the great depression 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hoover
...
Harding
attacked progressive reform
NBC
National Broadashing computer
shantytown
Area with makeshift housing.
Bread line
gave people food
Stock Market
Unrestricted, unrestrained, and unregulated buying/selling of stocks
Conservatives
oppose change, liking traditional ideas and ways (free market system was being destroyed with all the government programs and relief)
when was the prez elected?
1932
FDIC
an independent agency that ensured savings in bank deposits- up to $5000
bonus army
12,000-15,000 veterans went to washington and set up camps because congress had promised veterans of WWI a bonus for their wartime services suppose to be paid in the 40's
*Al Smith
former presidential candidate 1928 election- declared New Deal's laws "socialistic"-Democrat- part of American Liberty League
NEW DEAL
Relief , Reform & Recovery
PROBLEMS:
-unemployment
-farmers
-foreclosures
-bank failures
Interest rate
The cost of borrowing money
Fireside chats
radio broadcasts made by FDR
Jazz/jazz age
major black cultural development. highly popular music.
migrant workers
people, typically farmers, who move from place to place to harvest fruits and vegetables
Wagner Act
National Labor Relations Act, gov protected workers rights to unionize.
who used massive government spending to get his country out of the depression? what country?
Hitler, Germany
Elanor Roosevelt
who led the women's rights stuff?
The New Deal
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's strategy to end the depression by creating government programs to regulate the economy and put out-of-work Americans to work in government organized groups
Oakies
the name commonly given to refugees from the Great Plains seeking to escape the dust bowl
fireside chat
radio speeches given by president Franklin Roosevelt
deficit spending
government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
hoover later set up ____________
public works program
Social Security
___ ____ : provided retirement pensions to the elderly, unemployment insurance, AFDC(welfare), and money for the handicapped.
Alexander Hogue
"The Dust Bowl" - American Painter
Josefina F. de Bright
organized against discrimination, urged selkf-reliance, member of El Congresso
CCC
sent young men to work camps to perform reforestation and conservation tasks. Removed surplus of workers from cities, provided healthy conditions for boys, provided money for families
Speculation
risky buying and selling of stocks in the hope of making a quick profit
francis townshed
new deal opponent who sugggested a pension for the elderly
Soviet
Council of workers and soldiers set up by Russian revolutionaries in 1917
Stock Crash
when all the stocks crashed and started the panic of the great depression
Nine-Power Treaty
All nine nations represented at the conference agreed to respect the Open Door Policy by guaranteeing the territorial integrity of China
Townsend Plan
idea of social security- give pension to the elderly, $200 per month, spend in 30 days, give up jobs
hundred days
the first hundred days when roosevelt passed bill after bill to attempt to fix the great depression
Mae west
portrayed herself in a series of successful films as an overtly sexual woman manipulating men through her attractiveness.
Income
Money received on a regular basis for work done.
bank holiday
closing of banks during the Great Depression to avoid bank runs
Model T
First affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black.
Charles Dawes
a financial man from America who helped to create the plan to get Germany out of bankrupt situation
FDR (Franklin D. Roosevelt)
Democratic President after Hoover - changed what Hoover was doing to slow the Depression and started involving the gov't and spending money to lower unemployment rates
Sacco and Vanzetti
executed for robbing and killing a store owner, symbolic example of prejudice because they were Italian
soup kitchens
places where the hungry could get a free meal
Great PUrge
1930s events in the Soviet Union which saw more than 2 million political dissidents killed or jailed by Stalin due to the opposition to his rule
stock holders
people who own part of a company through stocks; if the company makes money and stock holders make money; New York Stock Exchange
Agricultural adjustment administration
Paid farmers to destroy surplus and limit production.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
created the National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Every Man a King!
Louisiana senator Huey Long's Share Our Wealth movement during the Great Depression
Rural Electrification Administration
Also known as the Rural Utilities Service, it was created in 1935 to provide electricity to rural areas. As well as provide jobs and wages to many people, it was created chiefly to help out farmers
Marian Anderson
One of the greatest concert singers of her time. First African-American to perform at the Whitehouse. The DAR refused her use of Constitution Hall for a concert, so Eleanor Roosevelt set her up to perform at the Lincoln Memorial.
reconstruction finance corporation to help the economy
loaned money to businesses>BUSINESSES HIRED WORKERS> DECREASED UNEMPLOYMENT> MORE PEOPLE EARNING MONEY> MORE MONEY SPENT> DEMAND FOR PRODUCTS INCREASED> BUSINESS HIRED WORKERS and so on
Duke Ellington
Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz.
Buying On Margin
Purchasing stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal program begun in 1935; employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians
agricultural adjustment act
Gave farmers money to reduce crop size to reduce production and bring up the value of crops
to seek social justice
why did radical and reform movement work together
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis (depression) and world war.
The Dust Bowl
A region of the Great Plains including parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas where drout and soil erosion created enormous dust storms in the 1930s. Thousands of people went to California hoping to get a better life.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
employed workers to help conserve the nation's natural resources
Court Packing
In FDR's second term, he tried to pass a law that would allow him to add judges to the supreme court. Many people feared FDR was becoming a dictator and refused to pass this law.
Civilian Conservation Corps
put young men (18-25) to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in soil-erosion and flood control projects; paid $30/month and provided free food, uniforms, and lodging
Other effects of the Depression on Australians
-Increased crime rate
-Families split
-Psycological damage
How did Roosevelt curb farming?
FDR asked farms to destroy surplus crops and livestock in order to enact the laws of supply and demand
Fair Labor Standards Act
A mininum wage
a maximum workweek of 40 hours and time and a half over overtime
childlabor restrictions on those under 16
Of Mice and men
A novel of two migrant workers, George and Lennie, who share a dream of owning a home. That dream is shattered when one of them cannot control his strength. Novel by John Steinbeck.
Clarence Darrow and William Jennings bryan
Attorneys argueing in Scopes Monkey Trial
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States
What were the effects of the Depression?
City laborers-Many lost their jobs, became homeless, lived in poverty, and some resorted to living in "Hoovervilles", Farmers-Many could not afford to keep their farms and the Dust Bowl forced thousands to migrate elsewhere, Women-Had trouble finding work because so many men were unemployed, Children-Faced horrible health conditions through labor and lack of food, many could not go to school, and many could not be supported by their parents, Men-Psychologically felt like failures because of their inability to find work, Racial minorities-Discrimination increased, work became harder to find for African Americans, many Hispanics and Asian Americans were deported, and lynchings increased in the South.
Route 66, the Mother road
What road did the Okies take when they traveled from Oklahoma to California?
How did the great depression end
came to an end when WWII started in Europe and the U.S. economy was busy making war materials
Surplus
...
capital
money from investors
WPA
works progress administration
Hoover Blanket
an old newspaper
drought- The dust bowl
cause
Bootlegging
Making, transporting, and drinking beer
Relief Programs
CCC, WPA, FERA, SSA
Black Tuesday
Oct. 29th, 1929....stocks plunged
Communism
Official government party of the Soviet Union where the government owns everything.
TVA
renovated existing dams, made 20 more
dorothea lange
photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression
democrat
African Americans and Labor Union members began to vote ___________ for the first time
reform
new rules or programs the government starts to help make America better
Macroeconomics
the study of the overall functioning of an economy such as a basic economic growth, unemployment, inflation.
Robert C. Weaver
Who was the African-American, Harvard-educated, economist who unofficially advised FDR as part of his Black Cabinet?
Grant Wood
led the regionalist school, which emphasized traditional American Values, especially those of the rural Midwest and South, and his most famous painting was American Gothic
relief
a direct money payment to the unemployed
child actress that was optimistic figure in 1930s
shirley temple
18th Amendment
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages.
Depression
A period of low economic activity with high unemployment
Work Relief Programs
established to give needy people government jobs
more marriages
what DID NOT happen in the depression
Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)
protect investors by supervising insurance of securities and regulation stock exchange...still exists
public works
projects built by the government for public use
dividend
money paid to stock holders when there stock earns a profit
sit-down strike
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
Election of 1932
Herbert Hoover was the republican candidate and used "prosperity around the corner." Franklin D. Roosevelt was the democrat candidate and used the 3 R's- "relief, recovery, reform." The Republican platform included higher tariffs, keeping the gold standard, and the continuation of Hoover policies. The Democratic platform included the repeal of prohibition, a 25% cut in government spending, unemployment aid, and a "new deal" for America. Roosevelt won with 472 electoral votes and all but 6 states. His victory paved the way for his "New Deal' policies and optimism in the country "nothing to fear but fear itself (Inauguration speech)."
How may trees did the CCC plant?
200 Million
sitdown strike
stopping all machines and refused to leave the factory
Black Thursday
October 24, 1929; almost 13 million shares sold that day alone
Albert B. Fall
The Harding Cabinet member who profited from and was convicted for the Teapot Dome Scandal.
Boulder Dam
dam on the colorodo river builst during the Depression to create jobs
Hoovervilles
these were set up by people that lost their jobs and could not afford to pay rent and mortgages; these shacks consisted of crates, tar paper, etc. they were on the outskirts of towns
The Wright Brothers
responsible for Miracle at Kitty Hawk in 1903
laissez faire
a policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
Father Coughlin
Radical priest and radio show host who talked against the Jews and FDR. His show was very very popular
Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
bring low-cost electricity to farm families
banking panic
when everyone would take out all of their money out of the bank at the same time
National Industrial Recovery Act
set standards in wages, production,and prices
Congress of Industrial Organizations [CIO]
union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955
Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
snow white
was a princess. People went here to releave stress
Social Security Act
created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for the retired.
Henry cabot lodge (senator)
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
What did the Glass-Steagall Act create? What did it do?
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, insured deposits up to 2,500
______ is to pay small percent of price and to borrow the rest
Buying On- Margin
National Credit Corporation
used money from New York City bankers to loan to smaller banks.
Securities and Exchange Commission
a federal agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other electronic securities markets in the United States.
John N. Garner
was the 44th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and the 32nd Vice President of the United States. In 1932, Garner ran for the Democratic Presidential nomination against Governor of New York Franklin Roosevelt. When it became evident that Roosevelt was the strongest of several candidates, although he had not yet received a majority of delegates, Garner cut a deal with FDR, becoming Roosevelt's Vice-Presidential candidate
Federal Art Project
Offered a variety of new jobs for artists
What was the Red Scare?
Many Americns fearful of communists. Americans were accusing other Americans of being "Red" or communist
why did banks close?
because they were useing the peoples money to play the stock market and when they lost, the people lost their money
Great Plains in the Midwest
During the 1930s, what region became known as the Dust Bowl?
unequal distribution of wealth
one cause of the GD: repressive labor policies used by the gov. and bus. had prevented working class from making substantial financial gains.
Countries Australia borrowed money from
Great Britain and USA (short term loans)
Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
Who said "We have nothing to fear but fear itself"?
describe how Coolidge bears the bulk of the responsibility of the lack of Presidential Leadership
refused to make any public statement discouraging stock market speculation
-believed Gov should NEVER interfere with business
"America's business is business"
Why did some people not support FDR and his NEw Deal?
They were fearful that the government was becoming too big and had too much control.
Frances Perkins
.
Dwight Morrow
Embassador to America
NIRA
this program controlled production, set prices, wages, and working conditions.
AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Act- regulated farm production so that prices went up and promoted soil conservation
Roughly what percentage of workers were unemployed during the Great Depression?
25%
3 R's
Relief for needy
recovery of economy
reform
Wall Street
where they sold the stocks
Francis Perkins
Roosevelt's Secretary of Labor and first woman cabinet member in U.S. history.
Fair labor Standards
minimum wage, commodity credit corporation
FDR
Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
21st Amendment
Repealed the 18th amendment, ending Prohibition
work relief
programs that gave needy people government jobs
Describe the TVA
TVA- Tennessee Valley Authority- planned development of the Tennessee Valley region
Frank Lloyd Wright
architect - theory that buildings should grow from their sites and not slavishly imitate Greek and Roman imitations. "form follows function"
*Deficit Spending*
FDR used this practice during the Great Depression; the government practice of spending more money than it takes in from taxes
Unemployment during G.D
went up as high as 25%
brain trust
group of expert policy advisers who worked with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s to end the Great Depression
direct relief
hoover did not believe the federal government should provide
okies: mass migration
unflattering name given to Oklahomans and others from the rural Midwest, especially those who left the Dust Bowl looking for better lives during the 1930s
the stock market
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was created to regulate:
Moving Assbmbly Line
Moving assembly line . This system used conveyer belts to moveparts and partly assembled cars from one group of workers to another .
100 Days
name given to the beginning of FDR's presidency when Congress passed many New Deal programs
Causes of Dust Bowl
Grassland was converted to wheat, which was in high demand during WWI, exhausted the soil and massive drought
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
insured savings accounts in banks approved by the government
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
lent money to businesses, provided funds for state and local programs providing relief, however the directors were reluctant to make risky loans, and much of its budget remained unspent
Causes of Great Depression
Overproduction of goods by factories and farms 2) Flaws in the banking system
(FDIC) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
insured savings accounts in banks approved by the government
National Labor Relations Board(Wagner Act)
protected American workers from unfair management practices, workers could not be fixed for joining a union
Dust Bowl
the soil was dry and when strong winds would come they would gather the dirt and blow it for miles and miles picking up more and more dirt then eventually it would just be a big black storm of dust, EVERYWHERE!!
NAtional Labor Relations ACt (NLRA)
1935-national labor relations board to enforce labor laws; (wagner act) right to unionize
Alphabet Soup
Term used to refer to the group of New Deal programs created to provide "Relief, Reform, and Recovery" for American citizens, banks, and businesses during the Great Depression.
What was "Black Tuesday"?
another name for October 29, 1929 the day the Great Crash of the stock market began
What was the New Deal?
A group of programs that were intended to fight the Depression.
guaranteed workers the right to collective bargaining
Section 7A of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA):
his combined message of religion with anti-Semitism
A particularly odious part of Fr. Coughlin's criticism of the New Deal was:
What did the CCC do for people during the Great Depression?
The CCC hired jobless people in the city to work in America's national parks, forests, wilderness areas, and countryside.
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