The Nervous System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
rhombencephalon
the hindbrain.
CSF
Clear, colorless fluidCirculates through the ventriclesFunctions:BuoyancyReduces brain weight by 95%ProtectionProvides liquid cushionEnvironmental stabilityTransports nutrients, chemical messengers and removes waste
 
Cerebral Region

Cerebral hemispheres
Cerebral cortex
Axons connecting cortex w/ other parts of NS
Deep nuclei
All 3 = cap over diencephalon



Diencephalon

Thalamus
relay station


Hypothalamus
regulates autonomic function
"homeostatic thermostat"


Epithalamus
Pineal gland here, circadian rhythm, endocrine secretions


Subthalamus
Controls/contributes to movement
Extramedullary and intramedullary tumors are classified as :
Intramedullary
lateral ventricle
1 in each hemisphere
Cerebellum
Smoothes and coordinates body movements via:Information on equilibrium and postureInformation on current movementsProprioceptionSensation of the positions of body parts relative to each otherAllows you to touch your nose with your eyes closed
Hypothalamus
Functions:B ehaviorE ndocrineE motionT emperature controlS leep/Wake cyclesH unger/ThirstA utonomic controlM emory
Gray Matter
 
vs
 
White Matter
Gray

Mostly cell BODIES


Information INTEGRATED here


White

Composed of AXONS and MYELIN


Axons RELAYING info among NS parts


Collection of axons = fasciculus, tract, funiculus, peduncles
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
 
DORSOLATERAL FRONTAL CORTEX
 
______ LOBE
 
Location
Function
Dysfunction
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
 
DORSOLATERAL FRONTAL CORTEX

Frontal Lobe
 
Location: Anterior to premotor cortex
 
Function: Concerned with EXECUTING GOAL-DIRECTED
ACTIVITIES ("Executive functions")
 
Dysfunction:
Ideational apraxia
Prefrontal perseveration
Intellectual deficits
Sequencing & organizational deficits
Poor judgment (affects safety)
Loss of abstraction (concreteness)
Bradykinesia w/ L CVA
Impulsivity w/ R CVA
(Impacts safety)
Poor problem solving
 
 
 
 
Medulla
Central portion of certain organs.
Pineal gland
controls sleeping/ awakening impulses
Slippage of vertebrae occurs with:
Spondylolithesis
Sulci
Shallow grooves of the cerebral hemisphere.
Commissures
Connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres.
cerebrospinal fluid
additional protection, cushion of fluid found around brain and spinal cord
 
reservoir of circulating fluid which is monitored by the brain to detect changes in the internal environment (CO2 & blood pH)
Neurofibrillary tangles
pathological protein aggregates found within neurons in cases of Alzheimer's disease.
Primary Motor Cortex
 
______ Lobe
Location
Function
Dysfunction
Primary Motor Cortex


Frontal Lobe

Location: Precentral Gyrus
 
F(x): Muscle contraction
         Execution of movement
-Motor Homunculus
 
Dysfunction
Hemiparesis:
One-sided dysfunction
Low tone, spasticity, paralysis, etc
Severity and type of damage correlates to area damaged

Dysarthria:
Speech disorders resulting from:
Paralysis
Incoordination
Spasticity of speaking muscles
 
 
 
 
 
 
ACA supplies______
 
 
ACA supplies  MEDIAL SURFACE of cerebral hemispheres
hpoglossol  
efferent( muscles of tongue) test= tongue protusion
MIDBRAIN
located between the diencephalon and the pons.- HAS CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES THAT CONTAIN PYRAMIDICAL MOTOR TRACTS-has CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT WHICH IS A CHANEL BETWEEN 3RD AND 4TH VENTRICLES
Cerebellum
 
Brain region most involved in producing smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle activity.
Parkinson’s Disease
Neurodegenerative disorder of the basal nuclei due to insufficient secretion of the neurotransmitter dopamine; symptoms include tremor and rigid movement.
Epithalamus
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms the roof of the third ventricle with the pineal gland extending from its posterior border.
Slow growing, infiltrative, low grade gliomas are :
Astrocytomas
Advanced highly malignant gliomas are :
Astrocytomas
The diencephalon houses the:
Thalamus and hypothalamus
diencephalon
the posterior section of the forebrain.
Central Sulcus
Separated the frontal and parietal lobes.
seizure disorders
sudden bursts of abnormal neuron activity that result in temporary changes in brain function
choroid plexus
produces Cerebral Spinal Fluid in ependymal cells
 
Somatic System
Provides BIDIRECTIONAL control of all voluntary systems
(Into CNS from body, reverse)

2 divisions:

Somatosensory
Conveys info FROM SKIN & MS to brain


Somatic motor system
Transmits information FROM BRAIN TO SKELETAL muscles

Secondary Sensory Association Area 
 
 
_____ Lobe
 
Location
Function
Dysfunction
Secondary Sensory Association Area 
  
Parietal Lobe
 
Location: Superior Parietal Lobe
 
Function: Coordinates
Integrates
(and) Refines perception of sesory input
 
***Making sense of sensation***
 
 
Dysfunction: Impaired or absent:
- Localization
- 2-point discrimination
- Sharp/dull discrimination
- Stereognosis
- Graphesthesia
 
 
 
 
 
 
the epithalamus is superior and posterior to ?  
the thalamus
Cerebral dominance
designates the hemisphere dominant for language (left in 90% of people)
CNS consists of
the brain and spinal chord
Corona Radiata
Crown-like arrangement of nerve fibers radiating from the internal capsule of the brain to every part of the cerebral cortex.
Postpolio Syndrome
A condition that affects former poliomyelitis patients long after recovery from the disease and that is characterized by muscle weakness, joint and muscle pain, and fatigue.
Narcolepsy
A disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable, though often brief, attacks of deep sleep, sometimes accompanied by paralysis and hallucinations.
With _____________, infection leads to cerebral softening, necrosis, and liquefaction of tissue.
Brain abscess
What pathology can occur from pyogenic bacteria migrating from the middle ear or sinuses?
Meningitis
_______ is a disruption or imbalance of flow of cerebrospinal fluid.
Hydrocephalus
What part of the meninges contains CSF?
Subarachnoid
That condition which allows protrusion of spinal cord or meningies outside the spinal canal is:
Spina bifida
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges, esp. of the pia mater and arachnoid, caused by a bacterial or viral infection and characterized by high fever, severe headache, and stiff neck or back muscles.
Association fibers
Connect different parts of the same hemisphere
Association areas of the cerebral cortex
Integrate diverse information
hydrocephalus
results from the blockage of the CSF circulation, usually in the cerebral aqueduct; fluid builds up, ventricles swell and pressure is applied to brain; treated surgically with a shunt
Thalamus
Lies on either side of the third ventriclePrinciple relay point for sensory and motor information into cerebrumInterthalamic adhesion (intermediate mass)
Three Levels of Complexity

Primary Areas
Initial sensory detection
Sound



Secondary Association Areas
Integration area
Dog bark vs Doorbell



Tertiary Association Areas
Complex integration of multiple cortical areas
eg when a song "takes you back"


 
the temporal lobe is for?
auditory input and interpretation
HYPOTHALMIC FUNTION
- has AUTONOMIC CONTROL CENTER FOR MANY VISCERAL FUNTIONS( ex: rate and force of the heartbeat) it regulates body temp., food intake, water balance, thirst, sleep and sleep cycle.- center for emotional response: involved in the perception of pleasure, fear and rage and in biolodical rythyms and drives. also controls release fo hormones by the ANTERIOR PITUITARY and produces posterior pituitary hormones
4 motor areas are
PRIMARY(SOMATIC) MOTOR CORTEX- which controls precises skilled voluntary movements.-PREMOTOR CORTEX controls learned, repetitious or patterned motor skills.-BROCA'S AREA involved in speech and preparation of speech- FRONTAL EYE FIELD controls voluntary eye movements.
Ridges AKA...1Shallow grooves...2Deep grooves......35 lobes are...4
1.gyri2. sulci3 fissures4. temporal, frontal, parietal,occipital and insula
Cerebral White Matter
Consists largely of myelinated fibers bundled into large tracts; provides for communication between cerebral areas and lower CNS centers.
Long-Term Memory
Information stored in the brain and retrievable over a long period of time, often over the entire life span of the individual.
Limbic System
Contains portions of the cerebrum and dicencephalon
That portion of a vertebral disk, which acts as a tough protective cover is the:
Annulus fibrosus
Maintaining a balance of cerebral spinal fluid requires absorption of CSF through:
Dural venous sinus
What type of neoplasm presents with signs of increased intracranial pressure?
Secondary metastases
frontal lobe
the anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus.
Sensory Areas of the cerebral cortex
Conscious awareness of sensation
dura mater
serves as outer layer of meninges and also inner periosteum of cranial bone; strong, white, fibrous tissue
Visual Association Area
 and
Tertiary Association Area
Visual Association Area and Tertiary Association Area
Occipital Lobe

Location
Adjacent to the primary visual area
 
Function
Synthesizes visual information and integrates it
Aides in the formation of visual memory

Dysfunction
 
Visual object agnosia
Not being able to recognize an object

Prosopagnosia
Can’t recognize faces
the pons does what?
relays nerve impulses related to voluntary skeletal movements from cerebral cortex to cerebellum.
also aids in respiration 
the endonuerium surrounds what?
the endonuerium surrounds each fiber (axon)
PREMOTOR CORTEX
- anterior to the precentral gyrus and coordinates simultaneous or sequental actions.-involved in the planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback and controls learned, repititous, or patterned motor skills.
Somatosensory association cortex
- located posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex- integrates sensory input from the primary somatosensory cortex and determines size, texture, and relationship of parts or objects being felt.
Frontal Eye Field
Located partially in and anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to Broca’s area and controls voluntary movement of the eyes.
Prosencephalon (forebrain)
The most anterior of the three primary regions of the embryonic brain, from which the telencephalon and diencephalon develop.
Cerebral Hemisphere
Either of the rounded halves of the cerebrum of the brain divided laterally by a deep fissure and connected at the bottom by the corpus callosum.
What causes CSF to travel?
Hydrostatic pressure, respiration, and movement
Factors that affect transfer of memory from STM to LTM
Emotional state, Rehearsal, Association of old data with new data, and Automatic Memory.
the what passes down the core of midbrain to the 4th ventricle?
the cerebral aqueduct
subdural space of spinal meninges
between dura mater and arachnoid mater, and contains interstitial fluid
4 Ventricles of the Brain
- contain 2 "c-shaped" lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemispheres; 3rd ventricle is in the diencephalon; 4th ventricle is in the hindbrain, dorsal to the pons, and develops from the lumen of the neural tube.- They contain cerebrospinal fluid; connected to one another and AND TO THE CENTRAL CANAL OF THE SPINAL CHORD and are lined by ependymal cells
Spinal Nerves
 
The 31 nerve pairs that arise from the spinal cord.
How does a thrombosis develop?
Slowly over time (hours or days)
the thalamus regulates and is essential in what?  
regulates conious recognition of pain and temp and some awareness of light touch and pressure.
essential role in cognition. 
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Key in maintaining homeostasis, regulates autonomic response (fight or flight)
spinal cord lies within ______ along the ______, ______, ______ & ______
spinal cavity, meninges, CSF, adipose tissue, blood vessels
COGNITIVE FUNTION OF THE CEREBELLUM
- PLAYS A ROLE IN NONMOTOR FUNTIONS SUCH AS WORD ASSOCIATION AND PUZZLE SOLVING- RECOGNIZES AND PREDICTS SEQUENCES OF EVENTS DURING COMPLEX MOVEMENTS
Where is the choroid plexis located?
In the right and left lateral ventricles
_ bundles of _______ called _______ project from each side of the ________, both join together to form a _____________ (compose the ___)
2, nerve fibers, nerve roots, spinal cord, spinal nerve, PNS
list some of the functions of the cerebellum  
coordination of muscle contractions of skeletal muscle contractions
maintenance of normal muscle tone
posture, and balance. 
2 funtional areas of the cerebral cortex.....1Conscious behavior involves...2
1.The 3 types of funtional behaviors are motor areas which control voluntary movement, sensory areas which promote concious awareness of sensation, and association areas which integrate diverse information.2 Conscious behavior involves the entire cortex
sub-
under
EPSP
Excitatory-Depolarization
express/o-
communicate
lepsy
seizure
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter
Unknown function?
Oxyphil
encaphal/o encephalotomy
brain
physi/o
nature (root word)
 
Endoneurium
 
deep fascia surrounding
individual nerve fibers
Somnambulism
-AKA sleepwalking, noctambulism
synapse
junction between adjacent neurons
Anterograde
Movement toward axonal terminal
Acoustic
VIII
 
Hearing and balance (sensory)
Dopamine
-neurotransmitter-released within the brain-involved in mood an thought disorders and in Parkinson's disease.
glial cells
several kinds, assist neurons
Functional classification of unipolar neurons?
Sensory
 
Grey Matter
 
consists of unmyelinated fibers
and nerve cell bodies.
(the commissure communicates
the right side with the left)
kinesin
motor proteins in anterograde transport
CNX
vagus
sensory originates in pharynx, auricle of ear, external acoustic meatus, diaphragm, and visceral organs in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and its destination is sensory nuclei and autonomic centers of the medulla oblongata
motor originates in motor nuclei of medulla oblongata and its destination is (somatic)muscles of palate and pharynx (visceral)respiratory, cariovascular and digestive organs in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
test: have them say "ahh" observe uvula and palate. should be symmetrical
Hyperesthesia
-abnormal excessive sensitivity to touch, pain or other sensory stimuli
neuron
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
pia mater
innermost layer of the meninges
interneuron  
nerves that conduct impluses from sensory neurons to motor neurons.
Axons of olfactory neurons travel throught he cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and synapse with neurons in teh olfactory ...
bulb
medulla oblongata
*all tracts must pass through
*regulates heart rate
*blood pressure
*tells you when to inhale/exhale
*if injured, you die
endolymph
fluid that bathes the sensory receptors of the inner ear
Conjuctiva
mucous membrane that covers inner surface of eyelids and surface of the eye
Axon Collateral
A branch of an axon
Epilepsy
CNS disorder often characterized by seizures
NAMEis an autoimmune disease that mainly affects young adults
MS
local potentials
disturbances in membrane potential when a neuron is stimulatedshort- range change in voltageneuron response begins at dendrite --> soma --> axon --> synaptic knobs
Cone Cells
Photoreceptors for color vision. Packed in the fovea centralis
The most common neurotransmitter in the body
acetylcholine
action potentials are stopped when there is no more ____ dumped into the synapse
neurotransmitters
How is dopamine removed from the synapse?
...
autonomic nervous system
system that controls involuntary activities
neocortex
an additional outer layer of cortex consisting of six sheets of neurons running tangential to the brain surface
RECEPTOR
A SPECIALIZED CELL OR NERVE ENDING THAT RESPONDS TO A PARTICULAR CHANGE SUCH AS LIGHT, SOUND, HEAT, TOUCH OR PRESSURE.
thermoreceptors is a simple or complex sensory receptor?
simple
microglia
small ovoid cells with relatively long "thorny" processes.
Plexus
PNS; complex network of nerves from spinal nerves
myelin sheath
increases the speed of impulse transmission
Special senses
located in specialized sense organs- olfaction, gustation, equilibrium/balance, hearing, vision
sensory receptors specialized cell that sends sensation to CNS
is nerve tissue sturdy? So what protects it?
no;meninges
Cerebral Contusion
Injury involving bruising of brain tissue.
type of cell specialized to conduct electrical impulses
neuron
Nervous System
Specialized cells that sense the environment and allow rapid, long-distance communication between cells
A congenital deformity which occurs when portions of the medulla oblongata and cerebellum protrude into the spinal canal.
Arnold-Chiari malformation
Cranial nerves
12 pairs which conduct impulses between the brain and the head, neck, thoracic and abdominal areas
An axon with myelin sheaths can transmit electric impulses (slower/faster)than an axon without myelin sheaths
faster
axon
the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
amitotic
the direct method of cell division, characterized by simple cleavage of the nucleus without the formation of chromosomes.
Long Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
white matter
myelin sheaths surround these axons in the CNS which are well-defined bundles or tracts
MOTOR (EFFERENT)
TYPE OF NEURON THAT TRANSMIT MSGS. FROM THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TO ALL PARTS OF THE BODY.

NERVOUS SYSTEM COMPOSED OF TWO TYPES OF CELLS

Neuroglia cells
 

Neurons
Synaptic Bulb
At end of axon, containing vesicles for neurotransmitter.
4th Ventricle
connects to central canal going to spinal cord
lumbar puncture
the meninges which cover the spinal cord extend more inferiorly to form a sac from which cerebrospinal fluid can be withdrawn without damage to the spinal cord. this procedure is called a _____
What is resting potential?
unstable state, waiting to communicate
what are the meninges comprised of?
dura materarachnoidpia meter
Mesencephalon
The middle part of the brain between the diencephalon and the pons; also called the midbrain
NAMEis the larger diamter and the faster impulse
axon diamter
Ependymal cells
forms the epithelial lining of brain cavities and the central canal of the spinal cord, covers tufts of capillaries to form choroid plexuses
Spiral organ (organ of corti)
Inside of the cochlea
Complex regional pain syndrome
-AKA Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome-pain that occurs after an injury or medical condition that is much worse than it would be expected
The ANS is a subdivision of the what
PNS
interneuron
any neuron having its cell body, axon, and dendrites entirely within the central nervous system, especially one that conveys impulses between a motor neuron and a sensory neuron.
brainstem
the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts of the hypothalamus, functioning in the control of reflexes and such essential internal mechanisms as respiration and heartbeat
brain
the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions.
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nevous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. AKA skeletal nervous system.
Two Main Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic = Excite stuffParasympathetic = Bring it back to normal
Motor Unit
a single neuron and all the muscle cells it innervates
Reticular Activating System
filters out unimportant stimuli to the brain. Inhibited by sleep, depressed by drugs/alcohol.
Schwann Cell
One type of support cell in the nervous system. Found in the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells form myelin sheaths around axons.
Brain Stem
The part of the brain that controls functions including heart rate, breathing, and body temp.; includes midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
bundle of axons in the PNS, which are held together by layers of connective tissue
nerve
A test performed by having the patient stand with feet together or walk with his/her eyes closed to determine the presence of clumsiness in movements or gait.
Romberg test
what is another name for a nerve impulse
action potential
peripheral nervous system
the portion of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
What are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
Autonomic and Somantic
Neurilemma or Sheath of Schwann may assist in
regeneration of injured axons
gray matter
what sort of matter is in the basal nuclei?
presynaptic membrane
The part of the cell membrane of an axon terminal that faces the cell membrane of the neuron or muscle fiber with which the axon terminal establishes a synapse.
Cerebral spinal fluid flow
through all ventricles of brain to central canal of spinal cord, subarchnoid reabsorbs CSF back to blood replensishment
This is made up by the pons and medulla oblongata together.
brain stem
IMMUNE MEDIATED - acquired myasthenia gravis
failure of neuromuscular conduction due to reduction in number of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, caused by development of circulating antibodies directed against Ach, fairly common in mature dogs esp GSD, labs, goldens, uncommon in cats, classic presentation is exercise induced stiffness, tremors and weakness that resvolve wtih rest, facial, pharyngeal or esophageal weakness is common and in many cases there is megaesophagus without generalized weakness (focal myasthenia), regurgitation and aspiration pneumonia are frequent complications, diagnosis made when generalized weakness often resolves quickly after the IV administration of edrophonium chloride, definitive diagnosis based on the detection of antibodies in serum, treat with anticholinesterase drugs such as pyridostigmine orally or neostigmine SQ (typically start on this frist then switch to oral b/c many have megaesophagus), immunosuppressive dosages of prednisone are recommended in animals that do not responde to anticholinesterase therapy (used to decrease antibodies, more side effects, long term high dose pred will casue muscle weakness), prognosis is generally good and many dogs will undergo spontanous remission, prognosis is guarded for animals with aspiration pneumonia or persistent weakness, there is also a congenital defect, weakness apparent by 3-5 weeks of age when get up and moving, antibdodies bind with receptors and kills them off, at times it will not reach the threshold and won't have muscle contraction and therefore get muscle weakness
OUTSIDE-IS GRAY MATTER WHERE NERVE CELLS AND DENDRITES ARE.UNDERNEATH IS WHITE MATTER THAT CONTAINS NERVE FIBERS THAT CONNECT WITH THE CELLS.
WHAT IS THE CEREBRUM MADE OF?
2 Types of Ion Channels
1. Passive or leakage channels are always open2. Active or gated have protein molecules which change shape.
Mental Health - Mood Disorders - dysthymia, also known as and what is it?
dysthymic disorder, chronic depression present at least 50% of the time for more than two years
True or False. ACtion potentials come in diff strenths..some weak and some strong.
false. must be positively charged
describe the synaptic cleft
space between the knob and the plasma membrane
What part of the brain is responsible for memory?
Left cerebral hemisphere, Right cerebral hemisphere, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe.
What nerve is responsible for the deltoid and teres minor, as well as the rotator cuff?
The axillary nerve, which originate from the brachial plexus.
Structures of the Nervous System - what are the four major structures?
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
the resting membrane potential is ____mV and its definition is__________
-70mVit is the difference in charge between the outside and the inside of the neuron
Each spinal nerve is connected to the spinal cord at 2 points called the....
Dorsal roots and the Ventral roots.
What are the structures of the central nervous system (CNS)?
Brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem), spinal cord, and meninges.
What part of the brain interprets and stores the signals from the senses?
cerebrum - signals are interpreted and stored in the largest part of the brain.
Difference in myelation in the CNS and PNS
*Nodes of Ravier are more widely spaced
*CNS myelin sheaths lack a neurilemma
*oligodendrocytes can coil around up to 60 axons at once
So what are 4 types of nerve fibers that can be found in spinal nerves?
1. Somatic Efferent (motor control)2. Somatic Afferent (motor sensory)3. Visceral Efferent (organ control)4. Visceral Afferent (organ sensory)
What parts of a neuron receive messages and transmit them to the body of the cell?
dendrites (A neuron is made up of a cell body and small branches called axons and dendrites.)
gli
glue
CN7
Facial
ton/o-
pressure
-LEPSY
seizure
EEG
electroencephalogram
gram
picture produced
Lumbar nerves
(l1-5)
astr-
star, star-shaped
phot/o
light (root word)
ACTION POTENTIAL
POTENTIAL ACTION
VER
Visual Evoked Response
MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging
Oscillating neurons
message regenerates itself
Neuroglia are ____ cells?
helper
white mater
regions of tracts
cerebral palsy
nonprogressive brain damage
Encephalocele
-AKA craniocele-congenital herniation of brain tissue through a gap in the skull
Acetycholine
A neurotransmitter associated with voluntary movement, sleep and wakefulness.
oculomotor
motor: somatic:4 extrinsic eye muscles->eyeball moves. autonomic:eye:ciliary muscle and iris
 
 
UNIPOLAR
one process occurs
for both
dendrite and axon
 
aura
premonitary awareness of an approaching physical or menta disorder pecular sensation that precedes seizures
Endorphins
released to make you happy
ophthalmic trigeminal
sensory
origin: orbial structures, nasal cavities, skin of forehead, upper eyelid and eyebrow, part of nose
destination: sensory nuclei in the pons
test: rub cotton on face, then trace same area with sharper object
Cranium Bone
Are protected the brain
bell's palsy
temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face
Relative refractory period
Small action potential created
innervates more organs is a characteristic of sympathetic or parasympathetic?
SD
Somatic
From CNS to skeletal muscle (voluntary)
contusion
traumatic injury that destroys brain tissue
choroid
extensive network blood vessels to supply eye
steroid hormones
receptors are found in cytoplasm/nucleus - biological responses develop slowly but last longer than peptide hormones - hormone binding triggers transcription of DNA which leads to mRNA for specific proteins to be produced - increase in protein production brings about desired effect of hormone
NAMEare short-lived changes in membrane potential
graded potenitals
Axonal Transport
two-way passage of proteins, organelles, and other material along an axonmicrotubules guide materials along axon
Cornea
Made of collagen fibers, outer membrane that protects the eye.
Cerebral palsy
-poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects-due to damage that affects the cerebrum
parasympathetic nerves
involuntary, autonomic nerve that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
What are some of the functions influenced by 5-HT?
...
sensory receptors
collect information about the physical world and then processes inside organism in integration centers
ascending tracts
carry sensory info toward the brain
Decreased haert rate - sympathetic or parasympathetic?
PSD
Holly's parents noticed around the age of 18 months that Holly did not seem to be developing the fine motor skills that most children her age had already developed. When reaching for her bottle, she would nearly always tip it over, she still could not
Cerebellum
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ar6OqAc7eIM
Reticular Activation System
RAS; consciousness levels and sleep/wake cycles
facial
sense of taste; contraction of muscles of facial expressions
syncope
fainting caused by sudden loss of blood flow to the brain
Parts of the brain stem
Pons, medulla, midbrain
The small space between an axon's tip, the structure next to the axon.
synapse
outer region of the cerebellum, contains sheets of nerve cells
cerebrospinal fluid
A form of dyskinesia marked by ceaseless slow, sinuous, writhing movements, especially of the hands (picture a pianist just before he touches the keys, but slower) which is involuntary.
athetosis
What is an impulse?
a traveling action potential
all-or-none response
once threshold is reached, all voltage-gated Na+ channels open and actions potential proceeds at a set amplitude
arthropod nervous system
nervous system consisting of localized central coordination
ventricle
part of the brain that is a cerebrospinal fluid-filled space. Here nutrients, hormones and WBC are conveyed across the blood-brain barrier, and shock cna be absorbed by the fluid
What synapse with many presynaptic neurons, some excitatory and some inhibitory
post synaptic neurons
Peripheral neurons
Peripheral neurons are able to   regenerate because of the   neurilemma but the CNS axons   are myelinated by   oligodendrocytes thus lacking   neurilemma and usually do not   regenerate.
cervical plexus
which nerves serve the neck and shoulders?
how many pairs of lumbar spinal nerves are there
5
endocrine route
hormone is transported via the blood to target organ
Depression
Prolonged period where there is a loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities
for the depolirzation phase to ocur, their must be a (1)
therehold reached
sensory (afferent) neurons
– specialized to detect stimuli
– transmit information about them to the CNS • begin in almost every organ in the body and end in CNS • afferent – conducting signals toward CNS
Auditory (Eustachian) tube
Extends from middle ear to nasopharynx, allowing air pressure in the middle ear to be equalized.
two tracts in spinal column
descending: lateral ventral corticospinal
Ascending: everything else
spinal cord
the cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal canal of the spinal column.
What is the central part of a neuron called?
soma
motor nerves
a nerve that consists of motor neuron axons
Two factors of Conduction Velocity
1. Axon diameter
~larger diameter, faster impulse
2. Degree of Myelination
~more myelinated, faster impulse
primary motor area
anterior to frontal fissure in frontal lobe
what are proprioceptors?
sense organs that monitor the position and movements of body parts
Hemiplegia
Paralysis of the right or left side of the body.
About how many neurons are there in the human brain?
100 billion
A neurotic disorder which occurs following exposure to an overwhelming environmental stress (very common in war veterans, for example). Symptoms include consistently reliving the experience, a numbing emotional responsiveness, and a general dysphoria.
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
what do astrocytes do
star shaped
anchor blood vessels to neurons
Creates the blood brain barrier
central nervous system
the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord.
What is found in the axon terminal?
Electrical impulse/ action potential
What is the structural classification of a sensory neuron?
Could be multipolar, bipolar, unipolar.
Two parts of Dorsal White column
Fasiculus Gracilis--> sensory axons from lower limb
Fasiculus Cuneatus--> sensory axons from Upper Limb
What does calcitonin do?
Responsible for building of bone and stops reabsortion of bone (lowers blood calcium levels)
VISUAL, OLFACTORY, AUDITORY ASSOCIATION AREAS(Visual association is also called Wernicke's area)
Located near each sensory center (e.g. visual association center is located near visual cortex in the occipital lobe)Interprets incoming data and analyzes the information by comparing it to stored information - "Have I heard this before?" Damage here may prevent the patient from understanding what the visual, auditory or olfactory information means (letters on a page do not represent words)
Explain the function of both repetition and variation in training. Be specific about the neurological adaptations that occur with each.Which is more important in dance training?
-repition in training solidifies pathways

-variation in training creates multiple pathways (strong technique, allows dancers to do things without having to think about it- synaptic fascillitation)

Both are important in dance and should be used equally (more creativity, range of ability, create more dendrites)
DEGENERATIVE - Intervertebral Disc Disease: MRI
images hydrogen protons which is mostly water so good way to image soft tissue that has a lot of water, can see nerve, nervoe roots and see if compressed, disadvantages are that equipment is even more expensive and takes a lot longer (45 min-1hour vs. 10 min for CT), many times won't do b/c might be going right to surgery and want to go home earlier, lessen anesthetic time
47. What are the 2 two types of synapses?
electrical and chemical
What are the two major structures of the diencephalon?
hypothalamus and the thalamus
Mental Health - Somatoform Disorders, how does the patient react?
nondelusional, truly distressed and is not deliberately causing the symptoms
What 7 types of info do somatosensory fibers sense?
-Pain, temp, touch, pressure-Vibration, Position, tactile discrimination.
what does the autonomic nervous system do
regulates the body's autonomic functions in ways that maintain or quickly restore homeostasis
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
Sympathetic - fight or flight
Parasympathetic - rest and digest
Lumbar Plexus / Femoral Nerve
The nerve enters the thigh and divide into sevaral large branches 
 
Muscular Branch - Innervates the anterior thigh muscles (Quaudreceps) for thigh flexion and knee extension
 
Cutaneous Branch - Sensation of the anterior thigh and medial surface of the leg from the knee to foot 
Mental Health - Mood Disorders - bipolar disorders
characterized by the occurrence of manic or hypomanic episodes sometimes alternating with depression
True or False most organs are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
True, and its called Dual Intervention
what is the function of the reticular activating system?
helps maintain consciousness and is active during awakening from sleep
Pathology of the Nervous System - Head and Meninges - meningocele
congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
What type of fibers make up:-Dorsal root pair-Ventral root pair
Dorsal pair = SensoryVentral pair = Motor
What is the spinal cord made of?
the outer part is composed of white matter made up of bundles of axons called tracts. the interior is composed of gray matter made up of mainly of neuron dendrites and cell bodies
How fast do nerve impulses travel in vertebrates?
Fastest are about 400 ft./sec. or about 272 mph
What is a scotoma and what is its function?
a figurative blind spot
when we don't see or acknowledge things that aren't a threat (function of RAS)
its function is to eliminate ambiguities in our perception and to fill in missing parts that would interfere with our perception.

ex: words with jumbled letters, old lady/young lady, where to focus attention (scallop pathway)
-lemma
covering
-algia
pain
Neur/o
Nerve
-lepsy
seizure
-trophy
development, nourishment
 
"C"
postganglionic ANS
.25MPH
sect/o-
to cut
Occipital lobe
vision
Neuromuscular junction
Neuron-to-muscle synapse
12 pairs
cranial nerves
narc/o narcotic
stupor, numbing
CNS
Central Nervous System
longitudinal fissure
separates cerebral hemispheres
(II)Optic
Sensory nerve of vision
Affect
Emotional state or mood.
neurofilaments
(neurotubules)cytoskeletal elements of perikaryon
how many different neurotransmitters
30
Parasympathetic
coordinates body's normal resting activities
-ex: digestion
Encephalitis
inflammtion of the brain
 
caused by viral infection such as rabies
SALTATORY PROPAGATION
OCCURS ALONG MYELINATED AXONS.
Seizure
Neuromuscular reaction to abnormal electrical activity within the brain; also called convulsions.
which system uses norepinephrine
postganglionic sympathetic
What structure connects the cerebral hemispheres?
...
schwann cells
produce covering around every peripheral axon
Multipolar neurons


Multipolar neurons have many
   nerve fibers arising from their   cell bodies and are commonly   found in the brain and spinal   cord.
Polarization is due to _________ distillation ?
Ion
REPOLARIZATION
POTASSIUM CHANNELS OPEN & POTASSIUM IONS (K+)EXIT, CHARGE IS BROUGHT BACK TO RESTING POTENTIAL
PET
scan using computed tomography to record the positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical
These chemicals are released from endocrine cells, and they alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs at once.
Hormones
Sciatica
Inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes; can be caused by injury, infection, arthritis, herniated disk, or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods.
hydrocephalus
accum. of cerebrospinal fluid w/in ventricles of brain
posterior group
pulvinar, lateral geniculate nuclei, and medial geniculate nuclei
Repetitive acts of exposing the genitals to an unsuspecting stranger for sexual excitation.
exhibitionism
MS
Multiple sclerosis an unpred ectable disease of the CNS can produsce partial or complete paralysis
menarche
the first menstrual period; the establishment of menstruation
Long Term Potentiation
Gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation
meninges
layer of tissue that covers, protects the brain and spinal c
This taste sensation has a low threshold to protect people from poisioning.
Bitter
dendrites
process of a neuron that recieves input from other neurons
part of brain stem. fiber tracts connecting higher brain structures and spinal cord.
pons
Severe depression
results from insufficient amines in the brain
ciliary body
contains muscle that controls the shape of the lens
what is the forebrain?
anterior part of brain
Brachial Plexus (5)
Supplies the upper extremities (Limbs), neck, and shoulder muscles 
Aneurysm
Localized dialation on an artery, due to vessel wall weakness
(1) accounts for small movements of Na and K
leakage
An overactive basal ganglia (substantia nigra) can result in what? An under-active one?
Tourette's (overactive)Parkinson's (decreased motor symptoms)
parieto-occiptal sulcus
separates the parietal and occipital lobes
A lower level of consciousness. The patient responds only to vigorous stimulation. In psychiatry it is used to describe a disorder marked by reduced responsiveness.
stupor
Coup
injury occurring within the skull near the point of impact
where is the diencephalon
between midbrain and cerebrum
reflex
noting or pertaining to an involuntary response to a stimulus, the nerve impulse from a receptor being transmitted inward to a nerve center that in turn transmits it outward to an effector.
efferent nerves
transmit impulses away from the brain and spinal cord
microglia  
one type of connective tissue found in the brain and spinal cord.
General Senses
Somatic - tactile, thermal, pain and proprioceptive sensationsVisceral - Information about Internal Organs
golgi tendon organ muscle spindle is a simple or complex sensory receptor?
simple
CN III
 
oculomotor - motor to some intrinsic (smooth) and most extrinsic (skeletal) eye muscles
 
The Spinal Cord
 
the continuation of the CNS outside of 
the skull.
-contains white matter
and grey matter
Effector Organs
An organ innervated by the nervous system
What fluid can be found in the epindyma
CSF
A neuron that sends messages to muscles, making the muscles contract.
motor neuron
Efferent division
motor commands from CNS to effectors. somatic nervous system that communicates to the skeletal muscle, and
autonomic nervous system
Controls all the movements of the eyeball.
oculomotor nerve
Describe Multipolar neurons?
-USUALLY HAVE SEVERAL DENDRITES AND ONE AXON
-MOSTLY FOUND IN THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
Syringomyelia
the development of one or more fluid filled cavities within the spinal cord
ventral
of or pertaining to the venter or belly; abdominal.
Satellite cells
PNS- like the astrocytes of the PNS
Excitatory chemical synapse
Uses a neurotransmitter to carry the signal across the space between neurons
CNS consists of what two structures?
Brain and Spinal cord
elevates, medially
which movement of the eye does the superior rectus mucle cause?
what is a synapse?
synapse is the junction between enurons. the events are the action potential depolrizes the membrane, opens up calcium channel, neurotransmitter comees out and fuse with membrane. release neutransmitter synapse by a diffusion. bind with protein receptor. neutransmitter is reabosrbed
What hormone stimulates the metabolic rate?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH
4 layers of Menniges
Dura matter: thick tough very proctiveArchnoind matter: middle layer contain spider like villa (web)Subarchnoid: cerberal spinal fluidPia matter: inner most layer lyes on brain and spinal cordNote: Covers whole CNS
Motor Neuron
Attach to muscles and glands and make them work. RECEIVE SIGNALS FROM THE CNS.
Midbrain and Pons
-connection to the higher and lower centers in the brain.-control movement of eye and head in response to visual and auditory stimuli
What surgical techniques are used for the correction of IV disc disease?
Hemilaminectomy and Fenestration
node of ranvier
a gap occurring at regular intervals between segments of myelin sheath along a nerve axon.
The small breaks in the myelin sheath of the axon are termed?
nodes of Ranvier
Sensory neurons (afferent   neurons) 
Sensory neurons (afferent   neurons) conduct impulses from   peripheral receptors to the CNS   and are usually unipolar, although   some are bipolar neurons
3 Basic Parts of Neuron
dendrites, cell body or perikaryon, axon
Sedatives or Hypnotics
Drugs used to induce calming effect or sleep
A neuron that turns a stimulus into a nerve impulse
sensory neuron
types of reactions that our beyond our control
sympathetic and parasympathetic
what structures are found in the dorsal root ganglion?
cell bodies of sensory neurons
The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system.
Neurons transmit nerve messages.
Treatment Procedures of the Nervous System - Anesthetic - how does a regional anesthetic work?
by injecting an anesthetic solution near the nerves to be blocked, causes temporary interruption of nerve conduction
What is the function of the Medulla Oblongata?
-control involuntary activities (breathing, digection, circulation ect.)
When is there essentially no chance for recovery from IV disc disease and why?
When there is ascending-descending myelomalacia, because they will likely die of respiratory paralysis
What functions is the temporal lobe responsible for?
The temporal lobe assists in sequencing and memory.
Pathology of the Nervous System - Levels of Consciousness - Syncope, also known as? description?
fainting, brief loss of consciousness caused by decreased flow of blood to the brain
(1) is restored by the Na-K pump
ionic redistribution back to resting conidtions
who gets multiple cartilagenous exostoses
it is an uncommon disease of dogs, cats, and horses
What is the ANS? What does it regulate?
motor neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to cardiac, smooth and glands; the body's automatic or involuntary functions
Pathology of the Nervous System - Nerves - Guillain-Barré Syndrome, what is it and how do you get it?
an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness, may lead to temporary paralysis, get it is an autoimmune reaction that may occur after viral infections or an immunization
Axon formation in the medulla
cross from one side of the CNS to the other. Right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, and vice versa
What is the fifth event to occur at a neuromuscular junction?
Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane and results in an AP.
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