The French Revolution vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
a
r
Clergy
The Church
Estates General
...
Estate
three social classes
Lycées
goverment-run public schools.
suffrage
the right to vote
In 1788 France is....
broke
The War with Austria
...
Voltaire
french philosopher, freedom of religion, influenced french and American revolutions
where was the peninsular war
spain
philosophy
stress on reason,optimism,and civil reform
Constitution of 1791
1791establishes constitutional monarchy (lasts 1791-92)
Legislative Assembly: has sovereign power as representative of people
King: weak executive power, only "suspensive veto;" Louis forced to sign
indirect election through electors (like American electoral college)
categories: 1) active citizens (right to vote) adult male property holders
(excludes Protestants, Jews, actors, servants)
2) passive citizens = granted civil rights (including Prot. & Jews)
Plebiscite
popular vote, French supported Napoleon
general,colonel
senior officers in the army
Robespierre
shrewd lawyer and politician; leader of the Committee of Public Safety
Skeptic
One who questions or raises doubts.
Rousseau
wrote Social Contract, people were corrupted by society
what army couldn't Napolean beat?
great britian
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Danton
minister of justice encouraged people to join the war efforts, face / voice of the revolution
liberalism
extended the principles of the american and french revolutions with their ideals of individual rights and the rule of law
Entrepreneurship
, is the process of starting,organizing,managing,and assuming the responsibility for a business
montesquieu
separation of powers, system of checks and balances
Nationalism
strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
guerilla
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his/her country
Bastille
Louis XVI's royal prison which was attacked on July 14, 1789.
Napoleon
Popular military leader who became the ruler of France
the overthrow of government that is violent or otherwise illegal.
Coup-de-tat
How many classes is French society divided into?
3
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Guillotine
machine that cuts off people heads, way louis xvi was executed
War with Austria
1792, legislative assembly declares war on Austria because austria and prussia threatened to use force to restore Louis XVI's power
Tension- Clergy
-resentment for having to pay tithes
-burg. and peasants, doubt b/c of plauge
-tension within clergy due to wealth inquity
conscriptoin
adopted by the committee of pubblic safety to meet the danger of invasion
Karl Marx
Wrote the communist manifesto
and came up with the idea of communism
reaction
the first few years after the Napoleonic Era
Tennis Court Oath
oath National Assembly took saying they would never seperate and meet wherever they could
concordate of 1801
agreement between napoleon and RCC, restore lands, allow RCC schools
Marie Antoinette
queen of france during revolution came to france to marry louis xvi to bring a balance of power to europe
law codes which replaced the many systems of law in France after the French Revolution.
Napoleonic Code
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Napoleonic Code
A unified set of laws spread throughout the Empire.
Third Estate
The largest social class in French society, made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers
Continental System/Blockade
the foreign policy of Napoleon against the British during the Napoleonic Wars. Complete embargo on all British trade with his empire, to try and cut off ties with them, basically he decided that trade tariffs/no trade was a good solution. ECONOMIC WARFARE because he lost in the Battle of Trafalgar-1805)
september 1794
1 million army (largest in euro) conquered austrian netherlands
Thermidorian Coup
The overthrow of Robespierre and his closest supporters, which marked the end of the Terror
Bourgeoisie
the social class between the lower and upper classes
Napoleonic Codes
uniform system of laws established for France
limited monarchy
government in which a constitution or a legislative body limits the monarch's power
napoleon bonaparte
a military lead who gained control through a couple d etat sudden over throw of a government
First estate
Made up of clergy. Scorned the ideas of Enlightenment. Makes up 2% with first estate
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
The slogan of the French Revolution, representing its three main ideas.
Start of French Revolution
raging mobs, and storming of bastille
Brienne
Wanted to place tax on the property of all three estates
The Directory—W5
This was the new plan of government drafted by the moderate leaders in the National Convention in 1795. This was the third since 1789, and the new constitution placed power firmly in the hands of the upper middle class and called for a two house legislature and an executive body of five men, known as the Directory. The five directors were moderate; not revolutionary idealists. Some of them freely enriched themselves at the public's expense. The Directory also found the right general to command France's armies. This supremely talented young man was named Napoleon Bonaparte.
Scorched Earth Policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land - this was accomplished by the Russians against Napoleon's army
July 17, 1789
July 17 King capitulates, goes to Paris to submit to nation, wearing the
TRICOLEUR: Flag = red & blue = city of Paris; white = royal flag
Universal Manhood Suffrage
The last act of the Legislative Assembly was to call for the election of the National Convention using Universal Manhood Suffrage, this was forced on them by Radicals in Paris.
Holy Alliance
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
meeting they tried to undo everything napoleon hand the revolution had accomplished
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments of the american constitution
Declaration of Phillnitz
declaration to help the King of France back to the position of Monarch
what is legitimacy
agreeing that as many as possible of the rulers who were dethroned when napoleon took over would come back and rule again
Reign of Terror
Period in France filled with blood and violence.
Francis Bacon
He was known for bringing up the idea of that knowledge is power she also simplified a plan procedure of investigation.
March of the Fishwives
Also called the women's march on Versailles. Troops were brought in and the demagogs played on the emotions of the women so they captured the king and brought him to Paris. The National Assembly followed.
council of elders
elected five directors to act as the executive committee, or Directory
meeting of the estates general
one representative from each estate got together and had a meeting about the major financial crisis
committee of public safety
a group given broad powers to resolve internal problems and foreign affairs
Promotion in Napoleon's bureacracy was
based on ability not birth nor rank
The French Revolution - Phases
1) Moderate, 2) Radical, 3) Reaction, 4) Napoleon
Castlereagh, metternich, alexander I, Frederick William III, Talleyrand
importand people of the congress of vienna
Declaration of the Rights of Man
all men are truly equal; sovereign belongs to nation
What was the committee of Public Safety?
12 Jacobins that provided leadership for France
why was the invasion of russia important
it allowed napoleon to make another mistake, which was important becasue it led ot his downfall
Repression of the Society of revolutionary Republican woman
in May 1793, Pauline Leon and Claire Lacombe founded the Society of revolutionary Republican woman, whose purpose was to fight internal enemies of the revolution. This society was originally welcomed by the Jacobins, but became increasingly radical and sought price controls and became generally combative.. They demanded the right to wear the revolutionary cockade that male citizens who wore on their hats. Jacobins began to use the language of Rousseau separating the spheres of men and women to justify exclusion of women from political life. Olympe de Gouge, author of the declaration of the rights of woman, with guillotines in November 1793. Women were also banned from the French army.
What did the Congress of Vienna do?
The congress of Vienna were a series of meetings in Vienna that were called to set up policies to achieve the goal of new European order- one of collective security and stability for the entire continent. They were looking to establish a long-lasting peace and stability on the continent after the defeat of Napoleon. The congress made weaker countries around France stronger, it had balance of powers so no European country could easily overthrow each other. It had legitimacy, agreeing that as many as possible rulers whom Napoleon had driven from their thrones should be restored to power. For the first time, the nations of the entire continent were cooperating to control political affairs.
What Declaration of Rights of Man and The Citizen will proclaim?
All men get rights but women get nothing.
H u N d R e D d A y S :)
* time frame i which napoleon ruled france again.
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