The Roaring 20s and the Great Depression Flashcards

Terms Definitions
e.e. Cummings
poet
installment buying
buying on credit
What other religion came about?
Modernism
What are the 3 Goals?
-Relief
-Recovery
-Reform
anarchists
people who oppose organized government
Who won the election of 1920?
Harding
Warren G. Harding
drank during prohibtion, hypocrite
Technological innovations
The electric motor replaced steampower. By the end of the decade, factories were powered by electricity. Homes started to get electricity which enabled the consumption of refrigerators, washing machines, and other household appliances.
Duke Elington
jazz singer, most influential singer
immigration
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
model t
the first widely available automobile powered by a gasoline engine
great migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Hobo
a homeless person, typically one who is traveling in search of work
H.L. Mencken
young author; published the monthly American Mercury; assailed marriage, patriotism, democracy, prohibition, Rotarians, and the middle class Americans; dismissed the South and attacked the Puritans
Okie
a migrant worker from Oklahoma during the Great Depression; discriminated against (offensive term)
John Steinbeck
American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dustbowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.
communism
economic and political system in which the gov't controls the economy by owning its farms and businesses
18th Amendment
prohibits the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol (but not the consumption)
speakeasy
Illegal bar that served liquor during Prohibition
Dust Bowl
a region subject to dust storms
kellogg-briand pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
What was the revival of African American culture?
Harlem Rennaissance
Alien
a citizen of another country living in the United States
Scopes Monkey Trial
Teacher was teaching Darwinism in souther schools, starts big-time national debate, he was found guilty of some bullshit crime
Margaret Mitchell
United States writer noted for her novel about the South during the Civil War (1900-1949)
Sit-down strike
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
Rise of Suburbs
For the first time, suburbs' population grew at a faster pace than the nation's central cities. One in six americans lived in suburbs. For the most part, the people applauded the suburban trend, which made attractive neighborhoods avaiable to ordinary citizens. However, it lead to drained talent and resources from inner cities, intensified race and class divisions, and havoc on the local environment.
Huey Long
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
Mary McCloud Bethune
National Youth Administration - she was appointed for this job then made the Council on Negro Affairs. African Americans could work witht the WPA, but would be paid less; she tried to help with this and the other racist problems.
emergancy quota act
Established a temporary Quota system ,limiting immigration
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
the great gatsby
A novel depicting the picturesque idea of the self made American man and enterpreneur who rose from obscurity. was written by F. Scott Fitzgerald. (pages 742-7430
Explain the Monetary Policy.
reserve rate; interest rate-prime rate has to lower
trading on margin
investment firms loaned people up to 90% of money they needed to buy stocks, but if the stock value went down people wouldn't be able to pay back the banks
Buying on credit
Companies for the first time were allowing customers to purchase products on credit. Changed the old puritan ideals of saving up money. Increased consumption.
"We have nothing to fear but _____ ________." Who wrote this famous quote?
-Fear itself
-FDR
A Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921. He directed the controversial Palmer Raids.
A. Mitchell Palmer
attourney general for U.S. - conducted the Red Scare - had suspected communists deported to Russia
FDR's approach
he tried things, even if they were bad, it couldn't really get worse - he tried and tried again, which was the smart and effective way of dealing with the Depression
Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Federal Home Loan Bank Act
lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers to refinance their farm loans and avoid foreclosure. (Hoover administration)
What was President FDR's plan to help ameicans out of the Great Depression called?
The New Deal
swing music
a style of jazz played by big bands popular in the 1930s
Stock Market Boom
stock market is not regulated by the government and almost everyone was in on the game
soup kitchen
a place where food is dispensed to the needy
H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds
British author (1866-1946), wrote mainly science fiction including "The War of the Worlds","The Time Machine", and "The Invisible Man"
Who was for the New Deal?
the poor people were for it
What did Gertrude Stein say about this time?
it was the "Lost Generation"
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal Program set up to help put the unemployed back to work and to help the environment - built bridges, planted trees, etc...
reasons for new deal in decline and FDR
people, at least some, started to realize how socialist that bastard really was. the 1937 recession. Labor Strikes. issues with Italy, Germany, and Japan.
AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Administration; attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; paying farmers who cut certain production..
speculation
continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature
Who was a Revivalist?
Billy Sunday
WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
Who was convicted of teaching Darwinism?
Scopes
New KKK
new targets: catholics, jews, immigrants. strongly nativist. spread from the south into northern cities.
Flappers
Young women who rebelled against traditional ways and morals.
Reconstruction Finance Corportation
loaned money to banks
orson wells
director for war of the worlds
Francis perkins
Roosevelt's Secretary of Labor and first woman cabinet member in U.S. history.
court-packing scheme
Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, was a law proposed by United States President Franklin Roosevelt. While the bill contained many provisions, the most notorious one (which led to the name "Court-packing Bill") would have allowed the President the power to appoint an extra Supreme Court Justice for every sitting Justice over the age of 70½.
When was the Empire State Building built?
1927
Volstead Act
determined how much alcohol makes something alcoholic
Hoovervilles
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards. Named after Hoover because they blamed him for the depression.
Prohibition/ 18th Amendment
People had conflicting attitudes toward the prohibtion of alcohol, held speakeasies (secret clubs for drinking alcohol)
Mass Media
Print and broadcast methods of communicating information to large numbers of people.
cause of the red scare
anti immigrant feelings
Red Scare
started from the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia - there was influence in Germany which could (and did) lead to something else
new deal
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
public works
structures (such as highways or schools or bridges or docks) constructed at government expense for public use
Who came us with defecit spending?
John Maynard Keynes
Buying on Margin
buying stocks with loans from brokers
Jazz
new, more upbeat music, leads to new dances like the Charleston
Social Security Act
First a federal government act direclty helped the lives of the people. guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health.
Clarence Darrow
Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools.
quota system
allowed only a certain number of people from each country to enter the US
less purchasing power
installment buying cause people to live beyond their means and go into debt, so then they would stop spending; farm prices were declining and farmers could not frow crops because of the Dust Bowl; Americans cannot buy products because of layoffs
hundred days
the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.
WPA Work Progress Administration:
helped unemployed artists Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
volsted act
Was passed by Congress to enforce the 18th Amendment
Flapper
a young woman in the 1920s who wore her hair bobbed, wore makeup, dressed in flashy, skimpy clothes, and lived a life of independence and freedom
Warning Signs of the crash
building contracts declined, consumer spending declines, people were laid off in 1929
Richard Wright
black author of Native Son and Black Boy, two major, largely autobiographical works that helped break the color barrier of mainline publishing in America and that protested the treatment of blacks by whites in America
National Woman's Party
A group of militant suffragists who took to the streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes to convince the govt to give them the right to vote. Led by Alice Paul.
Charles Coughlin
A radio priest who was anti-New Deal. He insulted FDR and was pro Hitler.
the New Deal
FDR's strategy to end the depression by trying many different employment projects to put out-of-work americans to work in government organized groups. Some people thought that Roosevelt did too much for the people and other people thought he did not do enough.
changing women in 1900
shorter hair and dresses, skankier dances, more public drinking, cursing, and smoking, along with prematiral sex (whereas before the 1900s, women would wear a dress that would cover the floor, dance with "room for Jesus", and only have sex when her husband wanted to)
federal deposit insurance corporation
a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
Bonus Army
WWI vets were sposed to get a delayed pension, but they wanted in right then, so they marched on washington, then the U.S. troops drove them the **** out
Al Capone
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
What medium did FDR use to communicate with the american people?
Radio fireside chat
effects of the rebirth of the kkk
*the red scare
*targeted immigrants
overall effect of prohibition
crime, speakeasies, and it being a game - repealed because the economy needed the money
first hundred days
This term refers to March 4 to June 16, 1933. During this period of dramatic legislative productivity, FDR laid out the programs that constituted the New Deal. Today, presidents are often measured by their actions in the same period of time
Women and the New Deal
eleanor roosevelt worked on this very heavily. after she found out that her husband was cheating on her with lucy mercer, he became much more involved in politics. Francis Perkins was the first woman to be elected to the cabinet.
advantages odf 1920 economy
new things and the middle class could buy them
How was the 20's hypocritical in morals?
because of the Prohibition, people went to speak-easies; start of organiszed crime (Al Capone)
explain the popularity of the automobile and how it effected life in the 1920s
the automobile was the start of luxurypeople were not buying because they had to the were buying because they wanted to people didnt walk anymore the vacationed the car alowed people to travel further for there jobs and let people move into the suburbs
How the Other half lives
a book by John Riis that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who live in the tenements. Portrayed the down side of "the roaring 20s."
Explain FDR's plan to deal with the Great Depression
He had congress pass laws: *bank holidays *CCC * WPA * FDR plan to help the people directly *Relief (Provided jobs for the jobless) *Recovery (Fixed the economy * Reform (Made laws to prevent another depression)
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