The Renaissance and the Reformation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
heliocentric
sun-centered
vernacular
local language
shakespeare
playwright and poet
seminary
school for educating priests
Anabaptists
rebaptizers; originated in Switzerland; emerged much later in the New World as Mennonites, Amish, etc.
annul
annul by recalling or rescinding
Erasmus
wrote "the Praise of Folly"
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Renaissance scholars placed increasing value on subjects concerned with _____ and culture.
Humankind
Newton
helped to bring together breakthroughs under a single theory of motion
Crusades
Series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land
Raphael
Italian painter whose many paintings exempliy the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520); Painted 'The School of Athens'
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Issac newton
laws of force and motion
Huguenots
French Protestants influenced by John Calvin
Theocracy
A government controlled by religious leaders
Counter-Reformation
aka Catholic Reformation, movement to counteract some of the successes of the Protestant Reformation, lead to the creation of the Index of Prohibited Books and the reinstitution of the papal Inquisition, led by the Council of Trent
Michelangelo
(1475-1564) Had many talents including sculpting (David)
simony
the selling of official positions in the medieval roman catholic church
Feudalism
○ A system without a formal political structure
○ Illustrates system at end of middle ages and leads it to a lot of war in the middle ages
○ Is there at the end of the middle ages
○ During the renaissance you see stronger monarchies
almanacs
Books that included info about weather and predictions for crops, included maps, calendars, and medical advice. They especially appealed to the commoners
Castiglione
He wrote "The Courtier." It was translated into French, German, Spanish, Russian, and English.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Individualism
focus on being your own special person, belief that it's good to be a renaissance person (talented)
established Presbyterian church & a theocracy, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin
predesination
doctrine of john calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god
Dark Ages
Term used throughout the Renaissance to refer to the middle ages, or the period before the Renaissance, that has negative connotations
Martin Luther
Ideas: Faith saves people - justification by faith; Ultimate authority- bible
Ciompi Revolt
a violent struggle against the government, staged by the dissatisfied popolo (Florence 1378)
heresy
disagreement with, or denial of, the basic teachings of a religion
patron
wealthy person who employs artists to create works of art
mercantilism
An economic system in which colonies are used as a source of natural resources and trade ONLY with the mother country
Johann Gutenberg
○ Developed a printing press that included many new technologies
○ The process made it possible to print books quickly and cheaply
○ For the first time books were cheap enough that many people could buy them.
○ Spreads the idea of renaissance
Sir Thomas More
Wrote Utopia and condemned government as corrupt and argued that private ownership of property caused too many conflicts. He was executed by Henry VIII
Anglicanism
the new church of England created when Henry VIII and Catherine got a divorce, anglican=protestant
Tycho Brahe
set up an observatory and provided evidence to support Copernicus' theory.
Protestants
a member of any of the Christian churches that seperated from the Roman Catholic church at or after the Reformation.
City States
cities grew into these in northern Italy due to the crusades
Baldassare Castiglione
He wrote 'The Courtier' which taught how to become a Renaissance man
Black Death
One cause of the Renaissance that showed people that prayer alone would not save them from death. It moved focus from the afterlife to the current life (live for the present)
Brunelleschi
Architect who designed the dome of the Florentine Cathedral under the order of Cosimo de Medici
inquisition
church court set up to stamp out heresy
Divine Right
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance; built first dome over Cathedral of Florence
Act of Supremacy
English law which broke with the Catholic Church
signori
a city in which one man ruled and handed down the right to rule to his son, in Italy
Thirty years war
Religious wars fought in the German states which began with the disagreement of protestants (calvinists) and catholics.
Louis XIV
france, hangs with James II after he flees, at 5 becomes king and cardinal marzarin is de facto ruler, vows to rule with absolute authority, divine rights of kings, called "sun king", built versailles, weaken church and aristocracy, revoked edict of nantes to create unity, established gov bureaucracy, army (provisions not looting, and standard uniforms), artistic center moves from italy to france
Peace of Augsburg
concluded a 10-year civil war by dividing Germany into Catholic and Lutheran parcels, but made no allowances for the growing number of Calvinists or other Protestants
Copernicus
sun is the center of the univers : Earth rotated around the sun every 24 hours
Priesthood of all believers
opposes the unbiblical doctrine of sacerdotalism and the existence of a Brahman-like priestly class within the church.
Peasant Wars (1525)
The revolt was carried out by German peasants who were unhappy with their economic system. The peasants believed that Luther was pushing for egalitarianisim, which he wasn't, and their revolt upset him.
What was one advancement in mathematics during the Renaissance?
Ancient math texts and ideas
Gutenbery Bible
This book was the first full size book printed with movable type, it was in the vernacular
The School of Athens, Rafael
-all males
-Plato in center with Aristotle, Pathagarus, Diogenes, Michelangelo, Euclid, Zoroaster, Ptolemy, Raphael
Political consequences of Luther's reform
sparked ideas for reformers to act upon as well. Other religions/sects formed. England created its own church, and many princes "converted" into Lutheranism or other protestant religions that were emerging.
The end justifies the means.
KEY CONCEPT by Niccolo di Bernardo del Machiavelli from The Prince. It means it doesn't matter how you win, but that you win. It is the root of Machivallianism which describes people who don't care what they do, as long as they win.
What subjects are known as the humanities?
Poetry, history, art, and the Greek and Latin languages
Anne Boleyn
...
cinquecento
1500s
-Renaissance saw attitudes towards artists change
-Women were more respected
-Artists were "geniuses"
-Evidence: higher salaries for artists
Reformation
when people demanded changes
Jan & Hubert van Eyck
...
secular
worldly and concerned with now
Patrons
People who financially supported artists
cervantes
spanish writer of northern renaissance, wrote don quixote
Indulgence
A pardon for one's sin(s).
Perspective
showing movement and depth in art
Oliver Cromwell
wanted dempcracy but got dictatorship
florence
city in Italy;where the renaissance began
utopian
idealistic or visionary, usually used to describe a perfect society
Desiderius Erasmus
a dutch renaissance humanist and Catholic priest who criticized the church
Machiavelli (1469-1527)
Machiavelli was an Italian political scholar. He wrote The Prince, which was a paper on the qualities of good and bad princes.
orders
"estates" - three basic groups: 1. clergy (prayers) 2. nobility (fighters) 3. workers (everyone else)
humanists
People who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric.
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Lived in Rotterdam, Netherlands
Wrote the Praise of Folly in the early 1500's
It was satire and poked fun at the Roman Catholic Church
Was a famous humanist
Machiavelli
Wrote: The Prince, loyalty to state not republic, equated as the devil, married with 6 neglected kids, advice to Lorenzo de Medici on how be an effective prince
Humanism
a movement during the renaissance that focused on the study of Greek and Roman classics. Humanists believed that humans could use their minds to study and learn the truths of the world and that humans had the potential to achieve greatness.
D. Erasmus
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
triple entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
predestination
doctrine that God had decided all things beforehand; who would be eternally saved- John Calvins idea
Jesuits
Founded by Ignatius de Loyola (1534), they were a religious order that spread Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation.
When did Martin Luther criticize the Church's practice of selling pardons for sins?
1517
Renaissance man
a scholar during the Renaissance who (because knowledge was limited) could know almost everything about many topics
renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages
Benvenuto Cellini
The autobiography of this 16th century artist and adventurer gave us insights into Renaissance manners and morals, Italian.
the duomo
cathedral of santa maria del fiore, begun in 1296, designed by architect and sculptor Filippo Bunelleschi, completed in 1436. Florence: physically dominates all other buildings and attracts tourists from all over the world.
Henry VIII
created the Church of England and split from the Catholic church
Christian humanism
a movement that developed in Northern Europe during the Renaissance combing classical learning with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church
"Canterbury Tales"
book by Chaucer, based on "The Decameron"
justification by faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
Nicolaus Copernicus
suggested that the sun, not Earth, was the center of our solar system (heliocentric)
14th - 16th Century A.D.
CENTURIES that span the Renaissance("rebirth"); the Renaissance is a rebirth of ideas from ancient Rome and ancient Greece.
Holy Roman Empire
Nominal political unit of which all the German states were a part in the early 16th century.
Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, 1st medical examiner
Leonardo da Vinci
Fransesco Petrarch
Scholar who relied on classics for the inspiration to lead a virtuous life.
Sistine Chapel
grand room in the Vatican, had ceiling painted by Michelangelo under commission of Julius II
Dante Alighieri
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy (Inferno) that describes a journey through hell. First to write in Italian, the language of the people.
Geneva
"a city that was a church" a model of Protestant reform. A Christian city ruled by God through civil magistrates and reformed ministers
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Sought to stop Protestantism and preserve the hegemony of Catholicism. He allied with the pope in trying to stamp out heresy. He later accepted Lutheranism and was so stressed out that he moved to a monastary
Institutes of the Christian Religion
1559 - Calvin's book. Illustrated his beliefs, like predestination & the sovereignty of God
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
The major goal of humanism in northern Europe
to reform the Catholic Church.
How did Spain become involved in the Italian wars?
Italians asked Spain for help against the French
Albrecht Durer
.
baldassare castigloione
renaissance author
Scientific method
to prove/disprove hypothesis
Lutheranism
Only sacraments: Baptism and Communion
No transbustantiation
Justification by Faith
Rejected celibacy
Priesthood of all believers
doctrine
a belief, principle, or teaching
What was their discipline?a. romanticismb. humanitarismc. humanism
c
Baroque
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Jacquerie
(1358) French peasant revolt; an effect of the Black Death's economy & 100 yrs war; rebels massacred to end revolt
Lorenzo Valla
demonstrated through anachronism that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery
humanities
Branches of knowledge concerned with human beings and their culture: philosophy, literature, and the fine arts, as distinguished from the sciences
In 1430 who ruled Florence?
Medici family
What force did Isaac Nedwton discover?a. motionb. gravityc. electricytd. water
b
Civic Humanism
a variant of republicanism indicating active, participatory, patriotic citizenship as well as the ethos and educational ideal that goes with it
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
The Inquisition
an organization previously used to stop heresy
Diplomacy
The art of negotiating with other countries
indulgences
pardon sold by catholic church to reduce ones punishment
William Byrd
English composer known for his polyphony
Flanders
a medieval country in northern Europe that included regions now parts of northern France and Belgium and southwestern Netherlands
The Prince
Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"
What is patronage?
A political strategy
expressed wealth and political competition
Lutherans
a member of a protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther
Petrarch
leader of Greek Orthodox church in Constantinople and scholar, poet, and humanist. One of first people to call Middle Ages the "Dark Ages."
compromise
a settlement of differences by mutual concessions; an agreement reached by adjustment of conflicting or opposing claims, principles, etc., by reciprocal modification of demands.
Cosimo de Medici
(1389-1464) son of Giovanni; allied himself with popular families; unofficial ruler
Masaccio
The ranaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space, modeling , and anatomical correctness.
Middle Ages
The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance
Botticelli
Artist who painted the birth of Venus, burned some of his own things during the bonfire
Protestant Reformation
a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope's authority
Edmund Spenser
author of the Faerie Queen, which presented a thinly veiled criticism of the greed and corruption of Elizabethan political life
cannonized
Being recognized as a saint by the Catholic church, such as Thomas Moore
When was the "high Renaissance"?
late 1400s, early 1500s
Counter Reformation
The movement within the Roman Catholic church that followed the Protestant Reformation in which the goal was to increase the faith of church members
Usury
intrest, lending of $ with an intrest rate for its use
Catholic Reformation
n. A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Isabella d'Este
one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance and a major cultural and political figure
Gravity
Force that tends to pull one mass or object to another.
The Society of Jesus
French priests who sought converts; Catholic religious order founded to combat Protestant reformation; did not exploit the Indians; this group was a response to the Protestants
jan van eyck
a flemish painter who had perfected the technique of oil painting
Spanish armada
king philip II of spain wanted 2 attack england bcuz elizabeth supported protestant subjects who rebelled against him, in 1588 he assembled an army of 130 ships, 8,000 sailors, & 19,000 soldiers=SPANISH ARMADA, reached SW coast of england on july 29 and bcuz of bad weather were beat by the english
wittenberg
a city in central E Germany, on the Elbe: Luther taught in the university here; beginnings of the Reformation 1517. 54,190.
Mona Lisa
A painting by Leonardo da Vinci of a woman with a mysterious smile. It is now of the most readily recognized paintings in the world.
Single-point perspective
a style in which all elements within a painting converge at a single point in the distance, allowing artists to create more realistic settings for their work
How does Renaissance art compare to Middle Ages?
proportional, shading, attention to detail, rounding of human body, secular themes, classical ideals; use of perspective, patrons; use of oil paint
Act of Supremacy - 1534
declared Henry VIII the supreme head of the English Church
Describe 3 differences between northern and Italian Renaissance.
1)North used oil paints and Italians used fresco.
2)Italians used rock for sculptures while northerners used wood gravings.
3)Northern artists painted more realistic and humanistic.
Erasmus In Praise of Folly
This man was the most famous northern humanist who wrote this work criticizing the church
What was the main significance of the 100 years war (1337-1453)?
1)end of France & England's feudal ties 2)end of chivalry, which was replaced by gunpoweder & longbows 3)only kings were able to afford firearms, so nobles lost their status--> modern nation-state
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