The Renaissance and Reformation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Who wrote Decameron?
Boccaccio
Who wrote the Courtier?
Castiglione
What nationality is Petrarch?
Italian
reform
christian humanists' attempts to ______ society changed views about how life should be lived
perspective
renaissance painters used the technique of __________, which shows 3 dimensions on a flat surface
Who painted The Last Judgement?
Bosch
Who wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel?
Rabelais
Francesco Petrarch
the father of humanism
books
a greater availability of ______ prompted an increased desire for learning and a rise in literacy throughout europe
heaven
unfortunately, tetzel gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into _______
unified
the roman catholic church itself became more ________ as a result of the reforms started at the council of trent
paintings, sculptures
_________ and _________ portrayed individuals and nature in more realistic and lifelike ways
cities
1st advantage of italy: thriving ______
Who was Martin Luther's assistant?
Philip Melacthon
The Renaissance has the characteristic of __________________ discovery.
Geographic
Who wrote the essay Areopagitica?
John Milton
Plato
ancient Greek philosopher that bleived in ideals of beauty and truth to exist beyond the ability of our senses to recognize them and that we can train our minds to make use of our ability to reason and get beyond the limits imposed by our senses
forgiveness
luther's teaching 1: people could win salvation only by faith in god's gift of ____________
reformation
a movement for religious reform. led to the founding of christian churches that didn't accept the pope's authority
middle ages
renaissance scholars looked down on the art and literature of the ______ _____
worldly
many popes were too busy pursuing _______ affairs to have much time for spiritual duties
equal
luther's teaching 3: all people with faith were _____. therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the bible for them.
political life
because city-states like milan and florence were relatively small, a high percentage of citizens could be intensely involved in ________ ____
renaissance
the movement that started in italy, caused an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought that lasted approximately from 1300 to 1600
classical heritage
3rd advantage of italy: _________ _______ of greece and rome
marrying
some priests and monks broke their vows by _________
What is simony?
The selling of religious offices
Who wrote "Romeo and Juliet", "A Midsummer Night's Dream", "Hamlet", "Julius Caesar", and "Macbeth"?
Shakespeare
Did realistic statues of Moses and David and designed the dome of St. Peter's Cathedral.
Michaelangelo
Who started the quasi-religious community of the "Brethren of Common Life"?
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Antitrinitarians
denied the scriptural validity of the Trinity
merchant class
2nd advantage of italy: a wealthy ________ _____
urban, rural
northern italy was mostly _____ while the rest of europe was mostly _____
protestantism
jesuits tried to stop the spread of _____________
leonardo da vinci
a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist. a true renaissance man, he was interested in how things worked. he studied how a muscle moves and how veins are arranged in a leaf.
intellectual revolution
since cities were places where people exchange ideas, they were an ideal breeding ground for an _____________ __________
1500
the atmosphere in europe was ripe for reform by the early ____s
What kind of lifestyle did John Calvin support?
Puritanical
What is a mural?
A painting on a wall
The Northern Renaissance starts in which two areas?
Burgundy and Flanders
Counter Reformation/Catholic Reformation
The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation with the help of the organization of the Jesuits and various church reforms
Castiglione
wrote The Courtier that drew up the ideal of a "Renaissance Man" who knew several languages, was familiar with classical literature and awas also skilled in the arts
Radical Reformation
a variety of religious sects that developed during the 16th century insipired by Luther's challenge to the Catholic church
Edward VI
Henry VIII's only son whose brief reign saw an attempt to institute genuine Protestant theology into the church that Henry created
dictator
for 30 years, cosimo de medici was the ________ of florence
scripture, wittenburg, saxony
from 1512 until his death, luther taught _________ at the university of ____________ in the german state of ________
pope alexander vi
this pope admitted that he had fathered several children
greece, rome
the educated men and women of italy hoped to bring back to life the culture of ______ and ____
pope julius ii
raphael filled this pope's wall with paintings
Who called for the Council of Trent?
Pope Paul III
What are indulgences?
The church forgiving sins in exchange for donations for church projects.
Reformation Parliament
the parliament in which Henry used as a tool to give him ultimate authority on religious matters
Black Death
a ferocious outbreak of plague in the 14th century that struck the population of Europe
Council of Trent
dominated by the papacy and enhanced it power by placing limits on the selling of church offices, mandated that seminary for the educaton of clergy should be mandated in every diocese, endorsed traditional teaching
ignatius of loyola
grew up in his father's castle in loyola, spain. he was injured in a war in 1521. while recovering, he thought about his past sins and about the life of jesus. his daily devotions, he believed, cleaned his soul
What is Areopagitica about?
It urges the freedom of the press.
What was "Paradise Lost"?
A poetic restatement of the creation of the world, written by John Milton.
Which family is at one point in the Renaissance, is the wealthiest in all of Europe? (Lived in Florence)
The Medici
"Act in Restraint of Appeals"
declared that all spiritual cases within the Kingdom were within the King's jurisdiction and authority; not the popes
"King's Great Matter"
King Henry VIII's attempt to end his marriafe to his Spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon, who would not bear a son and his affair with Anne Boleyn who was going to bear a son, but the catholic church said no to a divorce, therefore leading him to create the
Lorenzo Valla
one of the critical figures in the new field of textual analysis who found faults in the supposed writings of Constantine and some mistranslated texts in the Bible
What is "The Prince" about?
It is Machiavelli's examination of how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies.
What was "Spiritual Exercises" about?
Daily plan for meditation, prayer, and study
What is a "patron of the arts"?
One who financially supports artists
What was stressed in the Brethren of Common Life
Christ-like simplicity, purity of life, and direct communication with God
Michelangelo
architect
huguenots
French Protestants
Death of Petrarch
1374
Of the Courtiers
Baldassare Castiglione
Affect
To change or influence.
Raphael
Painter and Architect, developed fresco, most famous for the School of Athens
Capitalism
Focus on profit and money
Desiderius Erasmus
Most influential northern humanist.
vernacular
native or every day language
95 Theses
lThe disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially in regard to indulgences.
erasmus
"philosophy of christ" ment that christianity should show how to live good lives
stressed the inwardness of religious feelings
to him the external forms of medieval religion were not all that important
Medici/Sforza
Renaissance began in northern Italian city-states of Milan (Sforza), Florence (Medici) and Venice run by wealthy merchant and banking families
Titian
16th Century Venetian painter noted for his robust sensuousness, color, and light. His repetition was based on his portraits.
Secularism
The belief that the non-religious world has value, that more attention should be payed to the here and now rather than the hereafter. Focused on the material world other than religious and spiritual pursuits.
Theology
The study of religion and God
Tetzel
northern german clergyman who sold indulgences, representing the spiritual corruption of the church
The Roman Catholic Church influenced all aspects of life- religious, social, and _____.
Political
entrepreneuer
one who organizes, manages, and assumes the risk of a business or enterprise
In each Italian city-state a _____ merchant class developed.
wealthy
Medici
A family of skilled politicians and patrons of the arts who lived in Florence, Italy, during the Renaissance.
heresy
any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position
Pope
The all powerful leader of the Catholic church
Machaivelli
wrote "The Prince"; was among the first to abandon morality as the basis for analyzing political activity
The Prince
written by Niccolo Machiavelli; a "handbook" for rulers
Protestant
minister bible and service in native language
Albrecht Durer
Famous for combining Renaissance style with traditional German Art.
martin luther
against sale of indulgances, fought against the church
Calvinism
belief in Calvin's religious idea of predestination, became the established church in Scotland, French branch called Huguenots
simony
the selling of official positions in the medieval Roman Catholic church
Inquisition
A special tribune in the Roman Catholic church who's duty was to persecute heresies
Protestant Reformation
started by Martin Luther, different branch of Christianity that does not require money
The Renaissance started in _____ and spread throughout the rest of _____.
Italy; Europe
Canterbury
a city in England where Thomas a Becket is buried
Pope Paul III
Pope of the Catholic Reformation; ordered investigation into the sale of indulgences; approved and endorsed Jesuit order; called an inquisition overseen by the Holy Office; presided over Spanish and Italian inquisitions; called the Council of Trent
jesuits
The Society of Jesus; a Roman Catholic Church religious order of clerks regular whose members are called ___________ Soldiers of Christ, and Foot soldiers of the Pope
predestination
the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
people believe the pope should have absolute control
Papal Supremacy
Catholic Reformation
This was the reformation of the Catholic church
quattrocentro
The culture and events of 15th century Italy and the early renaissance.
Characteristics of Renaissance Men
Painters, Sculptors, Inventors, And Scientists (Well Rounded)
Protestants
Were mad and tried to make all churches Protestant
Francis Xavier
led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan
Puritans
A member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the Church of England.
queen liliuokalani
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish author who wrote Don Quixote, which mocks romantic notions about medieval chivalry.
Ignatius Loyola
founder of the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits
Fresco
a durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Famous for the statue of David and the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Catherine Howard
- Henry's fifth wife
- She was 18, he was 53
- Executed for treason
milan, florence, and venice
3 most important cities during the renaissance
Crimean War
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia
Niccolo Machiavelli
A later Italian writer that was also a politician.
Makes Henry the one and only leader of the Church of England
Act of Supremacy
What was the Reformation? What problems did the Catholic church face?
A movement to reform the Catholic Church which many people saw as worldly and corrupt.
Problems include:
- Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led people to question church
- Church lost some of its moral authority as a result of the Crusades
- Nobles were jealous of Church's wealth
- Improper behavior of the priest
- Printing press spread ideas/education which had been controlled by the Church
- Popes and Bishops pursued worldly interests (e.g riches) as opposed to spiritual interests
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Italy had large city-states in which people exchanged ideas, therefore were an ideal breeding ground for an intellectual revolution.
Wealthy merchants in Italy dominated politics.
Greek and Roman influence.
What was the result of the Council of Trent?
Roman Catholic Church had a clear body of doctrine and was unified under the supreme leadership of the pope
Girolamo Savonarola
...
Civic Humanism
.
John Tetzel
sold indulgences
Sforza family
ruled Milan after 1450
joahann grutinberg
invented the printing press
architecture
classical columns; rounded arches; human based; meant to fit human needs
Jan Hus
-lived before Luther
-a priest
-taught ideas conflicting those of Catholocism at a university
-excommunicated for heresy
Indulgences
pardons from punishments for sin
Machiavelliam
suggesting principals of conduct marked by cunning, duplicity, or bad faith
Medici Family
Wealthy Florentine banking family behind much of Florence politics; heavily involved in humanism
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years.
florence
region of tuscany; medici family controlled the gov.; in 1400's economic declined; savonarola
Azores
island chain that convinced explorers the Atlantic was dotted with islands all the way to Japan
Johann Gutenberg
Invented the first typewriter. Gutenberg bible first book printed from it.
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Petrarch
earliest & most influential humanists, great poet, wrote in italian & latin, in italian wrote sonnets (poets) bout mysterious lover laura, in latin wrote letters 2 his friends
Lutheranism Where and When?
Wittenburg Germany 1517
Cellini
Gold Smith and sculptor who was certain of his own personal genius that he wrote about in his autobiography so that the whole world might appreciate it.
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Cervantes
Was an author that wrote Don Quixote.
Humanism
a philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance
The classics
classic books written during the Renaissance
Machiavelli
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)
henry VIII
stood firmly against the protestant revolt, became the supreme head of the church of england.
Modern Devotion
Downplayed religious dogma & stressed need to follow Jesus
astrolabe
tool which calculated latitude by the height of the sun
indulgence
A certificate sold by the Catholic Church that granted forgiveness of your sins so you could go to Heaven.
Presbyterian
a member of a protestant church governed by elders (presbyters) and founded on the teachings of John Knox
patron
a person who supports with money, gifts, efforts, or endorsement an artist, writer, museum, cause, charity, institution, special event, or the like:
christian humanism
a movement that developed in northern europe during the renaissance combining classical learning(humanism) with the goal of reforming the catholic church
Masaccio
He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions
leonardo da vince
great artist, archetect, engineer and scientist known as a renaissance
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor. Wanted to keep this enormous empire under the control of his dynasty, and hoped to preserve the unity of his empire by keeping it Catholic. Rivarly with the king of France, Francis I, led to a series of wars that lasted more than 20 years. Faced opposition from the Pope, Clement VII. Pope joined French king.
enclosure
buying up and hedging of arable strips of land
Exchequer
office created by Henry I to supervise financial accounting at his court
Beliefs of Lutherism
-justification by faith
-the Bible is the ultimate authority
christine de pisan
Italian-born writer, who wrote about the role of women in society in her book City of Women; raised in the French court of Charles V, and after becoming widow she wrote books in order to support her and her children.
Sir Isaac Newton
Demonstrated the tree laws of motion and the existence of gravity.
linear perspective
a formula for arranging lines on a two-dimensional surface so they converge on a vanishing point; provides the illusion of depth
Diet of Worms
When Pope Leo X (1520) excommunicated Luther from Church, and he was summoned to appear before the Holy Roman Emperor and the German Diet (assembly) in city of Worms
virtu
this was the idea that men should be well rounded and good at a variety of things
Albert of Hohenzollern
offered the position of Archbishop of mainz, but had to raise 10,000 ducats, so he borrowed the money from the great banking family of the age- the Fuggers. To pay off his debt, the papacy allowed to sell the indulgences, where half the money would go to Rome
Divine comedy 2
Dante and Virgil visit a zone called Purgatory, which is between Heaven and hell
Examples of vernacular authors. Name what they wrote. 1)Dante Alighieri 2)Geoffrey Chaucer 3)Boccaccio 4)Petrarch
1)Divine Comedy (1321) non-secular about diff. levels of heaven & hell 2)Canterbury Tales- about Eng. life 3)The Decameron-presents society from secular p.o.v. 4) father of humanism because he revived the study of classical literature; coined the phrase "dark ages"
act of supremacy
said that king viii was the only supreme head of the new church of england
Cosimo de Medici
This man ruled Florence when his time came. He was a huge patron of the arts and employed Donatello, Brunelleschi, and Michelozzo
Pope Leo X issued...
A papal bull that demanded Luther recant. Luther refused and was excommunicated
book of the courtier
4 books on what a perfect courtier is
Henry VIII's desire for a divorce caused him to create the Anglican Church.
Why was the Anglican Church formed?
Address to the Christian Nobility
urged that secular gov't had the right to reform the church
Name 2 things that happened as a result of the catholic(counter reformation):
1) the church's interpretation of the bible was final 2) christians needed good works and faith for salvation
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