The French Revolution Vocabulary Words_1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
secular
nonreligious
bourgeoisie
upper-middle class
Estates General
French Parliament
se souvenir
to remember
Elba
Napoleon exiled to...
Third Estate
everyone else
politically obsolete
French Painter
J. Louis David
suffrage
the right to vote
Robespierre
Leader of the French revolution
Legislative Assembly
the legislature of France
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Trafalgar
naval British/England battle that defeated French.
French Revolution Slogan
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
what was the second estate?
nobility
legitimacy
the restoration of former ruling families
Assignats
Currency issued by the National Assembly during fall 1789; backed by the sale of Church lands
July 14, 1789
Storming of the Bastille
Sans-culottes
Parisian wage-earners and small shop keepers
coup d'etat
sudden seizure of politcal power
1795
republican constitution of ________, 2 legislatures, directory
Deficit
the amount by which expenditures exceed income
guilotine
machine to chop peoples heads off.
Lycee
a government-run public school in France
Louis XIV
built the Palace of Versailles
What was the commune?
group of radicals
younger brother of Louis XVI
louis XVIII
Continental system
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
Conservatism
the view that tradition and family values should be upheld, the goal- keep things the way they are
Georges Danton
a lawyer & sans-culottes who encourages overthrow of monarchy; member of Committee of Public Safety
Vendee rebellion
peasents in the vendee region rebelled
very bloody
Sans Culottes
biggest oppostion group. Wore pants. "without breeches"
- they don't wear breeches (breeches= symbol of upper class). Thought there should be no class distinction. drove the radical revolution- 1792-1794.
DECHRISTIANIZATION
Movement started by the Herbertists - throught traditional religion was counterrevolutionary so devised program to substitute with new cult. Included a new Revolutionary Calendar. Introduced "Cult of Reason"(1793) and climaxed with ceremony in Notre Dame with "Reason" being impersonated by an actress. Robespierre frowned on Cult of Reason and preferred Cult of Supreme Being.
winkelmann
discovered a comet, denied the right to continue work after the death of her husband and a position at the berlin academy because of her gender
Marie Antoinette
dutchess of austria, married king louis XVI
Thermidorian Reaction
Seizure of Robespierre and His Subsequent Execution; End to Reign of Terror
The Old Regime
Social Class Structure among France
Napoleon Bonaparte
an incredibly popular military leader who overthrew the weak Directory and created the Consulate made up of a 3 man governing board of Consuls with a new constitution in 1799; he took the title First Consul ("Consul for Life" based on Roman military government), became Emperor of the French in 1804, let the people vote b/c he knew that they would vote to support his becoming emperor since he brought in money, was a strong leader, and made French stronger, gained control of much of Europe in his Grand Empire (had influence or control of all of Europe but England), invaded Russia w/the failed Invasion, exiled and reexiled, during reign created the Napoleonic Code which was a code of laws that embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism
the directory
the last of the revolutionary government, it only had a few members (5), Napoleon was one of them, it was incredibly corrupt, and Napoleon managed to take over from the directory
jacques necker
talented swiss protestant baner who published an account of state budgt, compte rendu, which proved the waste, he was dismissed for tough economic polocies
concordant
a formal agreement - especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs
paris commune
attacked royal palace and legislative assembly
Jean-Paul Marat
This painting by Jacques Louis David depicts the death of this radical French journalist.
Battle of Austerlitz
An important battle when Napoloen defeated the Third Coalition and all the countries had to sign treaties
nationalism
sense of pride and devotion to one's nation
active citizens
males whose annual taxes equaled local wages paid for 3 days of labor, could vote
jacques hebert
radical social democrat who led the angry men, hibertists were his followers
Louis XVI
A foolish, ineffective leader who was the king of France during the time of the revolution. He pretty much spent his life in Versailles partying and was in major need of money since France had a incredible debt due to wars, his place, etc. The only people he could tax were the peasants who had nothing to give so he turned to the nobles hoping they would help him, but they refused.
Tennis Court Oath
Third Estate wanted radical reforms, King wouldn't let them into assembly hall, reconvened to tennis court, vowed not to leave until they got the changes they wanted.
Taille
An annual direct tax usually on land or property.
Napoleonic Code
A legal code that included many Enlightenment ideas, such as equality of citizens and religious toleration
Metternich
key leader at the congress of Vienna; he shaped the peace conditions; three goals at the congress
old regime
institutions were destroyed and a new order emerged based on individual rights
peasants
people who worked the land or served the nobles and had little or no say in government
The Enlightenment
Movement during the 1700's to improve in government and politics.
September Massacre
Paris mobs killed all nobles and priests accused of political crimes
romantic
someone who has an unrealistic view of life and expects "story-book endings"
lettre de cachet
enabled govt officials to imprison anyone without charges or trial
Relics of Feudalism
Aristocratic Privilages given to the 2nd and 3rd estate.
plebiscite
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
What decision led to Napolean's downfall?
-War with Russia.
Directory
The new government set up by the revolutionary leaders in France.
divorces josephine
napolean does this is 1810, marries marie louise. they have napolean II who dies at a young age
Declaration of Pilnitz
Austria and Prussia's monarchs pledged to aid monarchy, angered the French citizens, gave them a reason to provoke war in 2 countries
The Grand Army
Napoleon's army, the continuance of "a nation in arms" and totaled nearly a million soldiers—not all of which were Frenchmen.
peninsular war
a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
July 17, 1791
Crowds demand for overthrow of king and to be declared a republic. National Assembly opens fire and kills civilians (this radicalizes public opinion and causes greater distrust of the monarchy)
Maximillien Robespierre
The leader of the Jacobins who was responsible for the reign of terror. He is super paranoid.
10
The new work week had __ days in it.
the notables
a new social class consisting of the bourgeoisie and peasants
Reign of Terror
Government of terror, to have people scared into doing what's right.
emigres
the old regime, as in nobles, flee the country and are called ________
Portfolio
the role of the head of a government department
Constitution of 1791
This was the first constitution of France. The Declaration of Rights acted as the preamble for this constitution and this was the response to the Tennis Court Oath. This created a constitutional monarchy and all legislative power went to the Legislative Assembly although it only lasted one year.
Bastille
A prison that was the symbol of the Old Regime
Maximilien Robespierre
is one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. He largely dominated the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended with his arrest and execution in 1794.
law of suspects
Allows anyone who is merely suspected of challenging the republic or the revolution can be arrested without trial. If that do go to trial. they can be executed for the most minor of things.
maximillian robespierre
A Jacobin who led the Committee of Public Safety and wanted to kill any opposers to the revolution
Committee of Public Safety
had almost absolute power as it battled to save the revolution. Prepared France for all-out war. under leader Robespierre
Comittee of Public Safety
-12 members, eleceted each month by the Convention
-aided by Committee of General Security (police of revolution)
Constitution of the year III
a document that reflected the Themoridian determination to reject contitutional monarchy and democracy; provided for the Council of Elders and the Council of Five Hundred
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction,-communistic in nature.
Council of Elders
A council composed of men over forty who were either married or widowers.
Consitution of the Clergy
Mandated that clergy were to be elected by the people
Declaration of Pillnitz
A promise made under the pressure of the émigrés by Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia to protect and preserve the French royal family.
March on Versailles
angry mob of women marched to the palace of Versailles and demanded the royal family come back to Paris with them; angry about shortage of bread
Levee en Masse
a draft to the army to help the committee on public safety
Second Estate
Made up of rich nobles, only 2% of the population, owned 20% of land, didn't pay taxes
King Louis XVI
King of France from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution. He was executed by guillotine.
Storming of the Bastille
an event in French history when a rumor-fueled mob broke into the Bastille (a prison in Paris), overran and decapitate the guards
The first violent act of the French Revolution was the...
storming of the Bastille
Declaration on the Rights of Man and Citizen
Natural Rights: Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. The government exists to protect these rights. This was only applicable to men.
Night Session of August 4th
When the nobles voted on getting rid of their privelages such as hunting and not having to pay taxes
"What is the Third Estate?"
Written by Abbe Sieyes it claimed the Third Estate should have the power in France and stated the nobility should be abolished and it brought the ideas of Rousseau's Social Contract
What did the legislative assembly do
create laws and to approve or reject declarations of war
declaration of rights of men and citizen
inspired by the english bill of rights, listed basic liberties and rights of all
What did the Catholic Church loose when it became state controlled
It lost its lands and its political independence
What was the Directory? Why was their government unsuccessful?
Was a five person group, they failed because the people didnt want that type of government.
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