The Russian Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
total controlboss)
appeals to peasants
Alexandra's former religion
The working class
Russian word for persecution
Vladimir Lenin
"Peace, Land, Bread."
Provisional Government
A temporary government
Peace, Land, Bread
appeal to everybody
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
government supported attacks against Jews in Russia
under the influence of Rasputin
government controlled all education and taught young children communism
Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity
important military and security for the bolshevik party
Tsaravitch w/ hemophilia; helped by Rasputin
Leon Trotsky
Commander of the Red Army
Alexander Kerensky
headed the provisional government, very popular revolution
-Kerensky favored gradual socialist reform/saw war as number 1 priority
Lenin rules
all farmland distributed among peasants and control of factories to workers
signs humilitating truce with Germany
political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule
A compensation paid for loss or damage.
material economic forces are the base on which sociopolitical institutions and ideas are built.
this Lenin policy allowed peasants to sell their surplus crops
is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life.
wanted to be lead by proletariate, factory workers are revolutionaries, conditions get so bad workers revolt then run society
Stalin's best friend; killed by the Cheka
The Duma
National legislature promised in the October Manifesto, most radical groups boycotted it which led to its cancellation by Nicholas II. They refused to disband and created a provisional committee to replace the Czar with a constitutional monarchy.
New Economic policy in Soviet Russia to prevent Russia's economy from collapsing
too late
Reason why industrialization in Russia did not work for Czar Nicholas II.
Civil War
People were unhappy with Lenin's decisions; Red Army (Bolsheviks) were fighting Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) & Greens (Ukrainian nationalists); Red Army won
Alexei (or Alexis) the Tsarevitch is born
command economy
economy in which government officals make all basic economic decisions
The upper class people that owned the means of production
Red Terror
mass executions by bolsheviks to show there power
Germany had to pay 132 billion and were to pay 2.5 billion per year but inflation made money worthless
star of the revolution; leader of Red Army; intellectual and great orator;calls for worldwide socialist revolution; supported by left wing urging rapid industrialization and volutantary collectivization of farming; ousted from party and expelled from Russia
large farm owned and operated by a large group of peasants
one of the leaders of the temporary government who represented Cadets
removal of all people stalin considered a threat. he would kill his own secret police, military, government officials, and citizens because he was scared they may know too much of the government and try to overthrow it.
Dual Power
System formed after the abdication of the Tsar in 1917 in which the Provisional Government (led by Alexander Kerensky) and the Petrograd Soviet of Workers ruled together.
council of people who get together to discuss things
Totalitarian state
one party dictator ship attempts to regulate every aspect of lives of citizen
Great Purge
Beginning in 1934, Stalin's plan to eliminate all opposition to his Communist government.
Results of the November Revolution
all private property abolished- divided among pesantry, government owns the industriew
The Great Purge
the time when millions of stalin's opponents were killed or vanished. Many when to Gulags in siberia.
October manifesto
the reforms that the people wanted so that they had more say in the government >> agreed with but mostly shot down by tsar 1905
March Revolution
The first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It occurred March 8-12 and its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the end of the Romanov dynasty. The Czar was replaced by the Russian Provisional Government.
2 facist qualities
loyalty to country and obedience to leader
First Revolution
Part one of the Russian Revolution; it began with the abdication of Nicholas II; As a result, the Duma created a provisional government under the leadership of Alexander Kerensky (aka February Revolution).
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
5 year plans
5 year plans to rapidly industrialize Russia
Army order no. 1
strip officers of power and elect leaders of discipline
Czar Nicholas
Goes to the front lines during WWI and takes command of the Russian Army
Bolshevik Revolution
November 1917 - led by Lenin and Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik's Red Army attacks czar's winter palace in Petrograd, took over government and arrested provisional government and Kerensky flees to United States
How did Stalin come to power?
used his position to gain power
turned people against eachother
How did Stalin turn Russia into a totalitarian state?
the agricultural revolution, great purge, censorship
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
country set up by the Bolsheviks after executing Nicholas II and his family
What was the effect of the October (aka November) revolution?
The overthrow of the provisional gov't and the first communist gov't.
first revolutionaries
Russian Revolution
-end private ownership
easily frightened; fearful
War communism
used by Lenin
Local assemblies in Russia.
intended to be mysterious
freeing of serf, established independent courts, equality before the law, education was somewhat liberalized, censorship was relaxed but not removed
believed workers should overthrow government so people can share equally in the nation's wealth
The Russian parliament (i.e. legislative body of the Russian national government).
radical revolutionaries (a la Jacobins) also known as Red; early term for Communist
dictators before communism, overthrown in 1917
communist leader during russian revolution, craved power, killed many
"Great Terror"
campaigns of repression and persecution in the Soviet Union. The many murders of the old bolsheviks led to be known as this.
Sergei Witte
Russia's prime minister, encouraged foreign companies to build factories in Russia
They were the most prosperous peasants. They opposed collectivation.
Nicholas II
-inherited throne(1894)
-sent a petition demanding reform(Bloody Sunday)
-issued the October Manifesto, but didn't keep to it.
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property
why did the march revolution occur
1917 - oct/nov
Bolschevik seizure of power
the practice of eating one's kind
Soviet Union
Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR)
March 12, 1917
Turning point. Government loses monopoly of violence. Soldiers rebel against officers and join strikers.
a country that offers safety or protection
believe that class struggle was inevitable
Karl Marx
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Bloody Sunday
1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, fired on by palace guards, 100s died
Socialist Revolutionaries
Most numerous soviets, wanted to establish peasant socialism, creat rural democracies.
updating of Marxism for the 20th century; the belief that world communism can be brought about by a small secret communist parties starting in poorer rather than wealthier countries
Secret police of the Soviet Union (Like our CIA)
Tsar Nicholas II
Tsar of Russia, methods greatly criticized by the Duma and citizens, went to lead Russia's armies in the war, left Tsarina in charge, when he came back revolution broke out and he abdicated
Cult of personality
All the propaganda that supported Stalin and portrayed him as a good person
Father Gapon
Orthodox priest, led peaceful march to czars palace, looking for help from czar
a worker's council formed early in the Russian Revolution
Concerned only with what is visible or obvious; lacking a depth of understanding
large farm owned & operated by the peasants as a group (communal) -> live together
Christopher Columbus
an Italian explorer who sailed from Spain in 1492 in order to find a direct route to Asia and who eventually rrived in the Philippines
Command Economy (System)
Economic System where the Government makes all basic economic decisions (what, how, for whom)
Social Realism
show Soviet life in a positive light and promote hope in communist future.
March 3 1918
The Treaty of Brest-Livtosk is signed between Russia and Germany ending the World War I in the east
Russian Social Structure
Similar to the Ancien Regime in France. A system that people's social status is dependent on the family they are born.
Father Gregory Gapon
Who spoke the quote "The innocent blood of the workers, and that of their wives and children, lies between you and the Russian people..."?
1914 - July
Germany and AH declare war on Russia
Russo-Japanese War
bad losses for Russia. cause of Bloody Sunday
Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs)
One political party that was the most extreme
Collective Farms
a vast area of land on which many people shared the work
Political (situation of that time)
ineffective king led to radical revolutionaries who took over
Lenin and Marx
democracy and school is more talk than action, benefits upper class more than lower class; voting lets lower class pick members of the upper class they want to be in power, not lower class; schools teach propaganda not truth
World War I (cause -- military)
Nicholas II committed an unprepared Russian army to war; the army was no match for the German machine guns. As a result, the army suffered heavy losses and low moral. Nicholas traveled to the frontline to inspire his troops leaving his wife (and Rasputin) in charge.
Peace, Land and Bread
The slogan used by Lenin to win the support of the people; Peace appealed to the soldiers; Land appealed to the peasants; and Bread appealed to the workers.
The "Allies" role in the Russian Civil War.
In the hopes of stopping communists from gaining control in Russia, the Allies supported the White Army.
Stalin's secret police
•russian for 'council'•democratically elected representatives of the workers (cities) and peasants (countryside)
favoring or practicing capitalism
The Communist party newspaper
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
aka middle class capitalists; consisted of university professors; civil servants, working professionals; Russia must seek to imitate liberal countries of western Europe; gradual reforms by extension of political rights; avoid violence.
strongly opposed to change; conservative
White Army
Everyone against red army
the march revolution
Nicholas II steps down
"Truth" communist party newspaper, it linked enemies at home to foreign agents seeking to restore power to the landowners and capitalists, this revived extreme nationalism
radicals or revolutionaries, wanted to change government
Nicollas II's son, has hemophilia, cured by Rasputin
The Crimean War
-huge political/military fail
-opened up critique of tsarist regime - why are we so backwards?
-leads to revolutions, people are feeling their nation is inadequate, want a better alternative
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
left-close to Lenin, opposed October revo, chairman of Comintern (spread communism to everyone) in 1919
the institution that had become the leading organ of the party after Lenin's death. Members were divided over the future direction of the natio . One side wanted to end the NEP and launch the SU on the path of rapid industrialization, wanted to carry on the Rev. Other side rejected the cause of the world revolution and watned to concentrate on construction of a socialist state
V.I. Lenin
Boleshevik, radical will establish a communist government in russia
great purges
stalin's attempt to execute all bolshevik enemies
(used of opinions and actions) far beyond the norm
Was a Faction of the Russian revolutionary movement that emerged in the 1903 after a dispute between
Aleksandr Kerensky
head of Russian provisional government after revolution.
Class System
social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
a palace-fortress in Moscow where the Bolsheviks set up their government
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This treaty ended Russias participation in the war, lost substantial territory to Germans
Constituent Assembly
Kerensky wanted a Constituent Assembly to write a constitution. But conditions deteriorated such that they had to call a pre-parliament representing all bodies/parties. (Lenin and Bolsheviks boycotted it and called instead for an all-Russian Congress of Soviets).
When constituent Assembly finally met in January, 1918, 9 million had voted in favor of Bolsheviks and 21 million had voted for Social Revolutionaries. So Lenin (who by that time had staged a 2nd revolution), had the Constituent Assembly forcibly dispersed.
Marxist revolutionaries
believed proletariats would take over czar
St. Petersburg
place in Russia where the Tsar's lived
Fiddler on the Roof
Movie showing Jews in Russia.
February 23 1917
International Womens Day. Thousands of women protest through Petrograd against food shortages and war. Crowd grows to 90,000
Stalin Eliminates Religion
- Russian Orthodox, Judaism, Islam
- destroyed churches and could only worship there
- Bishops killed
- WWI used them for an advantage
Alexander II
Known for reforms and freeing the serfs; killed by a BOMB!!!!
new economic policy
it allows small scale capitalism, government controls everything
constitutional democrats
New political party with support from rising professional and business class with some support also from enterprising landowners. They formed the liberal segment of public opinion, a.k.a. CADETS. Many of these were active in provincial zemstvos. Really more interested in politics, and policy than in conditions of the workers.
Red army vs. White army
Bolsheviks vs. upper class
Polit Bureau
the most elite and important in government ex:Thomas Jefferson and Washington
laborers bound to the land and to their masters
league of nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
Adds to gain support for cause, shows
"how good" life was
Twenty-one Points
At the Second Congress of the Comintern, members endorsed the program written by Lenin- examples of points: party commitment, repudiate reform socialism, propagandize labor unions, infiltrate, follow order of Comintern, legal and extra-legal methods, expel weaker members. Was trying to make the Comintern a weapon for revolution.
Lenin's actions
motto was "Peace, Land, and Bread", gained appeal, caused Duma to disappear and Bolsheviks to gain control
El Alamein
location in Egypt, the British stop Erwin Rommel and Germany's advancing campaign in North Africa
Example of a Cautionary Tale
Power corrupts. Absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Stalin's Five year plan
increase heavy industry- coal, iron hydroelectric power, 5 year plans, few consumer goods, lower standard of living
a member of a class of wealthy Russian peasants
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
Red guard
were armed groups of workers formed in the time frame of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
Popular Fronts
By mid-30s and with Fascism on the rise, Russians advised Communists in Europe to ally with socialists and advanced liberals in "popular fronts" in defense against Fascism which had targeted Communists/Socialists.
Lack of Democracy in Europe
democracy was replaced by dictatorships in Eastern Europe in the 1920's and 1930's
alexander III
son of Alexander II who was czar of Russia (1845-1894)
1933-> In some ways less ambitious than the first but had goal of national self-sufficiency, especially in heavy industry basic to war production. First two plans resulted in INCREDIBLE, UNPRECEDENTED INDUSTRIAL GROWTH. 1928-38: iron and steel production X 4; coal X 3 1/2. By 1939 Russia was third in the world (behind U.S. and Germany) in output of these items. AMAZING GROWTH!!!
The Great War (WWI)
Russia vs. Sweden and Finland for overseas ports, ended with the Peace of Nystad>conquest of Estonia, Livonia and part of Finland>building of St. Petersburg, A war in which the Russians defeated the Swedes, St. Petersbury became the new "western" capital of Russia
The Red Army
They won the Russian Civil War and established Russia as the first communist country in the world. They were the Bolshevik soldiers.
Alexei Stakhanov
the guy who was an over achiever and got famous and pampered for it (against communism)
Reds and Whites
two types of soldies that fought in the Civil war in Russia. white army was volunteer troops from allied nations and anti bolshevik supporters
What was Lenin's motto? Why?
"Peace, bread and land" (peace=no more fighting, bread=no more famine, land=needed land reform)
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
P.M. of Britain. Asked U.S for credit and escorts for British merchant ships.
Lend - Lease Act
this allowed Roosevelt to sell or lend war materials to certain nations
Slogan of the russian revolution
Peace Land Bread (the french revo was liberty equality and fraternity)
"A group of planners makes all economic decisions. The group assigns natural, human, and capital resources to the production of those goods and services it wants. The group decides how to produce them and to whom to distribute them"
This description best
command economy of the Soviet Union
Who did Tsarina seek for help with running her country and public opinion? Why did she go to him for help?
Gregory Rasputin. She seeked Rasputin because he was a "holy man" and he had cured the Tsar's son of hemophilia and was a trusted friend of the family.
In 1895 who did Lenin plot against? What was his punishment for this?
Tsar Alexander 3. Lenin was imprisoned for 14 months.
what did leon trotsky do in the beginning of the november revolution?
he was making speeches as to why people should support the communists while the red guards were taking over key points in the city
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