The Renaissance Flashcards

Terms Definitions
4 lines
English Renaissance (Date)
An artist
Leonardo Da Vinci
narrative in which characters,actions,or setting represents abstract concepts apart from the literal meaning of the story
English Sonnet
Large impact on Lit.
Queen of England
Queen Elizabeth
octave/sestet, usually in problem/solution form, Rhyme scheme
italian/petrarchan sonnet
types of literature
drama, poetry, prose
round, octagonal or rectangular shape
Thomas More
Refused to convert to Catholicism
Introduced Sonnet to English
Sir Thomas Wyatt
The most important cultural movement of the Renaissance; advocated a return to classical studis and ideals; 15th century; Petrarch= most famous humanist
the protagonist is blatantly evil
villian tragedy
catered primarily to the lower class
The greatest playwriter of all time
Sir Thomas Wyatt
Introduced England to Sonnet form
Broke Catholic Church and Formed Church of England
Henry VIII
Ad fontes
"back to the sources"(Greek texts), back to the earlier and purer roots of good language and good literature
last Tudor monarch; historical and literay era named for her; never married, Protestant, patron
Elizabeth 1
Henry VIII's Loves
1) Catherine of Aragorn
2) Anne Boleyn
3) Jane Seymour
4) Anne of Cleves (UGLY)
5) Kathryn Howard (Unfaithful)
6) Katherine Parr (oldest & best)
first king of the renaissance; first Tudor king; his marriage ended the War of the Roses
Henry 7
type of characters created on the theory that the predominance of a particular fluid
humor comedy
made of bare boards and used for performing
Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare
Experimented with Sonnet Style
Advances during Ren
1) Exploration of New World - 1492
2) Protestant Reformation - 1517
3) Helio-centric Universe
4) Printing Press - 1476
English Renaissance was a Flowering of...
Literary, artistic, and intellectual life inspired by the arts and scholarship of ancient Greece and Rome
Status and Rank
Primary source of status was LAND NOT money; able to move out of your class
upper class
small salamander
vita activa
Active life
Monophonic means
One Voice.
'Adoration of the Magi'
renaissance painter and sculptor
Birthplace of the Renaissance
Ospedale degli Innocenti, Brunelleschi
Emphasized the outstanding attainments of extrodinary men. The great man shaped his own destiny in a world governed by fortune. This great man should virtù.
Protestants seperate from the Catholics
a character in Francois's novel
everyday language of ordinary people
Albrecht Durer
engravings etched in metal/wood
Dante Alighieri
wrote the "Divine Comedy"
Johannes Gutenberg
Who invented the printing press?
location of most important Northern school of art
Medici family
Dominating family of Florence,acquired wealth through banking. Spent lots of money on art.
Man's fitted jacket with broad shoulders, usually stuffed: cross seam at waist often peplum expensions
ordinary villagers learned about the world by reading this single printes sheets
Author of Don Quijote (emphasized humanism)
1545 - (1563)
Council of Trent meets
what is a monarchy?
strong central government
the cultural movement of the Renaissance
Martin Luther
Protestant reformation, wrote 95 Theses and posted them on doors of St Peters. Was excomunicated, and wrote the "Diet of Worms"
a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the Roman Catholic Church
Government ruled by a clergy claiming God's authority
Da Vinci
Born near Florence; painter, inventor, architect, engineer, dissected corpses to better learn the human body. DARK
Filippo Brunelleschi
built orphanage using column; egg; finished the dome;l linear prospective
Four Apostles 1525 a panel painting the last of his large works It depicts the four apostles larger-than-life-size.
The great maritime power of the Renaissance.
rebirth of interest in the Greco-roman culture
a mercenary soldier of a political ruler
wrote Decameron; set during the black plague
Dutch Humanist, The Praise of Folly, Free will.
Believed that France had fallen behind the British and urged religious toleration and freedoms of speech and the press. Said, "I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it."
Catholic Reformation
movement within the Roman Catholic church that sought to revitalize the church and oppose protestantism
an important realist painter who used light and shadows to give the effect of depth on objects
Hans Holbein
Portraits. Erasmus. Thomas More. King Henry the VII
a painter from Venice who used bright colors and broad strokes to set him apart from other artists
Movable type Printing
made printing and distributing books cheaper and easier; more people learned to read with more books easily available
Pope Alexander VI
most notorious of the immoral Renaissance popes who spent a fortune on art patronage
Had a wife and Seven Childeren, had a child with one of his daughters
sold by church to release part of punishment from sin
Sistine Chapel
a chapel in Italy that Michelangelo painted the ceiling of
___made the telescope famous but ____invented it
Galileo..........Hans lipperhey. ,
The father of humanism, he wrote that literature should not be subordinate to religion. He studied ancient texts like Cicero, and wrote his poetry in Italian vernacular, which unified the Italian language. He became a symbol of a new type of writer, he didn't use language merely as a practical tool but instead for expression.
The Prince
written by machievelli; says it is better to be feared than loved and says power is more important
(sp) contour
putting things in front of eachother; shows what is closer by placing is in front
Christopher Columbus
An Italian sailor that discovered the Americas by trying to sail west to reach the east.
Durer's self portrait
what people think Jesus must have looked like
Lorenzo The Magnificent
Under him, Florence led in art, science, philosophy, and medicine
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote the Courtier, guide book for the Renaissance man
a durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster
Act of Supremacy
annul the marriage of Catherine and Henry VIII... had to go this way b/c Pope Clement wouldn't interfere
Renaissance art
influenced by greek and roman art + medival legacy
Queen Elizabeth I
Reigned England from 1558 to 1603. She was well educated and spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Greek. She wrote poetry and music. She did much to support English art and literature.
charles VII
King of France during 100 years war , brought together France
Edward VI
Took throne in 1547 when he was nine and died of small pox
The Geneva Consistory
a group of important men who watched over how men lived and made sure they were orderly
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvin's book about god, salvation, humans, says humans are sinful by nature and cannot earn salvation, only the "elect" are saved, starts Calvinism
renassiance art reflected the ideas of...what did they study
humanism and realistic. used religious themes, well known figures of the day, human interest and individual achievement. studied greek and roman works.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Erasmus In Praise of Folly
This man was the most famous northern humanist who wrote this work criticizing the immorality and hypocrisy of the church.
what had a bigger impact on society and why? Printing press or the personal computer.
Printing press,
provided more books for everyone allowed more education, and the printing press could have influenced the personal computer.
The benefits of oil on stretched canvas is that minerals like lapis lazuli can be ground into a fine powder then mixed with turpentine and oil to be applied as oil paint. This allows a wide range of rich colors with smooth gradations.
What are the benefits of oil on stretched canvas?
Middle East
Poet, playwrite
-18th Century
-Triangular Trade
Francesco Petrarch
Sonnets/Father of Humanism
Plague arrives in Italy
Donatello's sculptures were usually done with...
Traditional Catholic but liked Luther's ideas, Monarch is the source of authority, and bath style rituals.
ben jonson
master of english comedy
Arena Chapel, Giotto, Padua, Commissioned by Enrico Scrovegni
Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher, describes a method by which a prince can aquire and maintain political power in "The Prince"
experimented with pitch using string instruments; started to put music with drums for an effect to create a mood
sack of prato
bloodbath. machiavelli's soldiers killed. medici army kills everything and machiavelli is able to escape
Descent from the Cross, Fiorentino, Oil on Panel, san francesco, volterra
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish scientist and astronomer, studied medicine and church law in Italy, became fascinated with astronomy, based his ideas on observation rather than theory, studied motion of planets, new theory that sun equals center, "on the revolution of celestial spheres", and scared to share his ideas because of the church.
relating to ideas, characters, or emotions that are expressed by several different cultures, and in several contexts (page 360).
style in art and architecture development in europe from about 1550 to 1700 emphasizing dramatic carving forms elaborate ornamentation and overall balance of disparte parts. Associated with catholicism
Sir Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist
to reward for service or aid
Cancel or put an end to.
describes a perfect society in which everyone lives in peace and harmony
Classial Cultures
ancient Greece and ancient Rome; inspires Renaissance
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Miguel Cervantes
wrote "Don Quixote which mocks romantic notions of medieval chivalry
Religious items that the church was selling.
John Calvin
founded a highly disciplined religious order, The Jesuits
shows three dimensions on a flat surface
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Mary Tudor
-Catherine of Argon's daughter with King Henry VIII
-determined to return England to Catholic faith after taking over for King Edward who died in his teens
-had Protestants(Thomas Cranmer) burned at the stake for heresy
-died in 1558
the capital of Lombardy in northern Italy
Treaty of Lodi
1454-55, political alliance which brought Milan, Naples and Florence together vs. Venice and Papal States. Helped create international/intercity state balance of power. If invaded from outside they would present a united front. Worked until Milanese despot brought outsiders in against other allies.
a minor city-state that was governed by the Gonzaga family (including Isabella d'Este) and was home to a famous humanist school founded by Feltre
Jimenez de Cisneros
1437-1517 Great Spanish spiritual reformer and educator who, in 1502, drove into exile any non-converting Moors from Granada. This plus Inquisition ended religious toleration and was reason Spain remained a loyal catholic country thro'out 16th C and would be base for Catholic Counter Reformation.
The Bible
Gutenberg used his printing press to print this book
the Medici family
controlled gov. from behind the scenes
famous for the ceilings of the Sistine chaple
painted portraits photographic in detail, German, painted HEnry VIII
Hans Holbein the Younger
Bartolomeu dias
He rounded the southern tip of Africa
A statement delivered by an actor to an audience in such a way that other character on stage are presumed not to hear what is said.
reasons for Ren.
trade, influx of knowledge, powerful merchants, independent city states
high in prestige, go and invade italy and get there butts kiked
Henry VIII
founded anglican church to divorce and remarry for son
An unaccompanied song for 2 or 3 voices which originates in Italy.
during the Italian Ren these were the pro-pope faction in endemic warfare amongst city states.
A speech that an actor delivers to the audience when no one else is onstage
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
Elizabethian age
The age when the Renaissance spread to England in the mid-1500's. Named after Queen Elizabeth I, who reigned from 1558 to 1603, and was well educated and did much to support the development of English art and literature.
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
missa papae marcelli
This was Palestrina's most famous work which was dedicated to Pope Marcellus II emphasized text 6 voice choir
heliocentric theory
the theory thatthe Sun is at the center of the universe
Jon Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting. Known for his attention to facial expressions
Pieter Brueghel
the Elder, an artist from what is now Belgium
Cosmo de Medici
Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574, reigning as the first Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569.
Danube, Rhine, and Rhone Rivers
The idea of the Renaissance spread thoughout northern Europe by people/trade traveling along these 3 major rivers.
A town palace built on the widest street in Florence upon the order of Cosimo. Later became a model for future Florentine architecture.
What is the Palazzo?
England, strategies, technology
For the first 90 years --- led the war because of better --- and better ---.
what was architecture at this time?
Brunelleschi= the dome on cathedral in Florence, linear perspective
what were the protestants and how did they get there name?
they were protesting against the church and indulgences.
what laws did Lord's try to pass?
laws to force peasants to work for regular wages like they were payed before the plague
helped cortez
most common plague
clown, slapstick character
great sculptor; sculpted "David"
recklessly wasteful (page 281).
Adoration of the Magi
To sail completely around
Decameron, realistic, off color stories about towns waiting to avoid plague, sarcastic humor
the Globe
playhouse where performances were performed
Michelanglo sculpted the statue that was called
focused on people in this world.
genius artist/inventor, ahead of his time
removal of the belief in magic
Bapistrey's Bronze Dorrs
created by Lorenzo Ghiberti
Greek and Roman history, literature, and art of the middle ages.
shows human ideals and is more realistic
In "A Valediction", the lines "Twere profanation of our joys To tell the laity our love" means that the narrator and his spouse's love was so ___ that they shouldn't speak of it to others
Protestantism is one of the three major divisions within Christianity (or four, if Anglicanism is considered separately) together with the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church; martin Luther
artist studied human anatomy to paint in more detail
Artist's Cartoon
Sketch for later work of art
What was probably the greatest invention of the Renaissance?
printing press
A member of a Christian Church, founded on the principles of the Reformation.
the attempts of the northern Christian kingdoms of Spain to control the entire peninsula
van Eyck
Flemish painter, uses oil paints, develops new methods, blends using layer, realistic details, influences many and spreads
middle class
neither poor nor wealthy, but still went to activities for entertainment, such as the arts
In "Song", how many years does the narrator say that the listener could ride in search of a true woman?
The great family in Florence was the ______family.
Rpheal, Leonardo, Donatello, Michaelangelo
"4 ninja turtles" great artists
Characteristics of Medieval Art
-Paintings lacked depth.
-Were very bland. Lacked perspective and influence.
-Always themed religiously.
-Not realistic. Didn't show emotions.
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Characteristics of Renaissance paintings
No halos, facial expressions, actions/bodies showed motion, religious and non-religious, saints were the same size as the people, backgrounds on earth or natural colors, depth
Piero della Francesca
Quattrocento painter, 1420-1492. Had a very rigid un-emotional style of painting, lacked movement. Due to his scientific/mathematical approach.
the trial of an individual accused of heresy
William Shakespeare
The greatest playwright and poet of all time.
Council of Constance
1414-1418, Church Council. Goals: End Schism; root out heresy; reform church. Results: New pope-Martin V; burned Huss; little reform. Wanted to make councils a part of system as representative body for Christians and pope to be like a monarch. Martin V took residence in Rome but rejected & dissolved council. Henceforth popes became more political and involved with cultural life of Renaissance - not dealing with much-needed reform. Failure of C of C TO REALLY ADDRESS NEED FOR REFORM contributed to onset of Protestant Reform.
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII second wife. Failed to have a boy, but had a girl named Elizabeth. charged with adultery and was beheaded
Marco Polo
wrote a book about his travels to Asia, but began as a merchant from Venice
obsevation and experiments
(Reason Vs. Trusting The Church) What methods did humanists use to explore the human body and the world around them?
Leonardo da Vinci
Great Artist; Painted Mona Lisa and Last Supper; inventor too
Made books available
Printing press - made books more common
Marsilius of Padua:
one of several brilliant theorists who assisted monarchs in 14th C Europe. Argued for sovereign rights of monarchs. Others of this ilk were Machiavelli and Jean Bodin in the 16th C.
beneficium officium (bribery)
the phrase cosimo used to keep people loyal to him
"THe healing of the Crippled and the Resurrection of Tibitha"
masaccio painted this
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote, which he poked fun at the romantic tales of the Middle Ages.
how did Reformation start?
began as question over what a person must do to reach salvation
Today, the term Renaissance man means a person who is...
energetic, productive, interested in literature, history and art
trade, english claim to french throne
Why was the 100 years war fought?
How did Milan's Visconti and Sforza families strengthen the power of their city?
They built a strong centralized state, an efficient tax system, generating enormous wealth
what else did Leonardo da Vinci do
he drew blue prints (the plans) for the first flying machine
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