Art History 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
rouge
red
Mannerism
1520-1600
shoot
chris burden
Lost-Wax Process
...
Four Tetrarchs
revetment
decorative wall panelling
atrium
a centralized courtyard
Rottgen Pieta,1300-1325,wood,Gothic Art
Johns, Painted Bronze
1960
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Cong



3200-2200 BCE 


Neolithic 



Fillipo Brunelleschi
Discovered scientific perspective
Early Dynastic Egypt
2975-2150 BCE
Seated Scribe
Old Kingdom Period
Saqqara, Egypt (Lower)
St. Peter's Piazza Artist,location,time,type
Bernini,Rome,1656-1657,Vatican
Palette of Narmer
When:3100 BC
Hellenistic Period 323
1st century B.C.
ronin
masterless samurai who wandered japan
Sinan the Great
designed Selimiye Mosque
No. 14
Mark Rothko, 1960. Nonrepresentational. Conveying emotion through line, shape and color. Less emphasis on mark of artist. Creates a transcendant experience.
subtractive
sculpture made by removing material
iwan
a vaulted hall or space
curvilinear
Romans used in architecture. (aqueducts, horse shoe shapes)
Funerary Krater
c. 750-700BCE; Geometric Period
Dipylon Cemetery, Athens.
Ceramic
42" tall
louis xv
king of France 1715–74 (great grandson of Louis XIV).
Who is Shohaku?
Eccentric Artist (1730-1781)
Studied under the Kano school, Learned basics from the traditional Kano school, Not much records exist on him
What paradigm shift is Saint Pierre
ideational
Thomas Cole- The Oxbow (American Landscape Painting- The Hudson River School)
Descent from the Cross
Peter Paul Rubens
1611-15
Mycenaean Culture
c.1600-1100 BC
1st mainland Greek culture
origin of Homeric heroes
gave way to pirates/invaders who settle in Greece
Rembrandt van Rijn: Self-Portrait (at age 23), 1629
*Dutch (Northern Netherlandish) Baroque Painting
encaustic
Jasper Johns,The medium, technique or process of painting with molten wax (mostly beeswax), resin, and pigments that are fused after application into a continuous layer and fixed to a support with heat, and achieves a lustrous enamel appearance.
Treasury of Atreus
1300 - 1200 BCE
Picasso 1900-1950 (portrait)
Portrait of Ambroise Vollard
lapis lazuli
a blue semi precious stone
bison
a North American, oxlike ruminant, Bison bison, having a large head and high, humped shoulders: formerly common in North America, its small remaining population in isolated western areas of the U.S. and Canada is now protected.
Bellini "Feast of the Gods" c. 1530
Flanders
was the Spanish Netherlands after the Dutch Republic (Holland) became free.
Pigment
Anything that puts color on a surface
icons
sacred images; a portrait or image; especially in Byzantine art, a panel with a painting of sacred personages that are objects of veneration. In the visual arts, a painting, a piece of sculpture, or even a building regarded as an object of veneration.
Cupola of the Duomo
Filippo Brunelleschi
1420-1436 (finished: 1437)
Florence Cathedral, Florence
Architecture (Dome)
St. Elizabeth
Flesh tower over crossing
Windows with pointed arches and tracery
Side aisles and clerestory on same wall
Two towers on west facade
Nave arcade - one part elevation
Double rows of tall windows
Libation
is the ritual pouring of a liquid
Japonisme
the French fascination with all things Japanese
Menkaure and His Wife
Giza, 2500 BC Graywacke
In situ
A Latin expression that means something is in it's original location
Peristyle Court
An open colonade courtyard, often having a pool and garden.
dome
a hemispheric vault or ceiling placed on walls that enclose a circular or square space
radiating chapel
in Medieval churches, chapels for displaying relics; opened into ambulatory and transept
Eleanor Antin
Author of “The Artist’s Studio,” a single frame from a sequence entitled The Last Days of Pompeii. She recreates the studio of a Roman Artist working unaware of the awful eruption of Vesuvius that will destroy him.
crypt
A vaulted space under part of a building, wholly or partly underground; in churches, normally the portion under an apse.
Illustionistic ceiling painting
Is the tradition in Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo art in whichperspective tools such as foreshortening, and other spatial effects are used to create the illusion of three-dimensional space on an otherwise two-dimensional or mostly flat ceiling surface above the viewer.
TYMPANUM
half round space that fills the space between the lintel and arch over a doorway of a church
fauvism
an art style where color became the formal element most responsible for pictorial coherence and the primary conveyor of meaning
Transcept
part of church with an axis that rosses at the nave with a right angle
Stele
is a stone slab erected to commemorate a historical event
St. Denis
The first gothic cathedral, made by Abbot Suger
Picasso, Glass and Bottle of Suze
1912, Synthetic Cubism
The Kiss
by Gustav Klimt
created in the 19th century, symbolism
done in oil
Grand Manner
Looking back to the Renaissance for inspiration, they adopted poses, compositions, and attitudes of antique models.
pylon temple
New Kingdom, most common temple til the end of Egyptian History ex. Temple of Amen-Re
Name, Artist, "-ism"
The Two Fridas, Frida Kahlo, Surrealism
Rembrandt, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632
Baroque, humanistic, psychological
variety/intellectual drama, unusual sense of space, horizontally oriented, studied scene
Seurat
A Sunday on La Grande Jatte 1877 Post Impressionism
Italian Oil Painting
1. Use of perspective principles 2. Strong lines in works 3. study and mastery of human figure as art from. Fresco paintings are revived
ribbed vault
a vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the masonry web between them
The Academies (4)
1. its purpose: to teach officially sanctioned styles 2. exerted great control over the art scene 3. patronized by the court and aristocracy 4. annual exhibitions called "salons"
oracle
a place where a god was believed to communicate with humans by means of cryptic messages delivered through a human intermediary, or medium.
Battle at Issus
310 BC, looks like its wearing off, from pompeii house of faun, roman copy. painting of antiquity. shows confrontation of two kings
stele with law code of hammurabi
babylonian art, susa iran, basalt
Standard of Ur, 2600 BCE
mosaic-like technique, war on one side, peace on the other, king is taller than everyone else, figures go in order of rank in society
Exekias. 540 BCE. Black-Figure painting on an amphora.
Achilles and Ajax Play a dice game
Bellini, Feast of the Gods
lack of geometry, no geometric focus, contemporary dressed gods, oil on canvas, 1529
18th- and Early 19th-Century Art in Europe and North America
During the 18th century, three stylistic movements - Rococo, Neoclassicism, and Romanticism emerged in Europe and North America. Rococo enjoyed a relatively limited popularity, an extension of the Baroque in its ornate qualities, but is much more playful in mood.
Academies of art, often government-sponsored, become important in training artists and shaping artistic styles and tastes (see next slide).
The period represents a pivotal era in political, intellectual, and cultural history. The Enlightenment, an intellectual movement (building upon earlier developments like humanism), placed central importance on reason and empirical knowledge, showing a departure from the focus on faith and religion.
With this focus on scientific discovery came the Industrial Revolution, which drastically changed the economic makeup of the western world.
Enlightenment thinking, which, broadly speaking, argued that individual freedom was the key to happiness, also brought about political revolution (namely in America and France), as people questioned traditional political and class structures.
Square Temple at Eshnunna's Statues
Big glass eyes to help make them more realistic as they were standins for the actual people so the statues would pray for them. The oversized eyes probably symbolized the perpetual wakefulness of these substitute worshipers offering prayers to the deity. The beakers the figures hold were used to pour libations in honor of the gods
orange
orange
Proto-Renaissance
1250-1400
Kermesse
Festival; Celebration
Hellenistic
320-31 BCE
The Nightmare
maniera greca
break style
Iconophile
lovers of images
Last Judgment,Gislebertus,marble,St. Lazare,Autun,France,Romanesque Art
Ono, Cut Piece
1965
what do hermits represent?
temperence
Ancient Aegean: Minoan
3000-1100 BCE
Duchamp
Nude Descending a Staircase
Baldacchino Artist,location,time,type
Bernini,1624-1633,gilt bronze, marble,stucco,and glass (HUGE ****ING MASTERPIECE)
Ziggurat at Ur
When:2100 BC
Keystone
In architecture, the wedge-shaped stone placed in the top center of an arch to prevent the arch from falling inward.
nishiki-e
"brocade Picture" a polychrome woodblock print that uses seperate blocks for every color applied
illuminated manuscripts
decorated, hand copied manuscripts
Archetypal forms
relevant to all cultures.
watercolor
translucent pigment suspended in water, usually with gum as a binder
Polyptych
Hinged multipaneled paintings or relief panels
syncretism
taking religous philosophy and spinning into something else-- Christians adapting good shpherd. The union of different ideals in religion.
Crenellated
having repeated square indentations like those in a battlement
edward the confessor
English king 1042–66: founder of Westminster Abbey.
Edo Period: Ogata Korin "Irises" 1615-1868
What paradigm shift is Selim mosque?
ideational
Grant Wood- American Gothic (American Realism)
The Suitor's Visit
Gerard ter Borch
c. 1658
Archaic smile
means that figure is alive
Jacques-Louis David (French): The Oath of the Horatii, 1784
*Romanticism
art brut
Dubuffet, French for "raw art,"
ambulatory
a covered walkway, outdoors or indoors; the passageway around the apse and choir of a church
Lloyd Wright (american)1900-1950, -most important architect of 20th century
Robie house (chicago)
Perspective
pictoral devices used to organize forms in space; two common types are atmospheric and linear
charcoal
the carbonaceous material obtained by heating wood or other organic substances in the absence of air.
Rogier Van Der Weyden "The Deposition" 1435
Academy
founded 1648 it was a formal institution based a rigid curriculum of compulsory instruction in theory and practice. There was a system of rules that laid down a method of tabulating grades for artists, past and present.
Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife
Jan van Eyck
Apocalyptic
cosmic violent event in which God destroys evil-ends world.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Andrea di Buonaiuto
1365
Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Fresco
Ottonian Art
Bright colors and dark outlines
Lines show drapery
Architecture in background
Hierarchy of scale
Simplified figures
Not much modeling - just lines
Cuneiform
is wedge shaped writing of the Sumerians
vellum
calfskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting
Polykleitos, spear bearer
Pinnacle, very influential. naturalism but more subtle (how body moves) hips out, shoulders dippe. Balance between bent+straight limbs. Head is turned and reaction indicates world outside sculpture. musculuture more proportional. PURPOSE- demonstration piece for perfect proportions9 Rations, cannons. Made out of marble. CONTRAPPOSTO-WEIGHT SHIFTED. made to see at one angle.
Pylon
A monumental gateway to an Egyptian temple marked by two flat, sloping walls between which is a smaller entrance
transept
The horizantel arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to the nave. The point where the nave and the ------- cross is called the crossing. Beyond thecrossing lies the sancuary, whether apse, choir, or chevet.
binder
a liquid that holds together the grains of pigment in paint
barrel vault
tunnel vault; deep arch or uninterrupted series of arches
El Lissitzky
A Russian Constructivism artist who painted “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge. Red Bolshevik triangle attacking a static defensive white russian circle
engaged columns
A half-round column attached to a wall.
Barbarini
Italian pope from 1623 to 1644 who sanctioned the condemnation of Galileo but later freed him.
DORIC ORDER
Simple, heavy columns without a base topped by a broad, plain capital.
nave
The long central part of a church, extending from the entrance to the altar, with aisles along the sides.
Cella
the chief room of a Greek temple, where the statue of the god was located and, frequently, the temple's treasure was kept.
Repousse
is a technique, which a hammers shape from a single sheet of metal. This process pushed the features out from behind
Lux Nova
"new light" emphasized the glory of god through light; Gothic architecture
Duchamp, The Large Glass: The Bride Stripped Bare By her Bachelors Evem
1915-1923, Pataphysics
The Portuguese
by George Braque
created in the 20th century, analytic cubism
done in oil
the kreeger museum
david lloyd kreeger, modern and contemporary
palimpsest
a situation where you have an older image under a newer one and you can still see the old one
Mortise and Tenon
A method of joining two elements, similar to a joint.
Manet
A Bar at the Folies - Bergere 1877 Impressionism
King Louis 14th
The dominant patron in France during the Baroque era. He started The Royal Academy in 1648.
tetrarchy
Greek "rule by four;" a type of Roman government established in the late 3rd century CE by Diocletian in an attempt to foster order by sharing power with potential rivals.
art that is altered or modified, to extract the essence
abstract art
adyton
small room at the end of the cella proper
sarcophagus with reclining couple
flattering picture of life and death, women seem to have more freedom, familiar gestures, 520 BCE terracotta
innermost coffin of tutankhamen
new kingdom art (post amarna), thebes egypt, gold w. inlay of enamel and semi precios stones
Akhenaten and Nefertiti and their children
Egyptian 3000-1000 BCE, New Kingdom
Nimes, France. 16 BCE. It was a bridge and an aqueduct.
Pont du Gard
Compound piers
A pier with a group, or cluster , of attached shafts, or responds, especially characteristic of Gothic architecture.
The Grotesque Old Woman
A 1515 work by Quentin Massys. It is sometimes viewed as a metaphorical portrait of a duchess known for her marital infidlity.
The Death of General Wolfe: indians
show that it is in a foreign place
Hermits
temperance
aigre
sharp
Ionic Column
florence cathedral
Impression: Sunrise
Monet
1872
Charlemagne
King of France
Campanile
a bell tower
cloth of honor
...
Snap the whip painting
1872
folio
page of a manuscript
Great Sphinx
Egypt
2520-2494 BCE
Early Dynastic Period
Pier
is a square column
The Ancient of Days
Artist: Joan Miró
Title: Shooting Star
Medium: Oil on canvas
Size: 25 ⅝ X 21 ⅜" (65.2 X 54.4 cm)
Date: 1938
Source/ Museum: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Harvester Vase, Ca. 1400 BCE
Death of Saradanapalus
Eugene Delacroix, 1846
Lascaux
Humans are abstract
Animals more natural - proportions are real and coloring is normal
More detailed than humans
Most on ceiling
Not painting herd or scene
Not organized
Warhol, Campbell Soup Cans 1960's
Culture: Greek (Northern Peloponnese), Title: Poseidon, Date: 460 B.C.E
Malevich, White Square 1910's (Suprematism)
The Kaaba is _____ feet tall.
43
Expressionistic
forms are created to evoke emotions
Saint Matthew c. 800-810
Aachen, Germany
Coronation Gospels
Carlyngen
Abstract expressionism
First major American avant-garde movement, emerged in the 1940s. Artists produced abstract paintings that expressed their state of mind and that they hoped would strike emotional chords in the viewers
Da Vinci, Adoration of the Magi
1481
33-74: VERA MUKHINA, Worker and Collective Farm Worker. Sculpture for the Soviet Pavilion, Paris Exposition, 1937. Stainless steel, approx. 78' high.
...
Edouard Manet, Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe, 1863, Impressionism
Euphronios
Famous red-figure painter of the Archaic period. Used techniques like foreshortening.
Orb
Round bronze ball; represents leader having dominion over the world.
Alchemy
a pseudo-scientific fusion of natural sciences and occult practices aimed at improving human life through the deciphering of universal mysteries; the best-known alchemical goals were the transformation of common metals into gold, and the discovery of a chemical solution ensuring eternal life; alchemy was widely practiced during the Middle Ages, but was considered by the Church to be a sacrilegious challenge to the divinely-ordained nature of the universe; alchemical studies led to the development of modern chemistry.
Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos, Roman mosaic copy after a Greek painting of c. 310 BCE, Philoxenos of Eretria
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Basilica Ulpia
Head building to Trajan's forum instead of a typical temple
Cornice
The projecting, crowning member of the entablature framing the pediment also any crowning projection
Mesolithic
the "middle" Stone Age, between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic ages
Leonardo Da Vinci- Mona Lisa (High Renaissance Italy)
Figura serpentinata
Literally, a serpentine figure; used to describe the human figure twisting on its axis; the shoulders and hips of a figura serpentinata consequently occupy different planes. This type of pose--perfected by Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo--was especially favored by artists in the High Renaissance and Mannerist periods.
Passage Grave
prehistoric tomb under a cairn, reached by a long narrow, slab-lined access passageway, a prehistoric tomb with a long stone corridor leading to a burial chamber covered by a great tumulus
Mycenae is the legendary city of who?
Agamemnon
Derain
Dots and dashes of burning. Expressive and bold directional brushstrokes. elimination. "Big Ben"
Temptation from Door of Bishop Bernward
1015 Ottonian
...
The Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez
by Emanuel Leutze. 1848
(4.2)
ENLIGHTENMENT
mostly in England
John Locke the philosopher. No inherited ideas. Only through the 5 senses that tell us the nature of reality. EMPIRICISM
impluvium
allows rain to fall in a pool
Sound box (right): Wood and inlaid gold, lapis lazuli, and shell
Importance:
In the mode of representation known as _________ the artist appears to transforma a visible or recognizable subject from nature in a way that suggests the original, but does not record it in an entirely realistic way.
abstraction
Idealism
form of art that were called "classic or classical" that was used by Greeks
rose window
circular window composed of tracery in a petal like formation
Salon
beginning in 1725 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. Between 1748-1890 it was the greatest annual or biannual art event in the Western world. From 1881 onward, it has been organized by the Société des Artistes Français.
ancient Greeks
first people to use perspective; focus on math, science and realism
Figure 1-9 Bison, detail of a painted ceiling in the cave at Altamira, Spain, ca. 12,000-11,000 BCE. Each bison 5' long. (Paleolithic)
symbolism
an artistic movement in the late 19th century that tried to express abstract or mystical ideas through the symbolic use of images
Porphyry
Blood red to purple stone from egypt; used for royalty only.
Cave Paintings
First discovered at Altamira, Spain in 1879. All in profile. No common ground line or orientation. Pech-Merle: hands. Lascaux: twisted perspective
* refer to a voluminous body of folklore-like literature native to India concerning the previous births (jāti) of the Buddha
Jatakas
Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959
This painting is very distinctive because it has a large crow in it.
Arch of Titus
commissioned by Emperor Titus in 81AD. Triumphal arch. Commemorates victory in Jerusalem and was made from spoils of temple at jerusalem. Made so everyone could permanently see awesomeness of Titus. Enscribed with relief sculpture and shows his victory while people carry out spoils *menorah*. celebrates victory of emperor in public way, center of triumphal procession, meant to establish continuity with other triumphs by previous emperors. Symbolic destination = TRIUMPH
Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera
Watteau, 1717, French Rococo
Osiris
god of order and was revered as the king who brought civilization to Egypt
Jane Avril at the Jardin de Paris
Lautrec France Post-Impressionism
line
The path traced by the point of a tool, instrument, or medium as it moves across an area. A line is visible when it contrasts in value with its surroundings. Three-dimensional lines may be made using string, wire, tubes, solid rods, and the like
woodcut
a type of print made by carving a design into a wooden block and using it as a print
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
AD 359; Rome, Italy; The sarcophagus represents a blending of late Hellenistic with the contemporary Roman or Italian styles, seen in the "robust" proportions of the figures, and their slightly over-large heads; carvings are in high relief; scenes on the front and sides represent biblical scenes from various stories, namely ones involving Jesus, and more traditional Roman scenes such as a representation of the four seasons (based on the tasks being performed), Most of the scenes have biblical references.
American School architecture
A school of architecture that began in Chicago after the Great Chicago Fire, use the "beaux arts" style and new innovations in steel and masonry.
Altar to the Hand and Arm
17th-18th cent., from Benin, Nigeria
linear perspective (vanishing point, orthogonal lines)
all parallel lines converge at a single vanishing point
Latin cross plan
the longer arm of the cross formed the nave of the church. one arm longer than the other 3
Virgin and child
- Carved out of wood and it's about 31 inches.
- She is seen here as the thrown of wisdom (symbolism)
- she is the personification of gods wisdom; She is the thrown on which she sit
- This baby here is a little man. He is not a baby here. And the virgin tenderness is not there.
- The line carved into the drapery adds visual interest.
- The artist is trying to project that the women knows what is going to become of the child.
Georgia O'Keeffe, Black Cross, New Mexico, 1929
"When I got to New Mexico that was mine. As soon as I saw it, that was my country. I'd never seen anything like it before, but it fitted me exactly."
-"...2 miles of grey elephants"
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