Art History 2 Flashcards

Art
Terms Definitions
Broadstreet
Estes
Meidum
...
Relativity
M.C. Escher
Merode Altarpiece
Stonehenge
UNKNOWN
2,550-1,600 B.B.
TRILITHONS
SALISBURY PLAIN, WILTSHIRE, ENGLAND
NEOLITHIC
The Kitchenmaid painting
1658
Arena Chapel
Giotto. 1305.
Stag at Starkey's
Villa Rotunda
Andrea Palladio
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Renaissance Architecture, 1296-1565Leon Battista Alberti
Sant'Andrea, Italy
Saturn Devouring His Children
(Francisco Goya
1819-1823)
Mausoleum
function of Taj Mahal?
titian, diana and actaeon
1556
Treason of Images
Magritte, 1929
fibula
decorative pin for clothing
Death of a Loyalist Solider
Capa
Vanitas
describes paintings (particularly 17th century Dutch still life) that include references to death
David Alfaro Siqueiros
"Portrait of the Bourgeoisie"
1939-40
Oath of the Horatii
David 1785
cloister
a rectangular open-air monastery courtyard with a covered arcade surrounding it
controposto
italian means "stand against". contropostal is the scientifically understood distribution of the weights and balances of the body corresponding or higher or lower hip and shoulder to the weight bearing leg or side. "kritios boy"
Pendentive
Construction device allowing the placement of a dome over a rectangular room
Tiffany
U.S. glassmaker and interior decorator. A leading exponent of art nouveau in the U.S., he established an interior decorating firm in New York City that produced stained glass, vases, lamps, and mosaic.
animal style
style of decoration featuring symmetrical design, interlaced organic and geometric shapes, and animal motifs
Sarcophagus with reclining couple, Ca. 600 BCE
Stucco
material of aggergate, binder, water. coating for walls and ceilings.
Sarcophagi
A stone coffin (usually bearing sculpture or inscriptions)- ch.6
Spring fresco, c. 1650 B.C.E., Athens,Minoan/Aegean Art
EXPRESSIONISM
Answer to impressionism: draws from within. Using subjective approach to form and color. Color is an expression of feelings. It doesn't have to be real colors. Important movement in 20th century.
pagoda
a multistoried Chinese tower, usually associated with a Buddhist temple, having a multiplicity of projected eaves
Villa Savoye
Le Corbusier, International Style Architecture, 1920-1975
Arcade
covered passageway composed of a series of arches supported by collums
facade
front of the building is arranged
representational art in which methods for depicting forms have been standardized and then repeated without reference to the real world model
stylized
fêtes-galantes
pursuits of adventure among rich aristocrats in France
Canon
A rule, for example, of proportion. The ancient Greeks considered beauty to be a matter of "correct" proportion and sought a canon of proportion, for the human figure and for buildings.
Dado
The lower part of a wall, differentiated in some way (by a molding or different coloring or paneling) from the upper section.
Renaissance
A cultural movement that spanned the 14th to the 17th century
Berlin Conference
-Bismarck worried about scramble for colonies, so he calls the Berlin Conference to peacefully divide Africa
-No one has any knowledge of ethnic things so this is very arbitrary
-*Height of Social Darwinism
concrete
refers to things which are real, particular, tangible; as opposed to abstract.
Hogarth- The Suicide of the Countess (part of marriage a la mode) (England Rococo Natural)
Equestrian
of or relating to or featuring horseback riding
naturalism
the style of painted or sculpted representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition.
Abott Suger (Soojay)
recorded building projects- St. Dennis- starts editions in 1135- starts new Narthex, created double ambulatory on east end- network of groined vaults Double Ambulatory- becomes more important-height and light western Façade renovations- tympanum, tri-part design.- embellished with exterior sculpture.
guilding
the process of covering with gold leaf
eshnunna statuettes
period: early dynastic
year: 3200 - 3000 BCE
origination: uruk, sumer (within the inanna temple complex)
material: alabaster
significance/description:
Vellum
Calfskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting
name, location, culture?
Forum Romanum and Imperial ForumsRomeRoman
Christo and Jeanne-Claude
Married couple who created environmental works of art. Ex: rapping of bridge in paris.
Load-bearing construction
A type of architecture that consists of "stacking and piling"stones or other building materials so that most of the weight of the building is on the bottom. The Egyptian Pyramids are a good example of this system of building.
Mary Magdalene, Donatello
c1455 (early). wood, late Donatello, expressive realism
Master Theodoric; paint and gold on panel; 1360-64
Saint Luke.
Oculus
the eye of the pantheon, opening at the top of the pantheon, sun shined on a different god throughout the day
SAINT VINCENT WITH THE PORTUGESE ROYAL FAMILY
NUNO GONCALVES
Industrial Revolution
the process of change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture
Paranoiac
Dali's method of looking at life like a paranoid person
Herculaneum
Destroyed by Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. along with Pompeii
DOLMEN
Several great stones set on
end with covering slab
tint
a hue that has been mixed with white
section
a part that is cut off or separated.
Panoramic views of the city of Siena and countryside were painted by
Ambrogio Lorenzetti
Mihrab
(Islam) a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca
What is Mycenaean art known for?
frescos, architecture (masonry), hammered gold repousse
Garden of Earthly Delights
HIERONYMUS BOSCH, 1505-1510, oil on wood, netherlands
Holy Roman Emperor
a title that was bestowed upon Charlemagne in 800.
Having the same forms on either side of a central axis.
bilateral symmetry
The Kaaba is covered by the _______, a black silk curtain embroidered with golden ________ text.
Kiswah; Koranic
Nude Descending a Staircase
1911, DUCHAMP. French but displayed at American show=AMERICAN DADISM. Scandalous, humorous attack on futuristic descriptions of nuity
Renovatio imperii Romani
Renewal of the center of art and education in the Roman Empire
Enter your front text here.
Third Class Carriage, Daumier, 1862. Realism: Bland colors, fleeting moment, lower class, shallow planes.
how to recognize roman architechture?
most roman buildings have arches for support and beauty
Code of Hammurabi
Had the attitude of an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth; first known ruler to have laws and consequences for them
what was the reason for including saints sebastian and anthony on the wings?
they are associated with disease and with miraculous curing
atlatl
spear
Assur
...
retable
altar pieces
St. Serapion
Sagrada Familia
Run, Don't Walk
Segal
The Apocalypse
Durer. 1497-1498
Harbor in Normandy
lady auxerre pd
orientalizing
The Duchess de Polignac
hiberno-saxon
Irish early medieval art
The Hay Wain
Constable, 1821
Wrapped Coast
Christo, Australia, 1969
bloodletting
intentional bleeding of someone
freud
discovered the subconscious mind...we are not always in charge
Acropolis, 500 BCE, Athens, Greece
Isaak Brodsky
"The People's Commissar for Defense, Marshal of the Soviet Union, K.E. Voroshilov, out skiing"
1937
Stylized
representation with intellectual or artistic ideal
Jean-Antoine Watteau (French): A Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717
*Rococo Art
stoas
a covered colonnade or portico
Allan McCollum, Untitled (Plaster Surrogates), 1982-83
Baroque
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
bernini
leading italian sculptor, architect, painter in Rome.
capitoline wolf
she-wolf. etruscan. 500BC bronze statue, nursing romulus and remus the founders of rome. psychic intensity. twins come later, 16th century
tympanum
central part of an arched doorway
Kushan, India
late 1st century-3rd Century CE
The Colosseum
Rome
Early Empire Period
70-80 CE
Concrete & Marble
Bare Willows and Distant Mountains,Ma Yuan,12th Century,ink on silk,Chinese Art
sociology
New scientific approach to studying society came to be called sociology. First started by AUGUSTE CONTE
cartoon
a full-size preliminary drawing from which a painting is made
Action Painting
Painting with vigorous physical activity; used "psychic automatism" (mid-20th century)
FETISH
Object believed to have
magical powers
transcept
seperate space placed perpendicular to nave aisle
picture
PARTING OF LOT AND ABRAHAMEarly ChristianSanta Maggiore, Romedenaturing: decreasing naturalism, more flat and patternedpantomime: like "mime" turning awayRELIGIOUS EDUCATIONintended to reach the masses, grainy, simplified but significant figures and movement
Romanticism subject matter
most often untamed nature
Sarcophagus
Latin, "consumer of flesh." A coffin, usually of stone.
biomorphic
Adjective used to describes forms that resemble or suggest shapes found in nature.
The raising of the cross
Peter paul rubens
genre paintings
paintings depicting scenes of everyday life
decumanus
The east-west in a Roman town, intersecting the cardo at right angle.
Frans Halls- Archers of Saint Hadrian (Dutch Baroque Holland)
Barbizon school
specialized in detailed pictures of forest and countryside without sentimentalism or romanticism
Mesolithic
The "middle" Stone Age, between the Paleolithic and Monolithic
Rococo
A style of art following the Baroque
arch
A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmit the downward pressure laterally.See also thrust.
What was the Code of Hammurabi inscribed on a _______________.
stele
Tesserae
Greek, "cubes." Tiny shaped stones or pieces of glass cut to the desired shape and size to form a mosaic
name, culture?
The Crucifixion from the Rabbula GospelsEarly Byzantine
Gauguin
French painter. He lived mainly in Tahiti from 1891, painting in a post-Impressionist style that was influenced by primitive art. Notable works: The Vision after the Sermon and Faa Iheihe.
Colonnade
A series of columns placed side by side to support a roof or a series of arches.
Pieta, Titian
c1570 (venetian). no lines, image is sketchy and impressionistic
the four horsemen of the apocalypse
albrecht durer 1498
Three manipulations of the arch
Barrel vault-simplest/groin vault (double barrel), Arcade-arches side by side, dome-arch spun 360 degrees
The Burial of Count Orgaz, El Greco, 1586 Santo Tome, Toledo, Spain,Later Renaissance Art
rotunda
the circular aread under a dome; also a domed round building
Augustus of Prima Porta ears
listens to his people
Pop Art
An art movement that used popular everyday images and objects
ICONOGRAPHY
The story or narrative
behind a work of art
unity
creating a sense of visual oneness in a work of art
chiaroscuro
the distribution of light and shade in a picture.
Saint Francis of Assisi-
Founder of the Franciscan order(a roman catholic order).
romans
first to cast glass and first to see art as decorative items. popularized the dome
what is severe style?
when the sculptures are early classical and and they have simple clothing and look very serious.
Pantheon (formally church of Ste. Genevieve)
Jaques-Germain Soufflot, 1800 (Paris)
double-shell dome
dome belt with an inner and outer shell
Subject matter
What you see/ type of art-Menkaure & Khamerernebty
The Church of San Vitale was built in the ____.
6th c.
Moralistic, sentiment and "natural" feelings
audience admired natural virtue and happiness
ROBERT FULTON IN 1807
ROBERT FULTON IN 1807 to send steamboat up the Hudson river arriving in Albany from manhattan in quick time.
4 characteristics of egyptian painting
men were painted darker, men wore skirt and women skintight dresses, torso frontal painted in a way to take up as much body mass
Celtic crosses were part of __-__ art
Celtic crosses were part of hiberno-saxon art
Executions of the Third of May 1808 (1814) Francisco Goya, Romanticism in Spain
-monolithic power is represented by the wall of soldiers with guns, we cannot see any of their faces.
-the spanish man is very illuminated creating high contrast
-we can see the spanish citizens faces, making their position accessible and emotional.
flou
hazy
Cubism
1908-1935
kitchen
thomas demand
Pergamon, Turkey
...
Terracotta Army
disottoinsu
from below upwards
Iconoclast
breakers of images
Pueblo Bonito,900-1230,Chaco Canyon,New Mexico,Anasazi Art
giornata
"a day's work"
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Hummingbird



100 BCE - 700 


Nazca 



Hand With Reflection
M.C. Escher
New Kingdom Egypt
1550-1075 BCE
Menkaure and Queen
Khamerernebty
Old Kingdom Period
Giza, Egypt (Lower)
2,250 BCE, Akad
Sargon I
Woman from Willendorf
Who: Hunter-Gatherers
stringcourses
a continuous projecting horizontal band set in the surface of a wall and usually molded.
The Horse Fair
Rosa Bonheur, 1851-1853
Apse
semi-circular half dome behind altar
triptych
A three-paneled painting, ivory plaque, or altarpiece
guache
opaque pigments suspended in water
verism
artistic preference of contemporary everyday subject matter instead of the heroic or legendary in art and literature; a form of realism
Castagno
The Last Supper in Florence
Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain (England), ca. 2000 BC
 cromlech
...
picturesque
having pleasing or interesting qualities; strikingly effective in appearance:
Edo Period: Katsushika Hokusai "36 Views of Mt. Fuji:Wave at Kanagawa" 1830
Last Judgement Tympanum
4 gospels symbolic "ideational"
Bingham- Fur Traders Descending the Missouri (American Landscape Painting- The Hudson River School)
La Venta
Pre-Columbian archaeological site of Olmec civilization. It's a swampy tropical area with lot of oil and rubber deposits. Earliest rubber ball were used in ball games here. There is an active volcano nearby, which is emulated by the Great Pyramid.Civic and ceremonial center, not residential. It is one of the four cities comprising the "heartland" of the Olmecs
House of the Vetti, Roman Art
Francesco Borromini: Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Rome),
*Italian Baroque Architecture
readymade
describes art created from the undisguised, but often modified, use of objects that are not normally considered art, often because they already have a non-art function
Aphrodite of Melos
150 - 125 BCE
subjectivity
artistic impulse comes from the subject—that is, from the artist.
rhyton
container from which fluids were intended to be drunk
Isenheim Altarpiece
Matthias Grünewald
Northern High Renaissance
The French Ambassadors
Hans Holbein the Younger
Northern High Renaissance
menhir
an upright monumental stone standing either alone or with others, as in an alignment, found chiefly in Cornwall and Brittany.
Albrect Durer "Knight, Death and the Devil" 1513
Louvre
originally a royal palace of grandeur and elegance, now a museum
Line
Continuous mark made on some surface by a moving point
Squinches
an architectural device used as a transition from a square to a polygonal or circular base for a dome. it may be composed of lintels,corbels, or arches.
clerestory
The fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, the windows that form the nave's uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults.
Saint Chapelle
King's personal church
Place for the King's relics
Buttresses
Rose window
Quadripartite vaulting
Iron rods added for strength
Tons of stained glass
Treasure box
Fleur de lis pattern on ceiling
Color all over
Pictograph
is a writing using simplified pictures for words
impasto
technique in which the artist applies thick layers of oil paint
Female Head
Female Head, Iraq, Summerian, marble, 3200-3000 BC
ziggurat
a pyramid like building made of several stories that indent as the building gets taller; thus ziggurats have terraces at each level.
Colonade
A row of columns, supporting a straight lintel (porch) or an arcade (series of arches.)
lithography
a printmaking method in which the image to be printed is drawn on a limestone, zinc, or aluminum surface with a special greasy crayon
lancet window
in Gothic architecture, tall narrow window ending in pointed arch
Viking Eggeling
Symphonie Diagonale, Viking Eggeling - Made in 1924 by Viking Eggeling, "Symphonie Diagonale" is the best abstract film yet conceived. It is an experiment to discover the basic principles of the organization of time intervals in the film medium. This version was restored by Gösta Werner in 1994 in collaboration with The Swedish Filminstitute. Music by Olga Neuwirth, 2006.
eclecticism
drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system
ELEMENTS OF ART
color, line, shape, space,value, form, texture,
suprematism
a type of art formulated by Kazimir Malevich to convey his belief that the supreme reality in the world is pure feeling, which attaches to no object and thus calls for new, nonobjective forms in art-shakes not related to objects in the visible world.
Radiating Chapels
In medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept.
Citadel
is a fortress or a stronghold that commands the city
Religious
made to honor a religion or inspired by religion
Plein-air
"In the open air", and is particularly used to describe the act of painting outdoors. Impressionist painters advocated en plein air painting, and much of their work was done outdoors.
Gummersmark Brooch.
the surface of this seethes with Human, animal, and geometric forms.
Collage
a composition made out of cut and pasted scraps of materials.
theocratic socialism
Government ruled by a god, people work for the government and all goods are made for everyone and distributed
Name, Artist, "-ism"
Composition with Yellow, Red, and Blue, Piet Mondrian, De Stijl
Velazquez, Water Carrier of Seville, ca. 1619
uses contribution/naturalism to represent that anyone can do the same
intimate communication of theology
classical tech. (repetition, order, beauty, balance)
Rib vault
a framework of ribs or arches under the intersections of the vaulting sections
Ritual to Pray for Good Harvest - Wang Xizhi, early Tang copy
minbar
in a mosque, the pulpit on which the imam stands
What is a potlatch?
It is an elaborate ceremonial feast
Page with Saint MatthewEbbo GospelsStockstad figure 14-16
Carlingian ArtAbby of Hautvillers near Riems, France816-835 CE (Reign of Louis the Pious)
Temple of Athena Nike
WETLOOK Nike means "Victory" in Greek, and Athena was worshiped in this form, as goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Her temple was the earliest Ionic temple on the Acropolis, compensated by its prominent position on a steep bastion at the south west corner of the Acropolis to the right of the entrance (propylaea). There the citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a prosperous outcome in the long war fought on land and sea against the Spartans and their allies. The Temple of Athena Nike was an expression of Athens' ambition to be the leading Greek city state in the Peloponnese. The Temple sits within the sanctuary of Athena Nike, atop a bastion on the south flank of the great stair to the Athenian Acropolis
what were the cycladic people known for?
fishing, hunting, farming, trading
Martin Schongauer, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons, 1480-1490
metal engraving, variety of tonal values and textures
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
ca. 425 - 26 AD. Early Christian. Latin Cross plan. Named for family said to be buried there. Mosaics. Barrel Vault with snowflake like stars. 6 sheep and 12 apostles.
Michelangelo, Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici
death mask, surrounded by mortality, roman armor, night and day figures 1519-1534
BENJAMIN WEST, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771
Oil on canvas, approx. 5' x 7'
Controversial at the time for depicting a contemporary event in a contemporary context (clothing, persons, etc.) Classical allusions- Pieta-like imagery.
The Palette of Narmer
This show the story of how the king of Upper Egypt defeated Lower Egypt and hoe he unified the country.
sombre
dark
Erectheum
Pieta
Michelangelo 1500
primavera
sandro botticelli
SYNTHETIC CUBISM
...
Edouard Manet
The Railway
lamentation-giotto di bondone
1305
Black Figure Painting
...
Lichtenstein, "Drowning Girl"
1963
Zen Buddhism
Ukiyo-E Prints
Impressionism
Edgar Degas, Ballet Rehearsal
Mary Kelly
Post-Partum Document, 1973
Al-Aqmar Mosque
Elaborately decorated mosque
Axial Gallery
Who: Upper Paleolithic
Burial of Count Orgaz
El Greco
johns "savarin coffee can" american
edit of micar
made christianity "legal"
the immortal human life force
Scandalist
People thought Manet's painting was
ambulatory above transcept
radiating chapels
nave-groin vaults
dark
st. sernin
11
Michelangelo, David, 1504. Italian, High Renaissance. Carrara Marble. Commissioned by Opere del Duomo.
jamb
a side post of a doorway
pier
a vertical free standing masonry support
automatism
process of yielding oneself to instinctive motions of the hands after establishing a set of conditions within a work to be carried out
egg tempera
egg and pigment, light touch
Ashurbanipal hunting lions, ca. 600 BCE
gorgon medusa, pediment temple of
artemis at corfu. 600. archaic.
...
diptych
a two-panel painting or altar piece
humanism
a cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology or science
Archivolt
the continuous molding framing an arch. In Romanesque or Gothic architecture, one of the series of concentric bands framing the tympanum.
Joseph Turner
He was a landscape painter
form
external appearance of a clearly defined area, as distinguished from color or material; configuration:
bath of caracalla
concrete barrel and groin vaulting
Disguised symbolism
A Northern Renaissance technique of giving a spiritual meaning to ordinary objects in the painting, so these detail can carry the spiritual message
Personification
a person who represents an abstract quality
quatrachento
inspired by medieval times
early renissance.
15th century.
massachios tribute money.
baldachin
a canopy suspended over a sacred space,
Figure 3-36 Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1290-1280 BCE. Painted papyrus scroll, 1' 6" high. British Museum, London. (New Kingdom)
Paradise
very large painting on canvas by Tintoretto
Romanesque
A title art historians invented to describe medieval art and architecture that appeared "Roman-like"
pantocrator
christ depicted as ruler of the universe
Atrium
An unroofed interior courtyard or room in a roman house, sometimes having a pool or garden, sometimes surrounded by columns. Also; the open courtyard in front of a Christian church.
bas de page
bottom of the page (cartoons/characters/art)
helladic
culture of the greek mainland during the ancient aegean period
!http://www.linesandcolors.com/images/2006-05/ambassadors_450.jpg!
Hans Holbein the Younger. The French Ambassadors. 1533. oil and tempera on panel
cames
A lead strip in a stained-glass window that joins separate pieces of colored glass.
camera obscura
a darkened enclosure in which images of outside objects are projected through a small aperture or lens onto a facing surface
Basilica
law court with little courts on the side... now a church
foreshortening
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
Georges De La Tour- The Cheat (Baroque France)
engaged column
A half-round column attached to a wall. See also pilaster.
fasces
consisted a bundle of white birch rods tied together with a red leather ribbon into a cylinder, often including a bronze axe blade projecting from the side; used for processions; a symbol of the Roman Republic
Smithson(earth art) 1950-2000
Spiral Jetty (Great Salt Lake, Utah)
Pablo Picasso
Spanish painter who started the cubist movement; lived in France
the literal surface of a painting imagined as window, so that objects depicted in depth are spoken of as behind or receding from the picture plane
picture plane
c 545 AD, Byzantine, Emperor Justinian
Exterior of San Vitale
Pompey the Great
c. 50 BCE. Roman, Republican Period. Marble.
Di Sotto In Su
Italian, "from below upwards." A technique of representing perspective in ceiling paintings.
How To Teach Pictures to a Dead Hare
Beuys, 1965
Early Italian Renaissance
Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter by Perugino
define: groin vault
intersection of 2 barrel vaults at right angles
Who were the literati artists?
Japanese: Merchant class that painted anything and were professional
Chinese: Officials that painted landscapes and were amateurs
Post and Lintel
a system of construction in which two post support a lintel.
Geometric Period
900 to 700 B.C., a time of dramatic transformation that led to the establishment of primary Greek institutions
The French Ambassador
true has a skull in Hans Holden the Youngers
what is harrowing of hell?
christ saving people from hell that were on earth before christ had prepared a place in heaven
what type of artwork was used in Cycladic graves?
pottery, metalwork, and marble sculptures
Birth of Athena East Pediment, Three Godesses
Three godesses, done by phidias have to fit in the triangular space at the top of the parthenon
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