art hist final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Naiku Shrine
Time Transfixed
las meninas
China painting
Bacchic Mysteries. c.
Carolus Magnus
Charlemagne AKA
toilet of venus
Clarence Cook
art critic
Realism, Courbet "The Stonebreakers"
interior of San Vitale
Acropolis, Athens, 430 BCE
lunheon of boating party
Color Expressionism Emil Nolde "Masks"
Post Impressionism Cezanne "Mont Sainte-Victorie"
interior of Santa Costanza, Rome
literally, from the Greek "paleo"—old—and "lithos"—stone; the Old Stone Age
special room in a monastery
academic artists
frith, egg, cabanel, Bouguereau
Palace chapel of Charlemagne (792-805 CE)
a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment
corridors flanking a large central area; (fig 5.12, fig 5.13)
royal builder of 3rd dynasty (2630-2611 BCE); after death, revered as a god; first known artist
blind arcade located below the clerestory (in some gothic cathedrals)
Academic hierarchy
history painting, genere painting, portraits, landscapes, still life
Wears a bishop's vestments and mitre
a painted or carved screen placed above and behind an altar or communion table
a church that commemorates a deceased saint or holds the remains of a martyr; an early Christian martyrium is usually centrally planned
King that unifies much of northern india through conquest, very war-like, creates a bureaucratic government, exempts farmers from military service, had heavy taxes to enforce law.
the horizontal band of the composition of a register
Nave Arcade
arches that are only decorative. series of arches supported by columns either freestanding or attached to a wall to form a gallery
emphasizing on the pathos in a painting
Burial at Ornans
1849, Courbet, realism, boring composition and colors,death ordinary, no contrast in rythm
The florentine artist who combined training in the International style with a passion for perspective was
Paolo Ucello
Apollo of Veii
(510-500 BCE)
terrocatta, like greek kouros
group of artists whose work is based on the newest ideas and methods; CF. vanguard
Siddhartha Guatama
A prince who founded Buddhism, and gave up his power to become enlightened.
bilaterally symmetrical
symmetrical on either side of an axis
the process on incising a design in hard material often a metal plate (usually copper) also the print or impression made from such a plate
wood cut
relief printing where an image is carved on a wood block and paper is pressed against it
Stanford White
architecht part of the firm Mckim, mead and white. designs embodied the "American Rennaissance"
visual model foro Birth of venus
Aphrodite of Knidos
Arch of Titus, Rome (81 CE)
symbolic gateway commemorating military victories
engaged column
a column attached to a wall, rather than free standing
The space enclosed by a lintel and an arch over a doorway
Man with a Hoe
1860, Millet, poor man plowing maually, blunt and broad definition of his face, man of nature, heroism of the anonymous man
Catacomb of Commodilla, Rome
(late 4th century)
basic narrative (educational), and symbolic (iconic), saint peter, jesus is older and upper class, kingly
the contemplative life
a life removed from the secular world and dedicated to spiritual meidtation
Massachusetts Normal School of Art
art university in massachusetts, now Massart. they made the law where all elementary school kids had to learn to draw, so this was made too
Good Shepherd Mosaic, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (early 5th century CE)
stylistic roman, jesus is different, young adult with a halo, imperial robes
barrel vault
a vault having the form of a very deep arch.
The Great Stupa and
the West Gateway (Torana)
Sanchi, India.
Third century BCE.
Height of dome 54'.
Symbolizes the Nirvana
Commemorates a sacred place
Is a monumental burial mount
Is the center of a religious compound; Toranas
three principles advocated by Leon Battista Alberti in his De re aedificatoria were:
a. column and arch are incongruous
b. arch is a wall opening that should only be supported by a section of wall not by a column
c. no arcades
Why did Brunelleschi design the dome of Florence Cathedral with an ovigal rather than a semi-circular section?
it was more stable because it reduces outward thrust around dome's base
bell tower
the portuguese
Last supper
Realism, Manet "Olympia"
statuettes from eshnunna
transmitted light
thru window
creation of adam
Holds a stone
Impressionism, Degas "Ballet Rehearsal"
mentuemhet from karnak, egypt
building closest to us
conversion of st paul
Realism, Courbet "Bural at Ornans"
pigment mixed with water-soluble glutinous materials such as size and egg yolk
philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Kallikrates AND Iktinos, (Acropolis, Athens) 430 BCE
christus triumphans
does not show suffering
N.Y. Society of Decorative Arts
The technique of dramatic, selective illumination of form out of deep shadow.
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
destruction of religious images known as icons to prevent worship of the image rather than the diety
contrived by art rather than nature
relating to ancient Greece and Rome
Punished Son
1778, grueze, obedience to father
Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink.
a photographic process in which a positive image is made by shining light through a negative image onto a sheet of sensitized paper
an ancient marble or stone coffin, often decorated with artwork and inscriptions
plan and section of Santa Costanza, Rome
heraldic composition
composition that is symmetrical on either side of a central figure
Menkaure and his Queen
(from Giza) 2500 BCE
text used for readings at church services
an artwork on paper usually produced in multiple impressions
Jean-Baptise Grueze
1725-1805, The Punished Son 1778, Paternal Curse 1777
linear perspective
a mathematical system for representing three-dimensional objects and space on a two-dimensional surface by means of intersecting lines that are drawn vertically and horizontally and that radiate from one point
judging people on the basis of the social rank; snobbishness
pattern made if small pieces of stone, tile or glass, used on floors, walls or ceilings (5.25, 4.15)
the blocked outline of a shape; no details about any other aspect of appearance are given
reclaim holy land from force of islam. 4th crusade wound up in constantinople. organized by pope in rome. cultural and economic benefits
The part of the church that crosses the nave at a right angle.
women of algers
1834, delacroix, exotic women being owned and threatened
Grueby Pottery
foudned by william henry grueby in 1894, used girls to paint and glaze their pieces
atmospheric perspective
a technique of rendering depth or distance in painting by modifying the tone or hue and distinctness of objects perceived as receding from the picture plane, esp. by reducing distinctive local colors and contrasts of light and dark to a uniform light blui
vanishing point
the appearance of a point on the horizon at which parallel lines converge
hieratic scale
the greater height of those in a composition who are superior;
inferior forms are smaller
Sainte Foy
protected by the monks. stolen in the 9th century and moved to conques, france.
deals with loss or death tries to heal a sense of loss, can mourn in nature and heal, painting with tomb stone in arcadia
South Kensington Museum
museum in England founded 1852 housing the worlds largest collection of decorative arts and design. permanent collection of over 4.5million objects
orthodox church
or or having to do with the eastern church of Europe or any of various national churches conforming to its doctorines
Past and Present
1858, Egg, academic but tries to say something about everyday life, family falling apart symbols falling cards and apple
A secularization of traditionally sacred themes can be seen in the portraits of Florentine women as represented in the fresco The Birth of the Virgin by
showing living persons stealing the show from the Saints
The abbey church of st. denis
the human remains were largely destroyed in the french revolution
Façade and Interior views of the Roman Pantheon (118-125 CE)
temple of olypian gods, resembles roman temple, opening on top (oculus), center linking the earth to the heavens
It has been said that the work of Ghirlandaio summed up the state of Florentine painting at the end of the 15th century. List 3 of Ghirlandaio's achievements in painting:
Clear spatial representation statuesque, firmly constructed figures and rational order and logical relations among these figure and objects
what feature does the Palazzo Rucellai share with the Roman colosseum?
use of different capitals for each story
the swing
the musicians
Manual Training
Theodora and attendants
male pillar statues
Autumn Rhythm #30
self portrait rembrandt
Cubism Picasso "Ma Jolie"
madonna and child enthroned
royal Egyptian linen headdress
Virgin of the rocks
Hints on Household Taste
Color Expressionism Derain "The Dance"
plan of St. Peter's Basilica
the cobra of Egyptian kingship
Durham cathedral
voted britains favorite building
Cut w/ the Kitchen Knife
Impressionism, Manet "Bar at the Folies-Bergere"
an intaglio printmaking technique in which a metal plate is covered with an acid-resistant ground and worked with an etching needle to create an image.
Reconstruction of the Altar of Peace
A textural transfer technique; the process of making rubbings with graphite or crayon on paper laid over a textured surface
Standing Youth
(Kouros) 580 BCE (from Attica)
landscape w st john on patmos
covering a structural piece with veneers in a fancy pattern
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
a series of arches with their supporting columns or piers as in the nave arcades at Chartres (fig 6.27).
, technique first used by Surrealist painters and poets to express the creative force of the unconscious in art.
Babylon's most powerful king and most renowned in Mesopotamian history for his extensive law code and his conquests
cloisonne metal work
decorative metal technique employing cloisons
A recess usually semicircular in the wall of a building commonly found at the east end of the church.
The Railway Station
1862, Frith, academic painting, reunion of family, public not safe, domestic,
craze for porceliain with the blue glaze
of, pertaining to, or capable of walking:
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
annular vault
structural system composed of a series of vaults arranged in a curving or circular configuration (fig 4.46, 4.47)
Assyrian guardian in the form of a winged man-headed bull
a celtic monastery hit by a viking raid in 793, beginning about 2 centuries of such problems
..., A style of painting marked by openness of form, with shapes distinguished by variations of color rather than by outline or contour. In other words, the artist doesn't use lines to define the forms they are drawing, they used color.
plumbing, so all sorts of hardware and bath wares are very popular
a carved block of wood from which prints are made.
mandorla (halo)
oval or almond - shaped Halo that surrounds the body of a holy figure (5.22)
Re (or Ra)
the sun; supreme god=Amen=god of the sun
Oath of Horatti
1784, obedience to father obedience to state, neoclassical, gendered, pure geometery
Young knight in armor with a cross on his shield, slaying a dragon
conceptual vs. optical approach
the representation of all that is known about a subject, rather than a single, specific view
Ebonized wood
wood with a black stain painted on it. lacquered. very japanese style
In contrast to Gentile's conservatism, Masaccio's Tribute Money was revolutionary. List three of his innovations:
a. obscure narrative: Gospel of Matthew
b. light strikes figures from an outside source
c. presented in three episodes within fresco
Mosaic showing Lot and Abraham, Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome (432-440 CE)
renewed interest in roman art, representational, focus attention on a few principal figures, parting of lot and abraham
What was the major significance of Donatello's bronze statue of David?
first freestanding nude since ancient times
Plan of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii (early 2nd century BCE)
houses and artworks were preserved by eruption of mt. vesuvius in 79 ce
functional art
gives visual regularity
Peplos Kore, 530 BCE
muslim book of scripture.
Pope Leo X (medici)
Epigonos, Dying Gaul, 220 BCE
Visual Culture
specifically manufactured artifacts whos visual form communicate cultural messages to members of the society
Menkaure and his Queen, 2472 BCE
Muhammad's visions where he recieved wisdom form Gabriel. In opposition of ruling classes in Meccah.
Obligatory muslim pilgramage to mecca to circumambulate the kaaba during the month of pilgramage.
Horseshoe painted arch
Specifically arabic architecture; arch.
large, elaborate pin. "Celts" known for creating good metal work such as this.
A symbolic representation with out images of human figures; anti-image, lead Islamics to create floral, geometric designs.
The art of Constantinople (whose ancient name, before constantine renamed it after himself, was Byzantium) and the regions under its influence. Nucknamed the "New Rome."
treatment of stones; polished but unfaceted.
A painting technique using pigments mixed with hot wax as a medium.
of or relating to sacred rites
Gallic Chieftain and his Wife, 220 BCE
Focuses on eastern part of Byzantium and renames it "constantinople" after himself.
siddharta guatama
The founder of Buddism; Buddah himself.
The mosque wall oriented toward mecca indicated by the mihrab.
West work
The monumental, west facing entrance section of a Carolingian church. The exterior consists of multiple stories between two towers; the interior includes an entrance vestibule, a chapel, and a series of galleries overlooking the nave.
In buddist architecture; a bell shaped or pyramidal religous monument, made of piled earth or stone, and containing sacrid relics.
The banning or destruction of images, especially icons and religous art. Arose from differing beliefs about the power, meaning, function and purpose of imagery in religion.
High platform or pulpit in a mosque.
indus valley
Town planning, hygenic water, grid street planning, no large temples or sculpture.
Roman poet remembered for his elegiac verses on love (43 BC - AD 17)
Cultural Evolution
process by which social organizations, beliefs, and practices have changed over time to adapt to environmental and ecological changes
An ancient Indic language that is the language of Hinduism and the Vedas and is the classical literary language of India.
transverse arch
supporting arch which runs across the vault from side to side, dividing the bays. It usually projects down from the surface of the vault.
The point where the nave and the transcept intersect.
A way of life chosen by religous people; rule of saint Benedict. Focused on pverty, chastity, and obedience.
pilgrimage and monasticism
The two things that influenced Romanesque work:
4 noble truths
1) Life is suffering. 2) This suffering has a cause, which is ignorance. 3) This ignorance can be overcome and extinguished. 4) The way to overcome this ignorance is by the 8-fold path.
chartres red color
Secret ingredient of adding pure gold into the melting pot gave chartres a unique look.
axis mundi
A concept of an "axis of the world" which marks sacred sites and denotes a link between the human and celestial realms.
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