The French Revolution 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Middle Class
a tax
religious tax
Olympe de Gouges
king in Russia
What does czar mean?
Map—Napoleonic Europe
France controls continent.
coup d'état
stroke of state
restoring hereditary monarchies the the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated
government ruled by elected representatives
napoleon first got defeated in
Non-interference in economic matters, so that trade and industry should be freeform state and interference.
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
someone who makes conjectures without knowing the facts
restricting access to ideas and information
Germaine de Stael
prominent critic of Napoleon
Something that draws public attention and criticism.
Vendee uprising
French peasants were protesting against taxation and conscription
Second Estate
made up of the nobility
Extremists in the Legislative assembly that wanted to eliminate the king
de launey
man in charge of bastille
French for "without fine pants." Radical bourgoisie in the French Revolution.
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
Key Events of the Revolution in chronological order:
Abbe Sieyes
Launched famous pamphlet in which which the Third Estate was the most important, and the nobility was a caste.
who was involved in the continental systen
Five directors elected by the Council of Elders to act as the executive committee. The period of the revolution under this government (1795-1799) was an era of corruption and graft. It relied on the military to maintain it's power.
clergy, nobles, and bourgeoisie and peasants
three estates
The enlightenment
the enlightenment was a movement during the 1700s in which philosophers focused on 5 main ideas in order to improve in government and poloties these ideas were reason, nature, happiness and property.
July 14th 1789?
When they stormed the Bastille.
goals of Matternich
prevent future French aggression( surround french with strong countries
restor balance of power
royal families to the thrones
Horatio Nelson
British naval officer, leads the British at Trafalgar, dies
local government of Paris who put pressure on the National Convention
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
an enlightment thinker who believed in the separation of powers
Army officers and nobility who weren't happy with the revolution that fled france
great fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
scorched-earth policy
To avoid battles the Russians burned crops and villages as they retreated leavinf the French hungry and cold
Third Estate, People who were not part of the nobility or the church
"Gracchus" Babeuf
Created the more extreme Conspiracy of Equals.
add a territory onto an existing state or country
The palace where king louis xvi and Marie antoinette were wed
to destroy people against revoltion
Committee of Public Safety
Continental System
to Stop trade between Great Britain and other European countries, by Napolean
Demise of Napoleon
~looked to attack Russia in 1812
~600,00 French Troops marched east to Moscow
~Tsar Alexander I ordered a scorched earth policy
~Napoleon was unprepared and looked to retreat
-Russian army attacked the French
-Russian winter claimed the lives of many
-Starvation and lack of water led to loss of life
-roughly 20,000 of French troop survived
Austria was a place near paris that France declared war on.
the 3 colors on the flag of France
The French people vote if they want Napoleon to become emperor (they vote yes)
The term for the delegates of each social class at the Estates General. The Third Estate was pushing for an increase from 300 to 600 Deputies, and voting by head.
a major social class or order of persons regarded collectively as part of the body politic of the country and formerly possessing distinct political rights
Marie Antoinette
- "Madame Deficit"
- Member of the Royal Family of Austria thus making her unpopular because Austria was France's enemy.
- Married Louis XVI.
- Spent a lot of money on gowns, jewels, gifts, and gambling.
Estates General
assembly of the estates of all France
nobles who had fled France during the peasant uprisings. They were on the far right and wanted to re-establish the Old Regime
Citizen Capet
Louis convicted in front of national convention of treason, voted guilty. Stripped of all titles and honorifics by the egalitarian, republican government, Citizen Louis Capet was guillotined in front of a cheering crowd
who was involved in the creation of the national convention
legislative assembly
Women's March on Versailles
Six thousand women marched to Versailles where the king and queen were living to demand bread and that the royal family should return to Paris
On July August 4th 1789 peasants attacked the estates of their land owners what was this called
The great fear
Women's march to Versailles
angered over rising prise of bread
God built the universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
Tennis Court Oath
- The National Assembly found their meeting hall closed for "repairs" so they moved to an indoor tennis court
- They swore the Oath of the Tennis Court in which the agreed not to disband until they wrote a nes constitution for France.
Charlotte Corday
Killed Marat in bath tub because she thought that killing him would stop the violence.
jean -Jacques rousseau
a french philosopher who believed that people are naturally good,but society corrupts them through environment,education and laws.
Marquis de Lafayette
a french noble who fought in the American Revolution and also headed the National Guard
King Louis 16th
While most of France is broke and starving, the royal family is seen living a luxurious life
declaration of pillnitz
A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution
July 14th, 1789
This is the date that represents the symbolic start of the French Revolution; Parisians stormed the Bastille
Girodins and the Mountain
the two factions (dissenting groups of the fate of the king). members of the Jacobin club. a network of policital groups.
The Women's March
On October 5th after marching to the Hotel de ville and city hall crowds of Parisian women numbering in the thousands set off for Versailles to confront the King and the National assembly.
Bread March, October 1789
..., March by Parisian women to Versailles to demand bread for their children from the king. Brought the king back to Paris as a prisoner.
Night session of August 4th
Nobles in the National Assembly voted to end their privileges but in reality had already lost them
Queen Marie Antoinette
She was the queen during the time of the revolution.
Balance of Power
this is the idea of all nations have equal strength so none others can dominate others
what were the sans-culottes and what were factions
the sans-culottes were the working class or those without fancy pants. Factions were political parties of the french revolution.
Active vs. Passive Citizenship
active were the ones who pay the tax and hold office and passive were the ones with legal equality. Goes against the terms in Declaration of Rights of Man.
Committee of Public Safty made some reforms
no slavery, set prices for nesisities, dechristanization-no saint and new calander
The Storming of The Bastille
That was when a mob of french peasants made a mob and protested against a lack of food from poor harvests, took the law in t their hands.
why was the legislative assembly important
if it was not created, then some of the important laws that were made would not have been made, which would have been important becausethe Revolution could have taken a different path from there
What happened as a result of the Peninsular War
Nepoleon removed the Spanish King and put his brother Joseph on the throne
Why was the Peninsular War in Spain a mistake?
The Peninsular War in Spain was a mistake because Napoleon disposed of the reigning Spanish monarch, and installed a puppet government. This outraged the people. In addition, Napoleon undermined the Spanish Catholic church, and Spain felt threatened from this as the Spanish were devout Catholics. As a result of these actions from Napoleon, Spain and France had a Peninsular War, and Napoleon lost about 300,000 men. Napoleon dealt with Guerrilla warfare, and struggled greatly with this. Nationalism, and loyalty in Spain was becoming a powerful weapon against Napoleon. People now felt abused by France as a foreign conquer.
Jacobins Leader
Abbe Sieyes-Third Estate
à partir de
3rd estate
Everyone else
July 14, 1789
Bastille Day
to convene/ send for
Governing body of france.
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
doesnt hold extreme political views
Constitutional monarchy
France ends in a...
Third Estate
Commoners, Overwhelming majority of society, included peasantry and growing Bourgeoisie. Their discontent was a powerful force during the French Revolution.
Consulate 1799-1804
Napoleon's executive body + dates
Leader of Jacobins, obsessed with purifying politics
Burke's "Reflections on the French Revolution" published
split- left wing= radical change; middle=moderate (little change); right wing= no change supported the Monarchy
group of people
Galileo Galilei
Italian Scientist-
Father of science.
• Made observations
that proved the
Copernican view of
the universe.
(Moon, planets,
stars, sunspots)
Agreement between Pope and Napoleon: Napoleon recognized Catholocism as the religion of the majority of France, Pope does not ask for any land back seized during the Revolution
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Jean-Paul Marat
Radical leader, used scientific research to support his case to oust the monarchy. He wrote fiery editorials where he called for many executions.
Maximilien Robespierre
Jacobin leader of Convention during the Terror. Lawyer, educated on scholarship. Controversial figure: bloodthirsty, fanatical dictator and demagogue OR idealist, visionary, and ardent patriot? Had been representative of the Third Estate during the Constituent Assembly. Had argued for universal suffrage and against capital punishment. Pro democracy and against the war. Became montagnard(one of the Mountain) in Convention. By 1793-4 determined to bring about a democratic republic of good citizens and honest men. Referred to as the "Incorruptible" - concerned with promoting "Virtu".
Fees charged to peasnts by large landowners for various services
83 departments
State-like divisions made by national assembly
Royal palaces that the royal family stayed at, the masses stormed them and imprisoned the royal family
Which estate does the king support?
first estate
Estates- General
Legistive assembly--- assembly of the estates of all France--
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
scoreched-earth policy
burning grain feilds and killing livestock to leave nothing for enemys
government by the wealthy, for the benefit of the wealthy
an overthrow of the government and social system of a country, usually by force
100 days
the aproximately 100 days that Napoleon came back in power after being exiled in Elba
storming of the bastille part of
old regime
Committee of Public Safety
dominated by Maximilien Robespierre.introduced controlled economy to produce arms for war effort and rationing( with bread) was waging war against the enemies responding to the threat of counter-revolutionaary activity
The 'draft' of the French Revolution, forced to go to war.
Relics of Feudalism
Monetary obligations of peasants to noble landlords that survived into the 18th century
Legislative Assembly
This was the legislative branch of government that was elected in to power and voted to start a war with Austria; it was forced to step down from power
Grand Empire
built by Napoleon and composed of three parts: an ever-expanding France, a number of dependent satellite kingdoms, and the largely independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia
Joseph Sieyes
Wrote "What is the Third Estate?" Proponent of a single-body voting system.
la Noblesse
les nobles, ne payaient pas les impots
These were even more extreme than the sans-culottes . They were leftist, extremists in Paris and the provinces who declared that parliamentary methods were useless. Included women. Worked thro-out the whole country. Formed revolutionary armies scouring countryside for food, denouncing suspects and preaching revolution.
Nastile Prison
The specific building in Paris that was the focus of French hatred for the King
British Prime Minister. Not keen to get involved in war with revolutionary France. Resisted war cries of Edmund Burke. Son of Earl of Chatham. PM since 1784. Founder of the new Tory party. Had tried and failed to reform parliament and now concentrated on policy of orderly finance and systematic economic development. (Similarly, on continent, Catherine and Leopold II not interested in getting imbroiled in war with revolutionary France.)
Reign of Terror
- Reign of Terror (Robespierre)
o Chief task was to protect the revolution from it's enemies
o "Enemies" tried in the morning and guillotined at night
o Justified this terror suggesting that it enabled citizens to remain true to the ideals of the Revolution
o Saw connection between virtue and terror
o "Enemies" were fellow radicals that challenged his leadership
o Many of those who had led the Revolution received death sentences (less radical)
- The end was essentially some of the members of the National Convention turned on him and demanded his arrest and execution so he went to the guillotine
April, 1793
Power centered in the committee of Public Safety and the Committee of Security
The Paris Commune
Paris government of sans-cullottes who wanted to kill the king
An individual qualified to vote in an election.
France in 1789
• Large population (maybe 26 million—3 times Britain's pop.
• Mainly agricultural
• 80-85% were peasants
• Paris had over 600,000; no other city more than 100,000
a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment
Lazare Carnot
A French soldier appointed by the Committee of Public Safety to help reorganize the failing war effort against Austria and Prussia. Carnot did so very effectively and made enough of a name for himself to earn a seat as one of the first members of the Directory. Although he was removed from this position during the overthrow of September 4, 1797, he went on to hold various posts in future governments.
may 1787
Louis XVI walled meeting to estates; general plan to tax first and second estate
Legislative Assembly 1791-1792
Replaced the National Assembly, and was split into three groups: the right, the left, and the conservatives.
National Convention
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
As a result of the French Revolution, King Louis XVI wasa. restoredb. electedc. beheadedd. exiled
General Maximum
Ceiling for prices and wages, set by the Co. of P.S. during the Terror to help check inflation during the crisis. Didn't work too well. Co. believed in free market economy and lacked technical and administrative machinery to enforce controls.
Just Price
weekly wage can afford bread for your family
Louis XVI
ruled as King of France from 1774 until 1791. Spent a lot of money and kept france in debt for years
Republic of Virtue
The Committee of Public Safety said that once the war and domestic crisis were over, the true "Republic of Virtue" would follow, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen would be fully realized; along with the Terror, the Committee of Public Safety created a new order called by Robespierre the Republic of Virtue--a democratic republic composed of good citizens; "citizen" and "citizeness" replaced "mister" and "madame", women wore clothing inspired by the grat republic of ancient Rome; by 1793 the Committee was sending agents to all parts of France to implement laws; slavery was abolished in France's colonies; established price limits on necessity goods but failed since the gov't lacked the machinery to enforce them; women remained actively involved in the revolution; in 1793 two women founded the Society for Revolutionary Republican Women--a Parisian group composed of working class women that stood ready to defend the French Republic; to reflect its belief in reason the National Convention pursued dechristianization--"saint" was removed from street names, churches were pillaged and closed by revolutionary armies, and priests were encouraged to marry; in Paris the Cathedral of Notre Dame was designated a "temple of reason" in 1793 with a public ceremony; adoption of a new calendar, years not numbered from the birth of Christ but from 1792 (1st day of French Republic), eliminated Sundays and church holidays; but dechristianization failed to work because France was overwhelmingly Catholic
Coup d'Etat of 1799
Napoleon conspired with Abbey Sieyès and others to overthrow the Directory
middle class
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
Napoleon Bonapart
A French Ruler wanted to create an Empire in North America
Jean Paul Marat
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution. Published his newspaper called the Friend of The People.
alsace and lorraine
what area in eastern france was frequently fought over
Battle of Borodino
the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic era, fought in Borodino outside of Moscow; both sides had terrible losses, but the Russian army was not defeated; Napoleon gained nothing substantial and when Moscow was burned, the French forces were left completely cut off. Napoleon regarded this battle as a loss.
Peninsular War
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Olympe de Gouges (d. 1793)
wrote a document called the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, addressed to the Queen
What "external" enemies did the Convention have to fight? What "internal" enemies?
Internal: nobles, elites, priests External: Prussia, Austria, England
king louis XVIII
the king who assumed the throne once napoleon was exciled, unpopular among subjects, especially peasants
Marie- Antoinette?
the last and one of the most hated queens of France
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
4 countries of the quadruple alliance
Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia (BARP)
What is the third estate?
Pamphlet written by Abbe Sieyes in January 1789. It declared the nobility to be a useless caste that should be abolished. Only the Third Estate was necessary and was identical with the nation - should therefore be sovereign. Through these writings of Sieyes the ideas of Rousseau 's Social Contract entered the revolution. They also added to the fear between the classes even before the meeting of the Estates General.
March to Versailles
on October 5th and 6th, a large crowd of women marched to Versailles and forced the royal family back to Paris; the royals were imprisoned in the Tuileries Palace
3 principles guided the congress
Countries that had suffered the most had to be repaid-compensations
Balance of power restored
Rule of Legitimacy
The Old Regime in France
• The First Estate: Clergy (1/2 of 1%)
• The Second Estate: Nobility (1.5%)
• The Third Estate: Everyone else (98%)
• Above all of them: the king
Great fear of 1789/ la grande peur
After Bastille the situation in rural France went from bad to worse. There was a "fear"/rumour that bands of "brigands" sponsored by the nobility/king were coming - led to panic in August. Angry/fearful peasants stormed country homes of the nobility/manorial symbols. There was a general agrarian insurrection as peasants destroyed manorial records and burned property of propertied nobility. In some instances members of the nobility or their staff were killed. Led to many leaving not just the countryside but also the country.
declaration of the rights of man and citizen
assertion of basic rights that reflected the goals of the french revolution and the ideas of the enlightenment
How did the following contribute to the French Revolution: 2. Tennis Court Oath
- Three days later after voting for the establishment of the National Assembly, Third Estate members found out they were locked out of their meeting room.
- They broke down the door to an indoor tennis court and pledged to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution.
= Pledge became known as the Tennis Court Oath
- Finally, king gave in and ordered the three estates to meet together.
- Soon after, nobles and members of the clergy who favored reform joined the Third Estate delegates.
2nd Estate
to disguise
to simulate
to recreate
forcible closing of ports
Jacobin Club
"pro-revolutionary revolt group"
Years Louis XV reigned.
Influential German military state, which declared war on France during the revolution.
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary
wrote "Common Sense"
Scientific Method
Observe, Hypothesis, Experiment, Analysis, More Experiment
Jeunesse Doree
"Gilded Youth"' Counter-Revolutionary Force; Dressed Lavishly in Favor of Former Absolutism Government; Uprising of 13 Vendemiaire IV
-writes daily in Paris Newspaper
-true revolutionary(loves violence and blood)
-wants revolution to be as violent as it can
Voltaire term, fuels secularism, questions Christianity, advocates freedom of religion and atheism, puts emphasis on morality rather than religion
What is a faction?
political party
the science or philosophy of law
Three Estates
First: Clergy. Second: Nobility. Third: Commoners (97% of pop.)
Battle Napoleon fights against the British, and loses
tandis que
at the same time as
June 1791
Royal family arrested in Varenne
something that stands for something else
Faction of the Jacobins who represented the radicals in Paris
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
First Estate
priests, clergy
didn't have to pay taxes
Gallican Church
roman cahtolic church in france, headed by the monarch, not by the pope
How did Napolean influence U.S. History?
Louisana Purchase
when states states became more solid countries, the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals
revolt in a conservative region in western france
didnt want to be drafted for the war which had escalated to include britian and the united provinces and there had been many defeats
French Constitution
created October 1791; established a constitutional monarchy (Legislative Assembly, which rules alongside the king)
Governor de Launay
first casualty at the Bastille
a system in which the emporers/kings granted land to nobles to exchang for their loyalty
Conpsiracy of Equals
A 1796 attempted Robespierrian revolution that was led by the socialist Babeuf. Napoleon suppressed the revolution and proved himself to the Directory.
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices and an end to food shortages.
August 4th Decrees
nat'l assembly appeases peasants, abolition of feudalism (serf/lord), they can shoot pigeons on their land, ends church tithe
Tyrannical leader of the Reign of Terror
St. Helena
island to which Napoleon was exiled after his final defeat
a member of the European royal family that ruled France
Marie Antionette
although she was compassionate to the poor, her acts went unnoticed because her lifestyle overshadowed them
Second Coalition
in 1799, the two remaining members were Austria and Great Britain, which had been formed against France in 1798. when these overtures were rejected, French armies led by Napoleon decisively defeated the Austrians.
The Great Terror
Last Phase, atmosphere of paranoya which led to a significant increase in executions
the practice of holding more that one church office or benefice at the same time
Grievances of Guilds
Winter-Spring of 1789: Privileges of the nobility, reforms of the state, NOBODY calls for the abolition of the monarchy or a total end to orders --> people expect reform, still a sense that the king might be able to do something about it
sans culottes
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.
old regime
social and political system of france in the 1770s
Hundred Days
The Waterloo defeat ended (1815) and it was Napoleans last bit of power. Then he died in 1821
First Coalition
The coalition of European powers that lasted from 1792-97. France fought directly against Prussia and Austria while Britain promoted rebellions in France. During this period, France established the Committee of Public Safety and the levée en masse.
Sir Isaac Newton
Discovered gravity, all objects are universally equally- natural laws. If all objects are equal, why shouldn't humans be too?
louis xiv and colbert
who established merchantiilism in france?
Rarely called meetings of the three social classes was called the __________.
Estates general
guerilla warfare
type of fighting in which soldiers use swift hit-and-run attacks against the enemy
The Directory
composed of 5 men, were all moderates not revolutionary idealists, despite corruption gave the troubled country a period of order
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Coup d'etat
sudden seizure of political power in a nation
Russian Campaign
Napoleon tried to add Russia to his empire; had a huge army and moved into Russia in September. Russians used the scorched earth policy; Russia retreated and lured them deeper in and burnt everything in their path
Political Napoleon?
He set up a consulate(1st consul of France). He became a consul for life and the Emperor of France. He put the crown on his own head.
Bourbon Kings
What lineage ruled the Old Regime in the 17th and 18th centuries?
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Peninsular Wars
A series of war between France and Spain, Britain, and Portugal over control of the Iberian Peninsula. In 1814, France's weakened army was finally defeated by the Sixth Coalition. The war is notable for the first large-scale example of guerrilla warfare.
brumaire coup
-napoleon loses fom battle of nile & returns to Franc e(Frenhc ppl don't know Napoleon lost cuz Napoleon is real good at manipulating the media
-when he retuns, he participates in coup > becomes French dictator
Maximilian Robespierre
One of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution, his supporters knew him as the "Incorruptible" because of his austere moral devotion to revolutionary political change. He was an influential member to the COPS.
why do the peasants attack state houses?
burn tax laws
who wrote the declaration of the rights of man
the national assembly
In 1791 the Assembly passed this law banning compagnennages or labor unions because of wave of strikes. Also abolished guilds and all trades were henceforth to have free entry. The provisions of this law stayed part of French law for 75 years.
Concert of Europe
An alliance to maintain the balance of power was the...
law of the maximum
fixing maximum grain prices to stop inflation
against laissez-faire
alienates business people
Louis XIV
He was known as the Sun King. He thought was the centre of the life and culture in France. The source of all of the light in the nation. He built a grand palace in Versailles and forced nobles to live there. The nobles could not do anything without Louis permission. Also he loved ballet.
Battle of Waterloo
A battle fought in Belgium on Sunday 18 June 1815, it was a decisive battle and Napoleon Bonaparte's last. This marked the end of the period known as the Hundred Days,
Apres moi, la deluge.
"After me comes the flood." Said by Louis XV, meaning that the flood of problems he created would not fully come to realization until after he had died and a new king came to power.
Review the battle of Waterloo: participants, timing of battle, reasons Napoleon lost (both mistakes and factors beyond his control) consequences.
Napoleon and Grouchy, Blucher, Ney British Army, French Army, Prussian Army
King Louis XVI
King of France from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution. He was executed by guillotine. He and M.A. did not have a child, and he was made fun of for that.King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
why did the tennis court oath happen
third estate locked out, disrespected
The immediate cause of the outbreak of revolution in 1789 was:
a. grinding poverty among all classes of society
b. government oppression
c. the ideas of the philosophes
d. the insensitivity of Marie Antoinette
e. the government's financial crisis
E. the government's financial crisis
storming of the bastille
targeted b/c it was an armory and the revolutionaries need weapons
-paris mob killed governor and chief minister of the prison
-1st example mob violence lead by Paris common people for the revolution
-precursor to uprisings of sans-culottes
Old Regime /estate System
The way the king and queen had france and that a few only had rights
What were at least 3 ways in which the Revolution sought to weaken the power of the Catholic Church?
De-Chrisitanization, cutting off resources, general upheaval and killings
how did Washington's maintaining neutrality turn our for US?
FRance & GReat Brit at war & each wanted to prevent other from getting american products so pirates started attacking our merchant ships
Why was the loyalty of soldiers to Napoleon especially important after his first exile? Who had been put in power after his exile on Elba?
They were loyal because he actually paid them and Louis XVIII didnt
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
A document which was similar to the American Declaration of Independence; it preserved French citizens' natural rights.
What was Louis XVI's reaction to the formation of the National Assembly?
he started to amass military forces in Paris
French classes
confusion, free-for-all
Napoleon's tomb
Les Invalides
lacking power or ability
1805 invaded _____
great britian
those who support more change
schools for devolping future government workers
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
1500s-1800s; Applied ideas of the scientific revolution to the human experience, society, and government; reason
national conventions
lawyers, professionals, and property owners, its major step was to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic
one person has all the power
flight to Varennes
Louis' attempted escape from Paris
Thermidorian Reaction
People believed revolution had gone too far. Robspierre was executed, Moderates released from prison, Jacobins and san culotte disbanded, order restored.
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
Logical Thought
Scientific thought applied to the people, because like science, people were governed by laws.
13. Rise of Napoleon
-filled power vacuum
-unification of Italy, Germany, and France
Absolute Monarchy
The king's complete power to govern
a member of the jacobin poliical party
Deficit Spending
spending more than take in; irresponsible spending.
Pennisular War
Napoleon lost 300,000 men. This weakened the french empire
A contest between France and the allied powers of Spain.The United Kingdom. and Portugal for control of the Iberian Pennisula
The French Revolution was triggered by a financial crisis created in large measure by the costs of...a. the American Revolutionb. the Napoleonic Warsc. the English Civil War
Influence of the Enlightenment
Cause of the French Revolution
In the Assembly as it was preparing for the new government there were some who wanted "veto" power for the king. The "patriots" wanted only delaying veto for the king and a one chamber assembly because they distrusted both the king and the nobility. There thus resulted a conflict of ideas between the conservatives and the "patriots". This would then be interrupted by the "bread march."
Edmund Burke
wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France
Admiral Horatio Nelson
Royal Navy tactician and leader, Nelson (1758-1805) was the greatest and most innovative naval leader of his time, and is best known for his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in which he lost his life. He repeatedly foundered Napoleon's plans for naval victory in Egypt, the New World, and invasion of England.
Guerrilla Warfare
When a smaller army uses mobile tactics to defeat a bigger, stronger army
General Estates
elected reps. Of the three medieval orders: clergy, nobles, and commoners. (last met in 1614-174 years previously) He did not say if they would vote by head or by order (block). Now each estate has an ax to grind.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon,
Goals- stop the spread of liberalism, balance power, repair European status quo, compensation for wars, restore royal families
regin of terror
the period between 1793-1794 in revilionary france when suppticted tratiors were beheaded in great numbers
Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821) He was asked by the Directory to execute a planned Coup d'etat. He then went on to become DICTATOR!
Code Napoleon
law code created by Napoleon; ensured gains in middle classes; religious toleration; basis of law codes for other countries
Age of Louis XV when he became monarch.
Ancien Regiem
"Old Regieme" - France before the Revolution
who was Danton?
radical. good speaker. lawyer. loved by commune. creates cause for national army
Age you needed to be the vote under the new directory
Brunswick Manifesto
issued by the Duke of Brunswick saying if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be invaded and destroyed
The Hundred Days
The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.
Marquis de Launay
governor of the Bastille. is beheaded and people run around the city with his head on a stake.
orders in council
edicts that closed european ports to foreign shipping unless they stopped first in a british port
rights of the accused
rights that protect people who might/are accused of a crime: innocent till proven guilty, speedy trial, right of a lawyer
Who opposed the idea of a monarchy and wanted sweeping changes
key points of Congress of Vienna?
-restore monarchies
-surround France with powerful countries
-balance power
coup detat
Napoleon ended the Directory in a coup d’état and substituted a strong dictatorship for a weak one.
klemens von metternick
austrian foreign minister that led the congress of vienna
napoleonic code
the civil code of France, enacted in 1804 and officially designated in 1807.
Non-juring/refractory clergy
Members of the RC clergy in France who would not accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Many became counterrevolutionaries. Many were executed/persucuted in the Reign of Terror.
Constitutional Convention of 1787
Delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation, but ultimately decided to write the Constitution as a replacement.
Brother of the king and leader of aristocracy who wanted to concede nothing. Emigrated with many others and prepared to agitate abroad and consult with foreign governments on how to overthrow the revolution.
coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire VIII
Napoleon overthrew the French Directory and replaced it with the French Consulate
Areas of Europe annexed to France
Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Germany
the rights of women
like declaration of rights of man, Olympe de Gouges--- followed official declaration in each of its 17 articles, but applied it explicitly to women
What became "victims" of the French Revolution that were the reasons the Revolution was carried out in the first place?
Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
In the new constitution of 1791 there was a distinction made between these. Illiterate citizens did not have the vote. Had civil rights but no political rights. Active citizens chose electors - 1 for every 100 active citizens. These then chose deputies for the National Assembly as well as local officials.
Who were the Jacobins enemies
peasants who were horrified by the king's execution, priests who would not accept government control and rival leader who ere stirring up rebellion in the provinces
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
written by the National Assembly; subjected church to state control; declared that the Catholic Church in France is a national church independent of the Pope, and that the Catholic clergy in France are paid government officials to be elected by the people; condemned by the Pope and most of the French clergy (nonjuring clergy)
How did American Revolution inspire Revolution?
Brought new values, principals, and ideas
Dr. Joseph Guillotine
Thought of an idea about a more, civil way of execution, with no pain.
Execution of Louis XVI
the king is put on trial and charged with treason, then executed followed shortly by his wife
Declaration of Rights of Man
Defends the rights and equality of all men, women are left out (ha)
The National Convention abolishes the monarchy and declares France a republic
Cause: The monarchy was disliked and treated the people unfairly
Effect: Abolished feudalism, created new order, all former members hated
Committee of Public Safety is formed, the Reign of Terror begins
Cause: Fear of people uprising against the new government
Effect: Protection and stability, people become terrified
Which period was known as the Great Fear?
The summer of 1789, when peasants around the French countryside revolted against their feudal landlords
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
a document that laid out the basic principle of the French Revolution- liberty, equality and fraternity
What were the 3 goals of the Congress of Vienna?
1) Make sure France didn't get too much power
2) Put down the revolution where ever.
3) Remove all traces of French Revolution.
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