The Female Reproductive System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
episi/o, vulv/o
combining form

Bartholin glands
pelvic inflammatory disease
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
metr-, -metra
combining form

Cephalic delivery
head first
entrance to the vagina
bad, painful, diffcult
ex. dys/men/o/rrhea - painful discharge during menses or menstruation
cervic/ocombining form: cervic/itis
the process of miscarrying
removal of the breast
highly vascular structure that acts as a physical communication between the mother and embryo
Muscle layer of uterine wall
fallopian tubes, oviducts, uterine tubes
ex. hem/o/salpinx - blood in the oviducts
Pear-sized and pear-shaped muscular organ that lies in the pelvic cavity, except during pregnancy when it enlarges and extends up into the abdominal cavity. Its functions are menstruation, pregnancy, and labor.
Simple columnar epithelium with occasional ciliated cells. Uterine glands traverse the layerStratum Functionalis: superficial layer that undergoes cyclical changes in uterine cycle. Highly vascularized with "spiral arteries". Stratum Basalis: thinner deep portion maintained during mensturation, location of stem cells and nourished by "straight arteries".
abnormally light or infrequent menstrual flow
Fertilization fuse
Nuclei fuse Chromosome number restored
What chromosomes number are the primary oocytes?
Tertiary follicles contain an _______________ filled with ___________ fluid.
antrum; follicular
mid-cycle cervical mucus
estrogen-stimulated, watery, promotes sperm motility, contains lysozyme to kill invading microbes, can extend into vagina as stringy units
If pregnancy occurs, the ________takes the role of the corpus luteum and secretes these hormones.
tube that extends inferiorly from cervix of uterus; lies anterior to rectum, posterior to urethra; "birth canal"; mucosa of stratified squamous epithelium for abrasion protection and underlying lamina propria; acidic pH due to beneficial resident bacteria
incision before vaginal delivery to widen the vaginal oriface to prevent tearing
condition of migration of portions of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity
FSH begins cycle
Ovum ripens in graafian follicle
Thick, muscular organ in the pelvis between the bladder and rectum.
This term applies to the external female genitalia
Colp/o is used more so with procedures.
vaginal muscularis
interlacing bundles of smooth muscle whose function once again is obvious
Primordial Follicle
The "resting stage" follicle lasting between 12-50 years.Found beneath the tunica albuginea and have a simple squamous layer of follicular cells.
Lobular carcinoma
cancer cells form in the glandssecretory alveoli and intralobular ductstends to be present in both breasts
Ovarian cortex
outer region of ovary; contains ovarian follicles
located in pelvic cavity anterior to rectum, superior to bladder; if never pregnant, about size/shape of inverted pear; usually anteverted, but can become retroverted in older women; regions are body, fundus, cervix
termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is viable
-spontaneous (miscarriage)
-therapeutic (abortion)
herpes simplex virus
virus that causes ulcer-like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa
Corpus luteum
-formed by portion of follicle that remains in ovary
-LH causes corpus luteum to secrete progesterone to stimulate growth of uterus
-if fertilization and implantation occur, corpus luteum continues to function throughout pregnancy
The proces of the sloughin-off of the superficial stratum functionalis of the endometrium
Fibroid Tumor
Benign fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle (also called myoma of the uterus or leiomyoma)
vascular lacunae
formed from the spiral arteries giving off numerous arterioles that supply a rich capillary bed
internal os
lumen of the cervical canal opening into the uterus
Follicles are arrested at what phase at birth (before puberty)?
Prophase I
What disease is described as a painful or difficult menses?
Placental abruption
condition in which placenta is in normal position, but becomes partly separated from uterine wall prior to birth; also produces vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; can interfere w/ fetal development
principle hormone regulating follicle growthstimulates growth/diff of granulosa/thecal cellsstimulates granulosa cell conversion of androgens to estrogens
LH during follicular phase
Mons pubis or
is the V-shaped area covered with hair
The pea shaped knot posterior to the fourchette.
Perineal body
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Replacement of hormones to treat symptoms associated with menopause (also called estrogen replacement therapy [ERT])
proliferative phase
days 6-15 of cycle, driven by estrogen that is produced by ovaries, torn endometrium is resurfaced and thickened by epithelial and stromal proliferation, uterine glands lengthen/coil, cells accumulate glycogen, and coiled arteries grow toward functionalis layer; antral follicle develops in ovary and ovulation occurs
When does all mitosis occur in female reproduction?
before birth
Labia minora
two hairless folds of skin enclosed by labia majora; enclose vestibule
what does each layer do?
1. Theca interna (vascular/secretory-- will produce androgens)
Lactiferous Ducts
The ducts that drain the lobes of the mammary gland and open onto the suface of the nipple
Sentinal Lymph Node Biopsy
An injection of blue dye and/or radioactive isotope is used to identify the sentinel lymph node(s), the first in the axillary chain and most likely to contain metastases of breast cancer. The nodes are removed and microscopically examined. If negative, no more nodes are removed.
What does the corpus albicans form from?
accumulations of intercellular material
levels begin to rise under influence of LH
ovulation depends on what?
Premature separation of placenta is ABRUPTIO PLACENTAE
Painful labor and delivery is DYSTOCIA
What are the cycle changes of the endometrium and what are the corresponding changes in the ovary?
Proliferative-- ovarian follicular stage (estrogen)Secretory-- corpus luteum activity (progesterone)Menstruation-- hormone reduction
decline in size, ultimately replaced by corpus albicans
what happens to CL w/o fertilization/implantation?
How many follicles do we have at puberty?
about 400,000 with primary oocytes
After ovulation, what happens to the follicle?
the ruptured follice is transformed to the corpus luteumafter 10 days without pregnancy, changes to corpus albicans, stops secreting progesterone, menses occurs
Why is the ampulla folded?
In order to slow the egg so that it can be fertilized
What does the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus do?
stimulates the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland
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