in lungs
Gastric Phase
Second phase of gastric secretion. Stomach distention increases secretion. Peptides, caffein and rise in pH stimulate the release of gastrin.
Dysentery
Painful, bloody diarrhea due to an infectious agent
Exocrine product of pancreas
pancreatic juice= digestive enzymes
vestibule
space between the lips, teeth, and cheeks
Fats/oils digestion
Non-water soluble so must be “pretreated” with bile salts to be emulsified -reduces the attraction between the fat molecules so they become further apart, big drops broken down to many little drops; digested only by the pancreatic lipase
emulsification
physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
Pyloric Stenosis
Narrowing of the pyloric sphincter, interfering with the emptying of the stomach into the small intestine. May develop in infants (present at birth) or adults.
retroperitoneal
-if something goes wrong with that organ, it is secluded from other organs-organ is located behind the peritoneum
intussusception
telescoping of one part of the intestine into an opening of an immediately adjacent part
parietal cells
secrete hydrochloric acid and gastric intrinsic factor
enterochrommaffin like cells (ECL) release _____ and ______
histamine and serotonin
What enzymes do the pancreas secrete?
amylase(carbohydrates), protease(proteins),lipase (fats)
chyle
milky fluid formed when food is digested in small intestine. absorbed through intestinal wall and travels via thoracic duct, where it passes into veins
cirrhosis (def)
chronic liver disease where the liver cells degenerate
brush border
fuzzy appearance of villi is called this...
enzymes of the intestine
lactase, sucrase, maltase, peptidase, nucleosidase
Within the sinusoids are _________________ that remove old RBC's and remove potentially toxic material.
Kupffer's cells (liver macrophages)
The opening to the larynx is located in the wall of the proximal laryngopharynx and is protected by the ________.
epiglottis
gallbladder
located in the inferior surface of the liver and connected by the cystic duct to the duodenum. function of the gallbladder stores bile b/t meals reabsorbs water to concentrate bile, and releases bile into the small intestine
Chime
food that has been processed by the stomach (resembles heavy cream)
Pathology of the Digestive System - eating disorders - emaciated
abnormally thin
Which of the following is not an accessory digestive organ?
 
A) spleen
B) gallbladder
C) liver
D) pancreas
E) salivary gland
A) spleen
parotid salivary gland
-secretes saliva in sides of mouth
cheilosis
also known as cheilitis, is a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
What nerve, when stimulated, causes the release of gastrin?
The vagus nerve.
Functional alterations to the bowel include what
antibiotics and narcotics
What does saliva do?
Moisten and lubricates materials, antibacterial action, chemical digestion, anddissolves material so that we can taste our food.
accessory organs
organs that play a role in digestion, but are not part of the alimentary canal
What is the connective tissue layer of the mucous membrane which consists of blood capillaries, lymph capillaries, and lymphatic follicles in the ileum of the intestine?
lamina propria
Labial Frenulum
can cause gap; attaches upper lip to two front teeth; anchors lips to gums
Chemical Digestion
Breaks food down to the building block molecules (fats to fatty acids, starches to glucose, proteins to amino acids)
fungiform papillae
The superior surface of the tongue has a vascular core that gives them a reddish appearance
submucosa layer characteristics (2)
"just beneath mucosa; soft connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and lymphatics"
What is the function of the serosa?
Anchors and protects
rugae
ridges on the hard palate and wall of the stomach
nucleotide
any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA or RNA
The mucosa makes mucus that eases the passage of ___________ to the rectum.
feces (solid waste)
where is gastrin produced and what's it's importance
stomachstimulates contraction of stomach, gastric secretions and opening of pyloric valve
Pathology of the Digestive System - Intestinal Disorders - Infectious Diseases of the Intestines - Botulism - symptoms?
paralysis and sometimes death
pancreatic juice
aid in digestion of chyme in the small intestine but produced in the pancreas
What do the enteroendocrine cells secrete?
Secretin, cholecystokinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide.
A retroperitoneal structure
a. has only its anterior surface covered by peritoneum
b. is covered by both the greater and lesser omenta
c. is encased within the lesser omentum
d. has greater freedom of movement than an organ enclosed by the mesenteries
a. has only its anterior surface covered by peritoneum
Pathology of the Digestive System - Tissues of the Oral Cavity - Cleft lip and palate - cleft lip, also known as?
harelip, a developmental defect resulting in a deep fissure running upward from the lip to the nose, can be surgically fixed
body cells remove fat and cholesterol to build… (2)
build membranes and steroid hormones
All about the Salivary Parotid Gland
largest gland, secrete 25-30 percent of the saliva, and they secrete amylase (Needed for carbohydrate digestion).
The correct order of the digestive tube layers, from lumen outward is: (arrange in correct order)
1. Mucosa
2. muscularis externa
3. serosa
4. submucosa
1, 4, 2, 3
 
Mucosa, Muscularis externa, Serosa, Submucosa
What is occuring during the absorbtion phase of digestions?
passive movement, active transport of electrolytes, digestion of materials, vitamins and water digestion across the GI tract into the GI tract blood and lymph vessel networks.
chronological order of structures food will pass through from ingestion to defecation
oral cavity -> pharynx -> esophagus -> stomach -> small intestine -> large intestine -> anus
Pathology of the Digestive System - The Liver - Jaundice, also known as?
icterus, a yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by greater than normal bilirubin in the blood
the tongue has both _____ and _____ skeletal muscles
intrinsic- change of shape, initiate swallow
extrinsic- upward, side to side. attached to bone
How are fatty acids absorbed by the small intestine?
They diffuse into the mucosa where they are converted into chylomicrons and travel-> lacteals -> lympathic vessels.
Why is Mucin such an essential part of digestion?
Mucin serves as a protective function. It mixes with water to form mucous which coats the GI tracts and lubricates it against acidic secretions and abbrasions by pasing materials.
gingiv
gums
SPLEN/O
SPLEEN
metabol
change
esophag/o
esophagus
viscer-
copr-
bowel
intestine
-rrhea
discharge (suffix)
-centesis
to puncture
gloss/o, lingu/o
tongue
lapar-
abdominal wall
-ptosis
drooping; sagging; protruding
DYSPHAGIA
DIFFICULTY IN SWALLOWING
occult
hidden or difficult
cecum
at begining of LI
Amino acids
monomers of protein
paneth cells
-secrete antibacterial protein
Anus
opening that releases feces
bile
emulsifies fats
secreted by the liver
stored in the gallbladder
micelles
breakdown fo triglycerides for ?
Jejunum
largest portion of small intestine
papillae
small elevations on the tongue
total cholesterol #
< 200 mg
an/o, proct/o, rect/o
rectum and anus
colic
severe abdominal pain (mostly horses)
chyme
partially digested food that leaves the stomach
greater curvature
lower left border of stomach
surfactant
reduces alvolis tendancy to collapse, from surface tension.
urine made in the digestive system?
no
caries
cavities, form due to bacteria fermenting carbohydrates which leads to acid waste on the teeth
Microvilli
tiny projections of the plasma membrane of the mucosa cells that give the cell surface a fuzzy appearance (increase the absorptive surface of the small intestine)
Hypoglycemia
Condition of too little glucose (sugar) in the blood.
carbohydrate digestion
-carbs to monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, galactose)
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection.
Which lobe is bigger?
The right lobe.
gallbladder releases _____ as food enters the small intestine
bile
colostomy
surgical production of an artificial opening between the colon and the body surface
abdominocentesis
a surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen
intestinal crypts
these are tubular intestinal glands; secrete intestinal juice, antimicrobial agents
The pharynx connects the mouth with the ________, which serves as a passage way for movement of food.
esophagus
intrinsic factor
secreted by parietal cells, helps small intestine absorb B12
adsorption
the process where the monomeric forms of the food substance are taken up by the circulatory and lymphatic system 
The _________ connects the nasopharynx and middle ear.
tympanic tube
Regions of Pancreas
head, body, tail, pancreatic/accessory pancreatic duct
muscularis of the ALIMENTARY CANAL has how many layers
2
Treatment Procedures of the Digestive System - The Stomach - Gastric bypass, name one technique?
stomach stapling
Giardia
An intestinal protozoa that has a large sucking disc which adheres to the microvilli of the intestinal walls. There are many different kinds of parasites. However, except for Giardia, they are much more common in Africa and rarely impact Western medicine.
3 subdivisions of small intestine
duodenum; jejunum; ileum
ASCITES
ACCUMULATION OF FLUID IN THE ABDOMEN (OR OTHER ORGAN)
borborygmus
the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
nervous system
regulate passage of material through GI tract
__________Covers the dentine of the tooth's crown and neck and is composed of a hard layer of _____ _______ crystals.
Enamel
Calcium Phosphate
Note:
Enamel is not a issue, but a cell free secretion.
liver
a glandular organ functioning in the secretion of bile and metabolic processes such as converting sugars located in the upper right abdominal cavity
The general term for the type of enzyme that digests carbohydrates.
amylase
secretin
released when pH falls in the duodenum when chyme enters
Enteroendocrine cells
secrete gastrin, a hormone that enters the blood and stimulates the secrtory activities of the chief and parital cells and the contractile activity of gastric muscle
what is the mouth lines with?
nonkeratinized squamous epithelium
filiform papillae
make up 2/3 of ant. tongueconical, pointed structuressensory nerve endings
Hepatitis E (virus)
Inflammation of the liver spread through the fecal-oral route. There is no vaccine or direct treatment. Prognosis is usually good.
STEATORRHEA
PASSAGE OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF FAT IN THE STOOLS
Peyer's patches
large aggregates of lymph nodes, more commonly found in the ileum of the small intestine
duodenum
first part of the small intestine. duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long
a serous membrane that extends from the lessor curvature of the stomach to the liver.
Lessor Omentum
pancreatic lipase
small fusions in the pancreatic ducts caused by chronic inflammation
The serosa of the digestive tube is composed of the _________ __________ in the abdominal cavity.
parietal peritoneum
The liver, parenchyma, gallbladder, and pancreas develop from
endoderm outgrowths of the duodenum
body region
main portion of the stomach b/t fundic and pyloric region
sigmoid colon
4th and last S-shaped segment of the colon just before the rectumempties into the rectum
parasites
A plant or animal which lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains an advantage. It is not uncommon for a parasite to be present in foods that are consumed, and they are also communicable via person-to-person contact.
bile ducts
-merge until you have a right and left hepatic duct-merge to form a common hepatic duct leaving liver-merges with cystic duct from gallbladder (form common bile duct)-merges with common pancreatic duct to form ampulla (opens into s.intestines, controlled by sphincter, bile backs up into gallbladder)
What is the interior lining of the alimentary canal called?
The mucosa.
Swallowing AKA Deglutition, involves over 22 muscles and is coordinated in the _____ _____.
Brain Stem:
(Medulla Oblongata and Pons)
What is the function of the small intestine?
Digestion and absorption
The upper jaw is innervated by the _______________.
maxillary nerve (V)
Gallbladder Ultrasound (gallbladder sonography)
The ultrasound sends sound waves into the abdomen near the gallbladder to produce an image of the bodies internal structures.
lines the stomach to protect from acidity. causes the pH of fluid around the border to be closer to neutral
gastric mucosal barrier.

bicarbonate rich mucus walls
epithelial cells with tight junctions
surface epithelial replaced every 3 days
What is the muscularis mucosa?
A layer of smooth muscle seperating mucosa from submucosa
what is the tongue composed of?
skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane
how do drugs like prilosec prevent acid reflux?
by blocking the proton pumps
2 Mechanisms that control the digestive system
1. Variety of mechanical and chemical stimuli in walls of tract (stimulate or inhibit digestion)2. Nerves along tract and endocrine glands (controls both intrinsic and extrinsic)
What four types of tissue is the submucosa made of?
Loose connective, blood, lymph vessels, and nerves.
What are the 3 regions of the tooth?
Crown (most visible portion), neck (located at gumline/gingiva) and root (embedded in bone)
Structures of the Digestive System - Parts of the Small Intestine - ileum
last and longest, extends from the jujunum to the cecum of the large intestine
What is the function of the uvula?
Keeps food from going up into the nasal cavity while swallowing.
Pathology of the Digestive System - Anorectal Disorders - Constipation
decrease in the frequency of BM's or passing dry, hard stools
What does the jejunum of the small intestine do?
It is responsible for much of the absorption of nutrients.
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