The Later Middle Ages Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Adventure story
not clergy
God doesn't exist
Arabic word for God
Great Schism
separation of Church
missionary to British Isles
Roman Catholic Church; an ecclesiastical censure that excludes a person or district from participation in most sacraments and from Christian burial
Manorial System
Same thing as Feudalism.
Code of conduct for knights
lay people are...
non religious people
Religious ideas that oppose accepted church reachings
the national legislature of various countries made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons
battles fought between Christians and Muslims during the Middle Ages
Frankish Christian king who expanded the empire during the late 700s
people who have entered the monastaries willingly (not made to by parents) to avoid war and have food to eat.
everyone above the peasants; had titles of nobility; kings, dukes, barons, knights
a crude uncouth ill-bred person lacking culture or refinement
a more agricultural system that provided lords and peasants with food, shelter, and protection
Magna Carta
a written document that gave recognition to the relationship between king and vassals
1st crusade
Christians goal to take Jerusalem. Pope convinced people by telling them to ignore the church rules at the time being set up feudal states crusaders capture Jerusalem
What was the most effective measure taken against the plague?
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation
educated women that are widows or unwed,often from nole families
eastern schism
eastern church breaking away in 1044
A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
The Abbasid and Umayyad Caliphs where empires ruled by _____ Muslims
the problems with william were the french style of ________
Thomas Beckett
Archbishop of Canterbury who refused to allow king to try clergy in royal courts; murdered by knights believed they were working on behalf of the king; proclaimed a saint
a newly married man (especially one who has long been a bachelor)
Gothic cathedrals
Elaborate churches that came about during the Middle Ages with high ceilings
a wall hanging of heavy handwoven fabric with pictorial designs
an association of people in the same business or trade
large estate owned by a knight or lord
n ethnic group (also known as the Hungarian People)
____ declares only the Church has the authority to appoint church officials
Holy book. Book of all of Muhammad's revelations.
Charles Martel
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
the tradition that the oldest son will inherit the fief
unites the franks converts to T begins relationship church and state
three-field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
SPAIN: Reconquista
During the 1400s, the campaign by European Christians to drive the Muslims from present-day Spain
the practice of living the life of a monk
Louis IX
he was the french kings who persecuted Jews and heretics. he ended serfdom and led the eighth and ninth crusade. he was sainted after his death
Holy Roman Empire
the Roman Empire of the German Nation
Second Crusade
a Crusade from 1145 to 1147 that failed because of internal disagreements among the crusaders and led to the loss of Jerusalem in 1187
Pope Gregory I
590-604 was most important figure for providing Roman church with sense of direction;
Were set up so that the Knights could poractice their warrior skills when they were not in battle
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor
harold of wessex
king of england; defeated by william of normandy; battle of hastings; lost his crown to william
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
How did nuns communicate?
Sign language. They were not allowed to speak.
100 years war Edward III
claimed french throne by making himself grandson of Philip IV
What is a fief?
the land that is given
the granting and holding of a fief was a contract bewteen lord and vassal
The parliament tried to
include knights and citizens in the council
sometimes ordered heretics to be tortured and sometimes put to death
Civil authorities became involved in punishing heretics
How did England become Anglo-Saxon?
450 AD- Angles and Saxons (two germanic tribes) settle and make kingdoms- Wessex, Northumbria and Mercia that are broken into shires
Who was William the Conqueror?
a decendent of the viking ruler; king edwards cousin; king of normandy; defeated harold at the battle of hastings
What historic event in 1588 will allow the English to explore the "new world?"
The defeat of the Spanish Armada
Causes and effects of the bubonic plague
brought by rats on trade ships, 1st brought famin and starvation, then brought inflation & witchcraft, 25 million ppl died
How did a boy learn a trade during the Middle Ages?
He became an apprentice, and then lived with the family of the master tradesman
nobles provide?
"God Wills It"
servant or slave
Holy Land
Palestine (modern Israel)
system of ranking people
Guilds provided
protection, set standards
warriors who fought on horseback
henry i
created office of excequer
Community that shares a government
trainee in a particular trade
Satan's three faces and Dante's journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise are this.
The movement proposed by Church lawyers in which only a general council of bishops could end the Great Schism; lessened the power of the pope because it gave an assembly power over the pope
forceful, convincing; relevant, to the point
What does Christendom mean?
Community of Christians
The _______ attacked the Caroligian Empire from the East
Thomas Aquinas
In Scholasticism, attempted to reconcile faith and reason by using logic to support Christian Doctrine.
Summa Theologiae
Aquinas' four-volume work which includes theology and philosophy
taking away -person right of membership in christian church
Contest on horseback between two knights
Problem with divisible inheritance
eventually land becomes worthless
a member of christian church founded on principles of reformation
Middle Ages
years between ancient and modern times
ships that the vikings used. could sail in 3 feet of water. made it easier for vikings to attack because they could row up shallow creeks.
women who devoted their lives to God
the campaign by European Christians in the 1400s; wanted to drive Muslims out of present-day Spain
Thomas Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury; refused to allow his clergy to be tried in royal courts; was a martyr
Church offering, an offering of a tenth part of some personal income
The holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
-attempt to use reason to support Christian beliefs; used by Thomas Aquinas
This poem tells the story of Tristan and Iseult.
What was the percentage of the people in the upper class?
people who had taken formal vows to devote their lives to God
officials who kept control of powerful nobles. they checked on grievences, roads, and if justice was done from charlemagne
Missi dominici
female who dedicates her life to God; avoids the things of the world
a bracket of stone, wood, or other building material projecting from the face of a wall and generally used to support a arch. short horizontal support girder
Yersinia pestis
deadly bacterium carried by rats with fleas
Feudal contract
an unwritten set of rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal - the major obligation was to perform military service (40 days a year)
a fine, the amount paid by the wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed; translates as "money for a man"
The process of clearing the land of forests, often to make space for farms and cities.
causes of BD
yerstina Pestis, oriental rat flea, dirty living, densly populated, silk road, no clothes or bath,
tenant farmers
people who payed rent for their land or hired farm laborers
Richard I
The English leader of the 3rd Crusade who tried to retake Jeruselum.
who were the only people who could join the guilds at first
rich people
What was the Great Hall used for?
They socialized there
Common law
laws that were common to the whole kingdom-- this began to replace law codes that varied from place to place
one of a class of lyric poets of knightly rank major theme-courtly love
622 AD/Islamic Calendar
Lunar calendar used by Muslims dating back to 622 AD
by the pope
church of the west was ruled _____
land in central Italy donated to the Pope by Kind Pepin I
papal states
feudal lords became weak
1st reason why feudalism declined (in alphabetical order and 4 terms)
Theodoric the Ostrogoth (493-526)
became king by murdering dinner guest Odovacar. respected roman culture.
High Middle Ages
Many new towns came into being during the economic recovery of Europe which lasted from 1000 to 1300.
Hales Comet
what did William see that he felt was an omen that God wanted him to be king?
Effects of the Investiture Controversy
Walk to Canossa, and Concordat of Worms
Coat of Arms
a design on a shield that signifies a particular family, university, or city
French succession (what happened)
Heirs for 300 years and then sons died and closes heir was Edward III for King of England.
Philip became king: problems arose
Results of the Norman Conquest of England
-Many English nobles lost their lands
-New oaths of loyalty were required by the new king
England's new ruling class were French speaking
The emergence of a middle class, the rise of kings and central authority
The charters and the towns allow people to make money outside of the feudal system. The king sees the money going into trade, so he taxes the middle class and when the economy grows, so does the kings bank. Centralized power is returning through the king
Why was the Medieval Period called the "Middle Ages"?
It falls in the MIDDLE of 2 other periods (the Roman and the Renaissance)
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