The Great Depression Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dust Bowl refugees
money from investors
scientific management of business
standard care; well being.
Rapollo caused _________________&______________________ to react to Communism
GB & France
Who denied the bonus army?
(Public Works Administration) Relief and Recovery. Harold Ikes was in charge. It was a longterm and industrial recovery and an unemployment relief. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
makeshift shacks that the homeless lived in during the Great Depression
Racoon Coats
Expensive Fad in the 20's
rate was %25 of the workers
Securities and Exchange Commission- an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors
Tariff Act
allows censorship of imported films
Richard Wright
African American writer Native son
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
relief programs
government program to help the needy
Laissez Faire
Hands off government approach, small role in economy
Relief Program
government program to help the needy
Hoover's domestic policies - blank: tried to help farmers by holding surplus farm products in storage to drive up prices(did not work)
Farm Board
Indian Emergency Conservation Work Corp
Conserved indian land
bank run
widespread panic in which great numbers of people try to redeem their paper money
Who was president when the depression began?
Bonus Army
vets who wanted bonuses now (unemployment/wage cuts), national guard sent out to stop them ended in a riot
struct with polio democratic new deal closed natsions bank resuing banks
soup kitchens/bread lines
_____ _______/_____ _______ gave oppertunities for the poor to recieve free food
americans bought less because
rising prices, stagnat wages
Herbert Hoover
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Social Security Act
provided aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children
John T. Scopes
biology teacher arrested for teaching evolution
migrant worker
agricultural worker who moves with the seasons, planting or harvesting crops
Harold Ickes
U.S. Secretary of the Interior under FDR. He headed the Public Works Administration. Formerly a "bull mooser" he was involved with TR in 1912.
Causes of the Stock Market Crash & Great Depression - Global economic problems: European countries had not recovered from blank.
Popular Front Abroad
A broad coalition of different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group
"Black Blizzards"
dark skies created when strong winds pick up and carry large amounts of topsoil
Franklin Roosevelt
Promised Americans a "New Deal" and began a social programs that helped ease the depression
Take possession of a property from a mortgagor because of defaults on payments
public works
projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use
Dust Bowl
Southern Great Plains region, when a severe drought and fierce winds led to violent dust storms that destroyed farmland, machinery, and houses. 800000 migrated toward California/Oklahoma
installment buying
a consumers buys products by promising to pay small, regular amounts over a period of time
black nationalism
marcus garcey leader who believed to migrate to africa
On January 16, 1920. That date was when the 18th amendment went into effect. The amendment was commonly called Prohibition. Prohibition was the ban on the manufacture and sale of alcohol.
Farm Credit Administration(FCA)
borrowed money at lower rates- bought seed, equipment or paid taxes
Race Relations during the depression:
-African Americans faced racial violence
-Non-whites had higher unemployed rates and earned less money
-Latinos were deported to go back to Mexico
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Insured savings accounts in banks approved by the government
Harry Hopkins
architect of the New Deal and in charge of the WPA (Works Progress Administration). He was also in charge of the Federal Emergency Relief Act, which was one of the first things he was awarded direction over.
Dorthea Lange
a photographer who took pics or some of the people that were hurt most in the G.D.
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women.
The Great depression
The Great Depression was an economic depression notable for its duration and intensity that struck the world from 1929-1933. Recovery was a long and difficult process.
12.Soap Opera
A serial drama on television or radio using melodramatic situations
boulder dam
dam on the colorado river built during the depression to create jobs
Andrew Mellon
argued that the gov't should keep its hands off the economy. Hoover disagreed
Emergency Relief Appropriations Act
1935; legislation that alloted $5 billion for a large-scale public works program for the jobless which included the Works Progress Administration
Fireside Chats
Informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people.
Major Causes of Great Depression (SOUP)
Stock speculation, Over-production, Uneven prosperity, and Personal Debt.
what were the 2 "hot stocks"
general electric and at&t
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
radio/Orson Welles
also a big hit during this time, even bigger than movies, gathered around a radio to listen to entertainment or president, direct means of access to president/actor, director, producer, writer created the sci-fi radio broadcast "The War of the Worlds"
works progress administration
agency that kept the second new deal moving foward by creating jobs
Izzy Einstein and Moe Smith
top Prohibition Agents during the Prohibition Era
October 29, 1929
Also known as Black Tuesday, this was the day the Stock Market crashed
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
provided payments to farmers in return for agreement to cut production by one half.
Dow Jones industrial average
a measure of stock market prices based on thirty leading companies of the new york stock exchange and nasdaq
Congress Industrial Organizations
Founded by John L. Lewis in 1938. They broke from the AFL. It was more open to women and minorities. Included skilled and unskilled workers.
Empire State Building
Constructed in New York City. It was a symbol of hope.
voluntary controls by american businesses
hoover beileved that the best way to end the depression was through
looting rallies and hunger marches
what started to happen in 1931 as people started to get angry
lines of people waiting to receive food provided by a charitable organization
During the Great Depression, what were bread lines?
stock market crash, run on the banks, overproduction of consumer goods, establishment of tariffs and loss of exports sales, monetary policy mistakes by the federal reserve
5 major causes of the great depression
Why did FDR issue an order that nine out of every ten dollars allocated to the WPA be spent on wages?
The main purpose of the WPA was to bring indirect relief to people and FDR wanted to make sure that the WPA was fulfilling its purpose.
Giving People Jobs
additional sum of money
Grapes of Wrath
John Stienbeck
Black Blizzard
Very bad dust storm.
affordable electricity for isolated rural areas
unable to pay their debts
It favours fewer Government controls, and more freedom in economic matters.
civil rights
the constitutional rights due allcitizens
The process of selecting investments with higher risk in order to profit from an anticipated price movement.
Vario9us industries kept up production even though there was not a demand from the market (ex automobiles, crops, construction) supply exceeded demand which made prices fall
sent back to their original country
defecit spending
government practice of spending borrowed money rather than raising taxes, usually in an attempt to boost the economy
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
highest protective tariff in history.
Hundred Days
a period of dramatic legislative productivity. FDR laid out programs that constituted New Deal
Red Scare
Fear that Bolshivism would take over
Who was President when the SM crashed?
brain trust
FDR surrounded himself with experts and came up with solutions. his advisors
Bull Market
Long period of raising stock prices.
Robert Lane "Bob" Saget
actor in "Surviving Suburbia"
Market Speculation
risky investments in the stock market
The Federal Reserve Bank ________ to prevent the collapes of the banking system.
Huey Long
Democratic Senator from Louisiana who argued that the government should tax the wealthy and distribute their wealth to the poor
18th Amendment
prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol
attitude towards Hoover
thought he wasn't doing enough
"Hoover blankets"- newspapers
"Hoover stew"- thin soup
Hawley-Smoot Tariff act
act established the highest protective tariff for farmers and manufacturers from foreign competition
Al Capone
Gangster wanted by the government for the illegal sale of alcohol.
Election of 1932
Franklin D. Roosevelt; believed that gov't needed to make needed action to fight depression
Mass Migration
the movement of large numbers of people over a fairly short time period
Welfare State
A nation or government which assumes the primary responsibility for the well-being and prosperity of it's citizens
programs to help the needy during the Great Depression
Marcus Garvery
supported and created Back to Africa movement
FDR, childhood, family, schooling
wealthy, good family, private schooling, Harvard, VP in 1920, New york senate,assistance secretary of the navy, Governor of new york
unemployment insurance
program that gives payments to people who have lost their jobs until they find work again
John L. Lewis
long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike
FDR's brain trust
the presidents of the countries leading universities
National Debt
total amount of money that the federal government borrows and has to pay back
"Trickle Down Economics"
Economic theory that suggests that to improve the economy, big business should be helped/strengthened first, then improvements will "trickle down" to the lower elements (i.e. small business, labor
100 days
the first 3 months of FDR's presidency where he passed many new programs to help the depression.
Sidney J. Weinberg
banker; described black tuesday " it was like a thunder clap; everybody was stunned. Nobody knew what it was all about. Walstreet had general confusion."
Glass-Steagull Banking Reform Act
created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Individuals deposits of up to $5,000 were federally insured
Tennessee Valley Authority [TVA]
June 1933. Innovative attempt at regional planning. Series of dams in seven states on the Tennessee river to control floods, ease navigation, and produce electricity. Endures to this day. Relief and Reform
National Origins Act 1924
A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.
Debt Moratorium
WWI debts could no longer continue to be paid ; Hoover proposed a suspension of the payment of international debts ; Britain and Germany agreed, but France declined ; international economy suffered from massive loan defaults
Trickle Down Economics
govt gives tax breaks to company owners, who in turn give workers larger wages; INEFFECTIVE
help the banks: reconstruction finance corporation
make loans to businesses
Frankin Delano Roosevelt
32nd president of the USA, who created the New Deal to fight the Great Depression and led the country to World War II.
Lost Generation
group of writers who felt lost in the 20's
relief for the jobless
as governor NY, roosevelt had work vigouruslly for
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
An independent agency of the United States government chartered during the administration of Herbert Hoover in 1932.
Causes of the Great Depression
1. Southern California and Florida experienced frenzied real-estate speculation and then spectacular busts, with bank failing, land remaining undeveloped, and mortgages foreclosed.
2. The highly unequal distribution of income and the prolonged depression in farm regions reduced American purchasing power.
3. European demand for American goods also declined, partly because their industries had recovered from WWI.
James T. Farrell
writer who portrayed the grim life of Chicago's Irish immigrants in his Studs Lonigan trilogy
Fair Labor Relations Act
set minimum wages, maximum hours, and a ban on child labor
What was the Black Cabinet?
African American leaders who advised President Roosevelt.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
New Deal program begun in 1933; built ports, schools, and aircraft carriers
The Grapes of Wrath
The story follows the fortunes of a poor family as they travel from the Dust Bowl region to California. based on the great depression written by John Steinbeck
What was the national labor act?
-a law that protected workers from unfair practices such as firing an employee for joining the union
-it guaranteed worker the right to collective barganing
what is black tuesday
the day the bottom fell out of the market
What are the five factors myth of prosperity?
1. illusion of wealth
2. farmers produced too much
FDR wanted to increase the # of justices on supreme court from 9 to 15 due to...
more people agreeing with his programs but he was defeated
Homeless people
**** **** ****
Civilian Conservation Corps..
washington conference
conference to discuss disarmament
Federal Deposit Insurance Cooperation, insures bank deposits
National Industrial Recovery Act - fixes prices of goods and sets minimum wage and 40 hour work week. also established a national labor board - gives unions some legitimacy by recognizing their rights to bargain with business
shanty towns made for homeless people
12 million people out of work
(Third Step) The government passes laws to stop another depression from happening again.
farmers produce more than they can sell
policy used by prime MInister Nevill Chamberlain of Great Britain
social security
providid pension for retired workers and familes
"Black Cabinet"
an informal network of black officeholders in the federal government; led by Mary McLeod Bethune, William Hastie, and Robert Weaver, they pushed for economic and political opportunities for African Americans in the 1930s and 1940s.
FDR was elected president in this year
allows consumers to buy goods when they don't have money to pay for it (caused dept which crippled consumers and people still ignored and kept buying)
Wagner Act
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
Sit-down strike
labor protest in which laborers stop working but refuse to leave the workplace
Black Tuesday
The official start of the Great Depression, the day the stock market crashed (October 29, 1929).
John Maynard Keynes
Economist, felt deficit spenidng was the way to start the economy
"Dust Bowl"
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
stock exchange
a place where shares in corporations are bought and sold through an organized system
Federal Writers Project (FWP)
United States federal government project to fund written work and support writers during the Great Depression. It was part of the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program.
How many terms was FDR elected for?
4 terms
Bank Holiday
a four-day nation wide holiday that occurred after the Emergency Banking Act passed
The spark
black tuesday October 29, 1929 the stock market crashed.
R.B Bennett
Prime minister of Canada, 7 August 1930 to 23 October 1935.
Bennet was disliked by Canada. Made the Bennet Buggy., 1930 to 1935 prime minister; was blamed for the nation's poverty. He also outlined a program of reforms known as the New Deal. This was to help get out of the depression. It included ways to increase competition, give the government more power over the economy, cut the work week from 6-48 hours, and created unemployment insurance program
relief goals
gov't should create jobs by hiring people to build playgrounds, parks, bridges
federal farm board
The ________ ______ ________ was designed to raise prices of farm goods to help farmers
New Deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
A period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936
buying on margin
paying small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
A group of people that is thought to be different than the larger group it is a part of because of race or religion.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Democratic candidate in the June 1932 election.
Previously governor of NY, suffered from polio and
wore braces on his legs.
*Emergency Banking Act
March of 1931; gave the president broad discretionary powers over all banking transactions and foreign exchange; authorized healthy banks to reopen only under licenses from Treasury Department and provided for greater federal authority in managing the affairs of failed banks; by mid-March half of the countries banks which were holding ninety percent of the countries deposits were open again.
Laissez- Faire Government
The government doesn't get involved in the countries problems
hoover dam
built to create jobs, make use of colorado river, and generate hydroelectric power
Gen. Douglas MacArthur
During the Korean War, he was commander of Allied Forces in the South Pacific during World War II and of UN forces in Korea. He lead the American, British, and South Korean forces. MacArthur fought up until the Yalu River by the Chinese border. Truman told him to only use Korean forces in case China got involved. However MacArthur did not follow orders and sent US, British and Korean forces to fight. The Chinese responded heavily and the troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. Truman was extremely upset and dismissed MacArthur. Some believe that MacArthur was the reason that the US failed to "liberate" North Korea. Also MacArthur, while back in the states, was always publicly dismissing Truman's ideas. At one point he was even going to run for president.
Causes of Great Depression
Overproduction of goods by factories and farms 2) Flaws in the banking system
Tennesse Valley Authority (TVA)
Developed the resources of the Tennesse Valley
What is another name for October 28, 1929?
Black Monday
Alfred E. Smith
Democrat _________ __ _______ lost the election of 1928
Hawley - Smoot Tariff
Foreigners hated this tariff that reversed a promising worldwide trend toward reasonable tariffs and widened the yawning trade gaps
gross national product
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country
Margin Call
a demand by a broker that a customer deposit enough to bring his margin up to the minimum requirement
Father Coughlin
critic of FDR's New Deal -known as the "radio priest"
Francis Townsend
He felt people over 60 should get a pension of around $200 a month.
Hoovervilles, Hoover flags, etc
Names given to common objects that showed Americans blamed Hoover
Run on Bank
When a lot of people withdraw money from the bank at the same time.
Economic Nationalism
policy that a nation uses to try to improve its economic well-being by limiting trade
Agricultural Marketing Act
Passed in June of 1929, was designed to help farmers help themselves, and set up a Federal Farm Board to help the farmers.
stock market crash of 1929
Which event marked the beginning of the Great Depression?
laid off workers losing thier homes
the rise in homelssness mainly resulted from
Results of Kellogg-Briand Pact
Some navys began to shrink because it was seen that they were not needed. Other navys not part of the pact began to grow.
In FWP - Works Progress Administration
Anyone could join; made public buildings
How was the distribution of wealth affected?
-Rich got richer
-Poor got poorer
-70% of families earned less than $2,500 per year
Why did Hoover first do nothing?
He though the business cycle would correct itself
Compare and Contrast the ideas of Hoover and FDR on the depression
hoover believed that the nation would recover by itself a let alone approach FDR= New deal plan tht made new organizations that people could join for work and to improve out nation.
The CCC provided jobs for who?
Young men in rural areas such as erosion projects
hoovervilles sprang up in the nations cities
what was one effect of the wage cuts and unemployment of the 1930s
Black Friday
Warren Harding
Prohibition/Ohio Gang
National Labor Relations Board
Elanor Roosevelt.
First lady, FDR's wife.
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
What percentage of Canadian staple products were exported?
7. Bailiff
Minor officer of the courts
Homeless gathered here. Collections of makeshift shelters built out of packing boxes, scrap lumber, corrugated iron, and other thrown-away items (urban)
the shift from wartime to peacetime
devalue dollar
attempt to lower fixed debts(lk mortgage) and stimulate exports
AJ Muste
Gathered the jobless into unemployment leagues
"Night of Shattered Glass" A destructive rampage against the Jews, Nazi is burned synagogues destroyed seven thousand jewish business
Describe Kristallnacht
Dawes Plan
Established a cycle of payments flowing from the US to Germany to the Allies. US banks hang Germany the money to rebuild its economy and pay Britain and France
Buying On Margen
borrowing money to buy stock.
John steinbeck
Writer. grapes of rath= lifestyle during dust bowl
Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms.
AAA,Agricultural Adjustment Act.
Lowered crop production, and increased use of land.
national union for social justice
nationalistic workers rights organization, which grew impatient with what it viewed as the President's unconstitutional and pseudo-capitalistic monetary policies.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
1935- Head: Harry Hopkins-Relief- Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during World War II.
Great Depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
townsend plan
pension plan for elderly that would have provided $200 a month to everyone over 60
Federal Writers Project
Federal government project to fund written work and support writers during the Great Depression. It was part of the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program. It was one of a group of New Deal arts programs known collectively as Federal One.
Welfare capitalism
An approach to labor relations in which companies meet some of their workers' needs without prompting by unions, thus preventing strikes and keeping productivity high
who was responsible for moving the Bonus Army to Washington?
walter waters
agricultural adjustment administration
recovery program designed to bring farmers out of depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt
overcame polio to become President; his New Deal attempted to solve the economic problems of the Great Depression; he was a symbol of hope, courage, and optimism
Agricultural Adjustment Act
sought to raise crop prices by lowering production
Farmer's Holiday Association
A group of discontented farmers who gathered in Des Moines, Iowa to establish an organization that would endorse the withholding of farm products, in effect producing a "farmer's strike".
*Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
Hoover's most important response to the Great Depression. 1932, it was designed to make government credit available to banks, railroads, insurance companies, and other businesses to stimulate the economy. This assumed that the problem was that companies did not have money, when really it was the consumer that did not have money to purchase the products. This saved many banks and businesses from going under, but did not just start recovery
father charles coughlin
hosted a popular radio show withdraws initial support of new deal
Scottsboro Boys
Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses
Clark Memorandum
This memorandum was written in 1928 by Calvin Coolidge's undersecretary of state. It rejected the view that the Roosevelt Corollary was based on the Monroe Doctrine and stated that the Monroe Doctrine was based on conflicts of interest between the United States and European nations, rather than between the United States and Latin American nations.
soup kitchen
place that provides free meals to the community
Great Wood
Was a Painter in 1930s. Stylers were referred to as the regionalist school. Work emphasized traditional American values, especially those of the rural Midwest and South.
Tennessee Valley Authority
What New Deal Policy helped a poverty stricken area by providing funds to build and repair dams?
Court Packing.
Where FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Labor organization founded in the 1930s to represent workers in basic mass production industries.
Walter Waters
Led the Bonus Army in the march on Washington
Indian Reorganization Act
ended the sale of tribal lands begun under Dawes Act and restored some lands to Indian owners
what was no longer in demand during wartime
mining and lumbering
Overproduction, Underconsumption, Stock Market Speculation and the Stock Market Crash.
What were the four causes of the Great Depression?
couldnt retuen the depositors money
after the crash thousands of american banks closed because they
Indian Reorganization [Wheeler-Howard] Act (1934)
June 18, 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives.[1] These include activities that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations. Section 18 of the IRA conditions application of the IRA on a majority vote of the affected Indian nation or tribe within one year of the effective date of the act (25 U.S.C. 478). The IRA was perhaps the most significant initiative of John Collier Sr., Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs from 1933 to 1945.
wagner act (fair labor relations act)
protected workers from unfair business tactics
Securities & Exchange Commission [SEC]
The agency of the U.S. government that oversees U.S. financial markets and accounting standard-setting bodies.
States affectd by the drought of the dust bowl?
TX, OK, Co, NM, AK, KS
It's to help diabled, retired workers, and worker's families who had died get money.
What was Social Security set up to do?
What was FDR's response to the supreme court declaring some new deal prgrams unconstitutional?
he proposed a court packing plan to raise the number of justices from 9 to 15 but his plan was rejected
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