The Reproductive System Flashcards

sperm cells
Terms Definitions
perine(o)
perineum
-arche
beginning
-ium
membrane (suffix)
-rrhaphy
to suture
OB
OB: obstetrics
vulv/o
vulva (root word)
Amenorrhea
Absence of menstruation
Penis
male copulatory organ
-plasia
development / formation (suffix)
perineocele
hernia in the perineum
pain in the breast
Galactorrhea
spermatogonia
sperm stem cells, diploid
gonad/o, gon/o
gonad (root word) (2)
Accessory glands (male)
*seminal vesicles*prostate gland*bulbourethral gland (Cowpers)
Term for formation of sperm
Spermatogenesis
Primigravida
woman during her first pregnancy
What hormone stimulates immature ovarian follicles to start growing?
FSH
rectum
the comparatively straight, terminal section of the intestine, ending in the anus.
gonads (male and female)
testes / ovaries
What controls blood testosterone levels
negative feedback
Sperm movement through ductus defernes via _______
Peristalsis
Another term for Cowper's gland
Bulbourethral gland
What is androgen produced from?
Leydig cells
Blood-testis barrier
tight juncitons located between sustentacular cells; isolates sperm cells from the immune system;
significant because as sperm cells develop, they form surface antigens that the immune system would attack
Anorchism
abscens of one or both testicles
tough membranous layer of the uterus
Cervix
___ are the primary female reproductive organs?
ovaries
Impantation of the fertilized egg occurs in the _______ lining of the uterus.
endometrium
-para
a woman who has given birth (suffix)
What triggers menses
a decline in progesterone levels
Proliferaion phase
restoration of endometrium due to estrogen secretion
Antidiuretic Hormone
Causes kidneys to conserve water; in high concentration it increases blood pressure
Perineum
Space between the vaginal opening or scrotum and the anus.
Episiotomy
a surgical procedure cutting into the perineal area, the area between the vagina and anus in order to prevent tearing of tissues when the baby's head traverses the vaginal opening.
What is another name of bulbourethral glands? (male)
Cowper's
Spongy urethra
the longest part of the urethra;
extends from the membranous urethra through the length of the penis
Inguinal canal
bilateral oblique passageways in the anterior abdominal wall;
forms between weeks 14 and 28; testes move through them to descend into the srotum;
much smaller in females
tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall
Endocervicitis
Abruptio Placentae
-the placenta sparates from the uterine wall before birth
posterior thick section of tunica albuginea
mediastinum testes
The blastocyst attaches to the uterine lining and begins to grow in a process called ________.
implantation
epididymis
an elongated organ on the posterior surface of a testis that constitutes the convoluted beginning of the vas deferens.
How many chromosomes do human body cells have
46 chromosomes
The exchange that occurs between the thin descending limb (LoH) and the thick ascending limb of the LoH is called _______________ because the fluids are moving in opposite directions.
countercurrent multiplication
Stages of Human Development
1) Ovulation 2) Fertilization3) Implantation4) Embryonic development5) Birth (parturition) - Dilation - Expulsion - Placental stage6) Lactation (milk production)
Menstruation, menopause
the normal stopping of the monthly menstrual periods, average age is 52
The greater vestibular glands of the female are homologous to what in males?
bulbourethral glands
External urethral orifice
the external opening of the urehtra
A petriod of rapid growth and sexual maturation
Puberty
Cervix
The lower, narrow neck section of the uterus
The phase in the menstrual cycle in which the egg is released from the ovaries is reffered to as _______.
ovulation
luteal phase
a stage of the menstrual cycle, lasting about two weeks, from ovulation to the beginning of the next menstrual flow.
What causes the polar body
uneven division of the cytoplasm
During the ovarian cycle, what day is the optimal day for fertilization?
day 14
Pregnancy and Childbirth - Fertilization, what is a zygote?
the fertilized egg, single cell
PAP SMEAR
 Type 1 - ectocervical specimen with a FULL 360 degree rotation, endocervical 90 
 degrees with cytobrush
 Type 2 - paintbrush - rotate brush 5 times in a circle (tip of brush should be in canal)
GP TPAL 
 Term is greater than 37 weeks
 Preterm is btw 20-37 weeks
 Abortion is less than 20 weeks
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION 
 Hypoactive sexual desire = deficient desire (persistant/recurrent)
 Female sexual arousal disorder = inability to attain or maintain arousal until 
 completion/adequate lubrication
 Female orgasmic disorder = delay in, absence of orgasm following excitement phase
 TREAT WITH VAGINAL ESTROGEN
 Dyspareunia = genital pain associated with sex
 CAUSED BY




Atrophic vaginitis - due to loss of estrogen after hysterectomy
Infection
Previous history of abuse
 Vaginismus = muscle cramp ! involuntary spasm of muscles of outer vagina 
 
Conditions affecting sexual response




androgen/estrogen loss
bilateral salpingophorectomy = estrogen loss
chemoinduced menopause
GnRH induces menopause - Lupron (GnRH agonist) shuts down ovaries and can lead to atrophic vaginitis and dyspareunia
Premature ovarian failure
Oral contraceptive use = DECREASES libido
Medications affecting sexual response

Codeine (in some analgesics)
Alcohol abuse
B-blockers --- can also partner's libido
Anticonvulsants
Oral contraceptives
Selective estrogen receptor modulators 

Tamoxifen - estrogen receptor antagonist - decreases libido
 
Abnormal PAP, HPV, and Cervical Cancer
 PAP = screeening Colposcopy = DIAGNOSTIC - biopsy
 ASC-US ---> HPV testing/typing
 ASC-H/LGSIL ---> Straight to colposcopy 
 LGSIL ---> Reflex HPV typing --> for postmenopausal women
 HSIL ---> colposcopy with ECC, IMMEDIATE LEEP
 AGC/AIS ---> sample squamocolumnar junction 
 Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), dysplasia = histology
 Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) - cytology

Prostate gland
secretes a fluid that aids in the motility of sperm
What happens in capacitation
sperm cells become motile and become capable of fertilization
What are the four important hormones of the male reproductive system?
GnRH, FSH, LH, testosterone
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
although males have a closed abdominal cavity, the female abdominal cavity has a direct anatomical path from the outside world via the female reproductive tract. Bacteria can make their way up the vagina, through the uterus, and traverse the uterine tubes which open into the abdominal cavity. Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum, causes abdominal pain. Although there are many potential causes of PID, gonorrheal infection is one of them. Chronic Inflammation of the uterine tubes can occlude them resulting in infertility.
Pathology of the Male Reproductive System - Prostate Gland, benign prostatic hypertrophy, also known as?
prostalomegaly, enlarged prostate, an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland often found in men over 50
Treatment Procedures Related to Pregnancy and Childbirth - episorrhaphy
surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy
The fusion of the paramesonephric ducts from each side bring together peritoneal folds wichi unite to form what?
broad ligament, vesicouterine pouch anteriorly and rectouterine pouch posteriorly
Prostatic urethra
a section of the male urethra that is connected to the urinary bladder and passes through the prostate gland;
ejaculatory ducts and other ducts join the urethra here
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: cause and treatment?
hypertrophy of mucusal and submucosal glands in prostate, treated with hormones or surgery
What does follicle stimulating hormones cause in its target
It causes Sertoli cells to secrete androgen binding protein
What is the thickest, most dominant layer of the uterus?
myometrium - muscular layer (middle)
Treatment Procedures of the Male Reproductive System - General, circumcision
surgical removal of foreskin, usually done a few days after birth
What is the cause of testicular feminization?
defective androgen receptor (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome)
How are the seminiferous tubules important in testosterone secretion?
They contain interstitial cells that secrete testosterone.
what do granulosa cells become in corpus luteum?
granulosa lutein cells, make progresterone!
KNOW THIS: What do hormones of the female reproductive cycle do?
CONTROL - reproductive cycle andCOORDINATE - ovarian and uterine cycles
They secrete (3) and propel sperm and semen through _____________ (contraction)
*secrete fluids that activate sperm*secrete fluids that provide nutrients for motility (frucotose)*secrete alkaline fluids to buffer acid environment in female reproductive system*ejaculatory duct
Menstruation, ovulatory phase
13-14 days, on the 13th or 14th day of the cycle, a mature ovum is released. when ovulation occurs, the egg leaves the ovary to slowly travel down the fallopian tube, one is now fertile and pregnancy can happen
All germs cells have how many chromosomes?
23 chromosomes- called haploid
46 chromosomes called diploid
What steps of oogenesis occur from pubert to menopause
each month one primary oocyte finishes meiosis 1 which results in a secondary oocyte and a polar body. The secondary oocte then begins meiosis 2 but stops at metaphase 2.
When does male hormone production begin in fetal development and when does it peak?
Begins at 7 weeks, peaks at 6 months
Pathology of Pregnancy and Childbirth - Pregnancy, the Rh factor, what happens to mom?
during labor or miscarriage of a first pregnancy, some of the baby's Rh+ may enter the mother's Rh- blood circulation. mom may develop Rh+ antibodies, can cause problems for subsequent pregnancies
What does testicular descent into the scrotum require?
expression of a Leydig cell produced hormone
What are the 3 cycles of the uterine cycle?
Menstrual phase, proliferative stage, and secretory stage.
What is PMS and when does it occur
Premenstrual stress - occurs 7-10 days prior to the start of the menstrual cycle
What is hypospadia? What causes it?
when the opening of the urethra is on the ventral surface of the penis or scrotum-failure of the fusion of the urogenital fold to meet in the midline
What is the function of the prostate?
To lower the pH of the urethra and surrounding canals.
metr(o)
uterus
men/o
menstruation
orch/o
testis
Spermatocytes
Sperm cell
mamm/o, mast/o
breast
prostat/o
prostate (root word)
orch(o), orchi(o), orchid(o)
testes
Orchio-
Orchiectomy
Orchialgia
Orchio- testicle

Orchiectomy: surgical removal of a testicle (castration)

Orchialgia: pain in the testicle
What controls spematogenesis
negative feedback
orchitis
inflammation of the testis
rupture of an ovary
Pyosalpinx
amnion and chorion
embrionic membranes (2)
Testosterone
Promotes production of sperm, maintains secretory glands, stimulates growth and secondary sexual traits.Produced by testes.
testes
primary male reproductive organ/gonad; have both exocrine (sperm production) and endocrine (testosterone production) functions.
uteroplasty
surgical repair of the uterus
pus in the fallopian tubes
Salpingitis
metra-, metro-
endometritis
metra-, metro- womb (uterus)

endometritis: inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus
oogonium
the one-celled female reproductive organ in certain thallophytes, usually a more or less spherical sac containing one or more eggs.
Ovaries (function)
produce oocytes, excrete hormones including estrogen
In filtration, _____________ pressure forces water (with small enough solute molecules)through membrane pores
 
__________ occurs as larger solutes and suspended materials are left behind.
 
hydrostatic pressure
 
 
Filtration
Follicle-Stimulating hormone
Female: responsible for the development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries and stimulating the secretion of estrogen
Males: Stimulates the secretion of sperm cells
Colposcopy
using a magnifying instrument to inspect the interior of the vagina and cervix, the entrance to the uterus.
Outline the process of spermatogenesis. Remember to name the processes.
Spermatogonia--MITOSIS--primary spermatocyte (and another spermatogonium)--MEIOSIS--secondary spermatocytes--MEIOSIS--spermatids--differentiate to form sperm cells
Vas Deferens provide rapid transport of what?
SPERM!
painful menstration caused by uterine cramps
Amenorrhea
endoscopic procedure to move an undecended testicle to its normal position in the scrotum
Varicocelectomy
An oocyte is surrounded by...
Ovarian follicles
Reproductive organs that produce sex cells are referred to as ______.
gonads
Inhibin
Protein that regulates sperm count by affecting the release of FSH by pituitary.
Scrotal sac (scrotum)
Contains and protects the testes.Maintains testicular temperature
Spermatogenesis Purpose=
produce haploid gametes for sexual reproduction
Thyroxine 
Increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates; increases rate of protein synthesis; accelerates growth; stimulates activity in the nervous system
What is the urogenital sinus formed from?
cloaca
clusters of cells that protect and nourish immature eggs oocytes as well as produce sex hormones
Follicles
Mesovarium
a peritoneal fold that attaches each ovary to the posterior surface of the brad ligament
Connects a mother and a developing embryo
Placenta
the presents of blood in the sperm
Oligospermia
Testis-
Testicle
Testis: to witness

Testicle: gland that produces sperm and male sex hormone
chorionic gonadotropin
secreted by trophoplast of placenta, maintains corpus luteum
menopause
the period of permanent cessation of menstruation, usually occurring between the ages of 45 and 55.
thyroid gland
a two-lobed endocrine gland, located at the base of the neck that secretes two hormones that regulate the rates of metabolism, growth, and development.
What happens to the polar body
it is reabsorbed
Testis
*hang in scrotum= external sac to keep temperature lower than body temperature*Partition separates testis into two compartments *Produce androgens (testosterone) *produce approx 5mill sperm daily
Cervical Cancer
Cancerous growth in the cervix. Has been connected with HPV.
What is incorporated into follicular cells?
primordial germ cells
What is another name for fallopian or uterine tubes?
Ovaducts
Male urethra
extends from the urinary bladder to the distal end of the penis;
passageway for male reproductive fluids and urine; divided into three parts, prostatic, membranous, and spongy
painful erection that lasts 4 hrs or more not due to sexual excitement
Hydrocele
What is hypospadias?
Congenital condition char. by opening of the urethral meatus on the underside of the glans or penile shaft.
__________ in women is the time at which females cease to release eggs.
menopause
cowpers gland
either of two small glands that secrete a mucous substance into the male urethra.
What is the average of the uterine cycle?
28 days
seminal fluid
liquid medium in which sperm leave the body; produced in seminal vesicles, bulbourethral gland, and prostate
Pathology of the Female Reproductive System - Ovaries, Fallopian Tubes and Ovulation, oophoritis
inflammation of an ovary
Menstruation, what is menarche?
the beginning of menstrual function during puberty
Duct of the epididymis
a convoluted structure of the epididymis through which sperm cells move;
contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium with elongated microvilli
the 2 supporting structures in male reproductive systems?
penis and scrotum
follicular phase
a stage of the menstrual cycle, from onset of menstruation to ovulation.
What steps of oogenesis occur during childhood
none-the ovaries are inactive
Unless fertilization occurs, what happens on the 12th day after ovulation?
Disintegration of the corpus luteum begins, marking the end of the ovarian cycle. 
 
Then a new ovarian cycle begins with activation of a another group of primordial follicles
Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases - syphilis, caused by? how contagious, and end result?
bacterium Treponema pallidum, a spirocrete, highly contagious, can be fatal if not treated
What surrounds the incoming primordial germ cells?
mesenchymal cells of the gonadal ridge
what are the layers of the testes?
Tunica albuginea, Tunica Vaginalis
Sperm and eggs are both ________ which contain _____ chromosomes
haploid cells; 23
What is inhibin in females
a hormone secreted by the corpus luteum that inhibits the secretions of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
Post seminal vesicles and prostate gland =
*ejaculatory duct = seminal vesicles -> prostate -> urethra in penis
Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases - genital warts, how caused? how contagious, may lead to?
chronic infection of the human papilloma virus, highly contagious, increase risk of cervical cancer
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the phallus (genital tubercle).
f-clitoris, glans of clitoris, vestibular bulbs, corpora cavernosa clitoris, and corpus psongiosum clitorism-penis, glans, body corpora cavernosa, and corpus spongiosum of penis
production of milk in a woman who is not breastfeeding-caused by a malfunction of the thyroid gland or pituitary gland
Fibrocystic Breast Disease
what does it mean if a cell is haploid
it has 23 chromosomes
Where are each of the following secreted from? GnRH FSH LH Testosterone
GnRH - hypothalamus
FSH - pituitary gland
LH - pituitary gland
Testosterone - testes
What is the function of the ovaries?
To produce ova, estrogen, and progesterone
In females, what does the urogenital groove form? males?
-opening of urethra & vagina-opening of urethra
What does the seminal vesicle produce?
60% of the seminal fluid volume; yellowish, thick, rich in fructose.
In the male reproductive system, what is the pathway of the spermatozoa?
Epididymus - Ductus deferens (aka Vas deferens)- Ejaculatory duct
Where does the Inhibin end up traveling to from the sertoli cells?
The inhibin passes to the A.P. gland.Inhibin has a negative feedback effect on the A.P. which reduces the secretion F.S.H.
What is the function of GnRH in the male reproductive system?
targets anterior pituitary and stimulates secretion of LH and FSH
What is th function of the labia majora and the scrotum?
They protect and cover the reproductive organs
Name and describe the anatomy of a spermatozoa
Head (with acromial cap), neck, middle piece, tail (flagella)
What are the primary effects of FSH on the male reproductive system?
binds primarily to sustentacular cells in the seminiferous tubules and promotes sperm cell development
What happens to the caudal ends of the paramesonephric ducts? What does this form?
they grow together as they join the urogenital sinus-joint midline structure, uterovaginal primordium
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