art history II final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Migatory
400-800
loggia
covered open-aired corridor
Degas, Star Dancer, 1878
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Artist: Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
Title: Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Belley
Location: France
Date: 1797
Artistic Style/Movement: Neoclassicism

Significance:

One of the students of David, Girodet-Trioson found an inspiring subject in Belley, a hero of the anti-slavery movement.

The equality of all men is an issue raised in the Enlightenment period. Belley led the campaign in 1794 to abolish slavery in the French colonies. He leans against a bust of Guillaume Raynal, a French philosopher who wrote a book in 1770 condemning slavery.

Napoleon would reestablish slavery in the Caribbean Islands in 1801.
colore, cororito
north Italian colorism
Lin, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, 1981-82: memorial and site
DONATELLO, prophet figure, Habbakuk (Zuccone)
1423-1425
Funeral Procession to Westminster Abbey and Battle of Hastings, Bayeux Tapestry, Bayeux, France, 1070-1080, English Romanesque
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Jean-August Dominique Ingres
Portrait of Madame Desire Raoul-Rochette
1830
Although Ingres complained that making portraits was a "considerable waste of time," he was unparalleled in rendering a physical likeness and the material qualities of clothing, hairstyles, and jewelry. In addition to polished life-size oil portraits, Ingres produced - usually in just a day - small portrait drawings that are extraordinarily fresh and lively. This exquisite portrait is a flattering yet credible interpretation of the relaxed and elegant sitter. With her gloved right hand Madame Raoul-Rochette has removed her left-hand glove, simultaneously drawing attention to her social status (gloves traditionally were worn by members of the European upper class, who did not work with their hands) and her marital status (on her left hand is a wedding band). Her shiny taffeta dress, with its fashionably high waist and puffed sleeves, is rendered with deft yet light strokes that suggest more than they describe. Greater emphasis is given to her refined face and elaborate coiffure, which Ingres has drawn precisely and modeled subtly through light and shade.
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Artist: Paula Modersohn-Becker
Title: Self-Portrait with Camellia Branch
Date: 1907
Artistic Style/Movement: Expressionism

Significance:

The best known of several, this Self-Portrait shows simple form and restrained color used to create a feminine tenderness of expression.
grisaille
monochrome paintings in shade of gray
"David", Donatello, Italy, Early 15th C.
Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818-19.
Synthetism
a term used by post-Impressionist artists like Paul Gauguin, Émile Bernard and Louis Anquetin to distinguish their work from Impressionism. Earlier, it has been connected to the term Cloisonnism, and later to Symbolism; Gauguin
FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, dome of Florence Cathedral
1420-1436
Lions and Old Testament Prophet, Moissac, France, 1115-1130, French Romanesque
David before Saul, fol. 24v, Belleville Breviary, Jean Pucelle, Paris, France, ca. 1325, French Gothic
contrapposto
An Italian term meaning “set against,” used to describe the twisted pose resulting from parts of the body set in opposition to each other around a central axis.
Giacomo Balla
1871-1958

Italian painter, a founder of Futurism
One of the signatories of the Futurist Manifesto (1910)
On a visit to Paris (1900) he was strongly affected by the Impressionist and Divisionist painters.
B.’s Dog on a Leash (1912), as an attempt to present motion by superimposing several images, is a logical exposition of Futurism; but his pictures developed towards abstract art, increasingly resolving into abstract lines of movement and force.
Pietra serena
a gray Tuscan sandstone; architectural details engraved in this
Potato Eaters, 1885, Oil on Canvas, Vincent van Gogh
Completion of the Intervention of the Sabine Women was unique because Jacques Louis David finished without
comission
PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Finding of the True Cross and Proving of the True Cross, ca.
1455
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687-692, Islamic
Artist that symbolized the entire pop movement
andy warhol
What government followed the Reign of Terror?
the Directory
Pont Aven, Brittiny
located south of France, community consisted of a Celtic enclave who were superstitious and religious; Gauguin
Jacobins
the most famous political club of the French Revolution. So called from the Dominican convent where they originally met in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris. It originated as the Club Benthorn, formed at Versailles as a group of Breton deputies to the Estates General of 1789. At the height of its influence, there were thousands of chapters throughout France, with a membership estimated at 420,000. After the fall of Robespierre the club was closed.
Robert Henri
founder of the Ashcan School and part of "The Eight"; one of his students was Bellows (Bellows' Cliff Dwellers)
Volute
A spiral scroll, as seen on an Ionic capital
What did Guernica symbolize?
Atrocitites of the Spanish Civil war, specifically the destruction of the Basque in Guernica
Why was this painting unappreciated?
Considered to be a visual joke confounds pictoral reality
Title of art work by Salvadore Dali
the melting clock in the desert.. answer..
The persistance of Memory
maniera
style
Beecroft, VB35, 1998
DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO, Giovanna Tornabuoni(?)
1488
arriccio
rough, thick undercoat of plaster
Sutemi, Wakasa House, Tokyo, 1939
Interior, Katholikon, Hosios, Lukas, Greece, 11th, Byzantine
Egon Schiele
1890-1918

Austrian painter and graphic artist; with Klimt, who influenced him, and Kokoschka, one of the great Expressionist artists of early 20th-c. Vienna. S.’s most powerful work is in his male and female nudes in pencil, gouache, watercolour, etc.; the figures express in their postures emotions from despair to passion – and the female nudes are often unashamedly erotic. S. was primarily a draughtsman, and the angularieties of his line and its nervous precision pervade all his work. His 1st real success came in the last year of his life, but full recognition was not accorded his work until the 1950s.
Vision after the sermon (Jacob wrestling with the angel), 1888, oil on canvas, Paul Gauguin
CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets
1280-1290
Manet, Olympia, 1863 (exhibited 1865). Clark, Olypmia's Choice reading explains why this painting was so threatening and radical.
Chevreul
author of "Law of Simultaneous Contrast of Colors"; theory states that colors can look relatively different next to each other
Lamentation over the Dead Christ, Saint Pantaleimon, Nerezi, Macedonia, 1164, Byzantine
Plan, Hagia Sophia, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Istanbul, Turkey, 532-537, Byzantine
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Artist: Sebastian Salcedo
Title: Our Lady of Guadalupe
Location: Denver Art Museum

Significance:

Art of the Americas varied widely, depending on which area we discuss.

Native American influence was often combined with the influence of whatever European state had colonized the area.
Artist?
Title
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Artist: Max Pechstein
Title: Indian and Woman
Date: 1910
Artistic Style/Movement: Die Brucke/Expressionism
Sgraffito
decoration made by incising or cutting away a surface layer of material to reveal a different color beneath
Starry Night, 1889, Oil on Canvas, Vincent van Gogh
New York Dada (2)
Marcel Duchamp; Fountain 1910's
NANNI DI BANCO, Four Crowned Saints, Or San Michele, ca.
1408-1414
Woman sacrificing at an Altar, Diptych of Nicomachi and Symmachi, 400, Roman
Nocturne in the Black and Gold: the falling rocket, 1874, Oil on canvas, James Abbot McNeill Whistler
who was director of the king's buildings?
Comte d'Angiviller
ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Portrait of a Lady
1460
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Antoine-Jean Gros
Napoleon in the Plague House at Jaffa
1804
Neoclassical AND Romantic

-Gros began working in David's studio as a teenager, and eventually vied with his master for commissions from Napoleon. Gros traveled with Napoleon in Italy in 1797 and later became an official chronicler of Napoleon's military campaigns. This painting is an idealized account of an actual incident: During Napoleon's campaign against the Ottoman Turks in 1799, bubonic plague broke out among his troops. Napoleon decided to quiet the fears of the healthy by visiting the sick and dying who were housed in a converted mosque in the Palestinian town of Jaffa (Palestine was then part of the Ottoman Empire). The format of the painting - a shallow stage and a series of arcades behind the main actors - is inspired by David's Oath of the Horatii. The overall effect is Romantic, however, not simply because of the dramatic lighting and the wealth of emotionally stimulating elements, both exotic and horrific, but also because the main action is meant to incite veneration rather than republican virtue. At the center of a small group of soldiers and a doctor, Napoleon calmly reaches toward the sores of one of the victims - the image of a Christ-like figure healing the sick with his touch is consciously intended to promote him as semidivine. Not surprisingly, Gros gives no hint of the event's cruel historical aftermath: Two months later, Napoleon ordered the remaining sick to be poisoned.

-At the Salon of 1804, Gros debuted his painting Bonaparte Visiting the Plague House at Jaffa. The painting launched his career as a successful painter. It depicts Napoleon as he visits his own men in Jaffa (part of present-day Israel and Syria). He had just massacred the countries after losing an attempt to conquer Egypt and his men caught the plague. Opinions differ as to why he visited: whether it was to determine if he should leave his troops to die in Jaffa, or to boost morale. The painting is important for Gros because he shows Napoleon in a mostly positive light. He also showed an exotic setting and a recent event, which set him apart from his contemporaries.
El Lissitzky
Russian pioneer of modern design in the fields of typography and exhibition design in the 1920s
He also transmitted Russian ideas to W. Europe

In 1919 he met Malevich in Vitebsk

Painted his 1st abstract paintings of startling originality which he called Prouns

His Story of Two Squares (1920) is considered the 1st example of modern typographical design

In 1921 he helped to organize and design the Russian exhibition in Berlin

Group G which he founded in Berlin in 1920, fusing Suprematist and Constructivist ideas, made contact with De Stijl, leading architects and, through the other founder-member Moholy-Nagy, with the Bauhaus.
bel composto
beautiful whole; unity of the visual arts
John Sloan
a leading figure of the Ashcan School and part of "The Eight"; known for his gritty urban genre painting and was called "the premier artist of the Ashcan School who painted the inexhaustible energy and life of New York City during the first decades of the twentieth century" and an "early twentieth-century realist painter who embraced the principles of socialism and placed his artistic talents at the service of those beliefs."
1900 World's Fair
world fair where Art Nouveu made a debut; art nouveau pavillion by Siegfried Bing
The Battleship Potemkin (1925)
a 1925 silent film that dramatized the mutiny that occurred in 1905 when the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin rebelled against their officers of the Tsarist regime; featured a scene of a screaming woman being shot in the eye that served a catalyst for Francis Bacon's paintings; Bacon's Sketch After Velazquez's Portrait of Innocent X
Louis XVI did not want to ratify what document?
The Declaration of Rights of Man
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