The Scientific Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Quintessence
fifth essence
GALILEO
(1564-1642): Italian mathematician, astronomer and physicist. Determined the validity of the heliocentric theory. The telescope had recently been invented in the Netherlands and he refined the design to make astronomical observations and confirm Copernicus' theory. He discovered the mountains on the moon, the moons of Jupiter, the rings around Saturn and the sunspots. Persecuted by the Roman Inquisition for publishing his work, he spent the remainder of his life under house arrest. There he continued his scientific work with a focus on less controversial subjects. His study of falling bodies disproved Aristotle's contention that objects fall at varying speeds(implication of gravity), depending on their weights (experiments done from top of leaning tower of Pisa) and he also developed the theory of the pendulum and discovered the principle of inertia.
Francis Bacon
developed the scientific method
Polish clergyman and astronomer
Nicolaus Copernicus
Begining of scientific revolution
mid 1500s
theories
an explanation developed by scientists based on their observations
Adam Smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations.
PROPHETS OF SCIENTIFIC CIVILIZATION
BACON & Descartes
Tycho Brahe
confirmed the ideas of Copernicus
Bacon
believed empiricism (general theory of inductive reasoning)and that new knowledge had to be persued by empirical experimental research.
hypothesis
a solution that a scientist proposes to solve the problem
EDMUND HALLEY
English astronomer and friend of Newton. Viewed number of comets in the late 1600s. Especially between 1680 and 1682. His studies of one in particular caused it to be named after him. He predicted that the famous comet would return again in 1757-9 (which it did). It also came again in 1910 and 1986.
John Napier
(Mathematician) founded the table of logarithms, simplified methods of multiplication, division, and finding square roots.
academies
Sci. Revo. - Small, sometimes private to prevent persecution by the Church, groups (smaller than societies).
Who created the three laws of planetary motion?
Kepler
Galileo Galilei
Italian astronomer who was the first scientist to study the sky with a telescope. He also set up experiments to test his theories. Considered the father of experimental science.
Cartesian dualism
Descartes's view that all of reality could ultimately be reduced to mind and matter.
mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
permitted Galileo to write about possible systems
Pope Urban VIII
Margaret Cavendish
17th c. - Natural philosopher and duchess of Newcastle, wrote several books on natural philosophy and plays and poems, founded Newcastle Circle (salon) which supported Descartes, worked in isolation because she was female, due to the times she believed that women actually weren't capable of being as smart as men, once attended Royal Society meeting but women were banned otherwise.
Who improved the telescope and wrote The Dialogue.
Galileo Galilei
rationalists
people who look at the world in a rational, or reasonable and logical way.
fall of constantinople
Finally overcome by the Ottoman turks in 1453 after constant attack by Germanic/European tribes, Persians and Muslims
Deism
Sci. Revo. - God is the great clock setter of the world (perpetual), although Newton (Deist) believed God had to intervene every now and then, most thought never intervened, had great respect for and were in awe of God's mathematical and scientific orientation in the creation of the world --> natural laws that apply to everyone, no one group more favored --> leads to religious toleration.
Scientific Revolution
A time between 1500 and 1700 when there was a major shift in the thinking on science
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
son of an English farmer, his genius won him early recognition, and he became a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University while he was still in his twenties. Working independently of one another, both him and Leibniz, a German philosopher (Pangloss in Candide - HAVE MS. H EXPLAIN THIS TO YOU!!!!!!) and mathematician, discovered differential and integral calculus.
He shared the belief of other scientists that the physical universe was governed by natural laws. He solved the one great unanswered question remaining from the work of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo: What is it that causes the planets, stars and other heavenly bodies to move in an orderly fashion? He set forth the explanation in the LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION using mathematical proof(calculus) and published this all in his PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA (MATHEMATICAL PRINICPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY) of 1687 which also contained laws of light and color, and of motion. His findings proposed a physical universe marked by balance, uniformity, rationality and harmony. His work provided the foundation of modern physics and would stand unmodified until the 20th century and the work of physicists such as Albert Einstein. He is undoubtedly the greatest genius in the Age of Genius(17th century).
The Scientific Revolution impacted ___________ and
The Enlightenment ; The Industrial Revolution
Galileo's views challenged the chruch because....
it undermind the authority and theology
Des Cartes
Analytical geometry
principles
basic beliefs, rules or laws
Vesalius
structure of the human body
Zacarias Janssen
dutch maker of eyeglasses
alchemy
a forerunner of chemistry where scientists experimented with various natural substances
DEDUCTIVE METHOD
method of acquiring knowledge. Promoted by Descartes in Discourse on Method in early 17th century. Proceed from general to the specific by 'deducing' logical implications. Been used before Descartes but he put emphasis on it and formalized its use in philosophical discourse.
William Oughtred
(Mathematician) Invented the Slide Rule
Brahe
believed planets revolved around sun and sun/planets revolved around earth
heliocentric
having the sun at the center
Public sphere
An idealized intellectual space that emerged in Europe during the Enlightenment, where the public came together to discuss important issues relating to society, economics, and politics.
Antoine Lavoisier
(Chemist) Founded the law of conservation of mass, and discovered that water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.
Spinoza
Pantheism (belief that God is in humans and nature). Read Descartes, but could not accept seperation of God from universe.
Gottfried Leibniz
17th-18th c. - Northern German philosopher and mathematician who agreed with Descartes and not with Newton's idea that God intervened in the world as it corrupted the divine nature of God. Thought the universe was like God in that it was infinite in space and time. Helped popularize Cartesian deductive method in France instead of the Newtonian method. Used Newton's math in proving his beliefs. Invented calculus separately from Newton.
scientific method
logical procedure for gathering and testing idea1. observation2. collect data3. hypothesis4. test hypothesis5. conclusion
procedure
a series of steps taken to accomplish a task
Rationalism
A secular, critical way of thinking in which nothing was to be accepted on faith, and everything was to be submitted to reason.
Merian
(woman) wrote and drew a number of books about the stages of growth of plants and insects
Occam's Razor
Medieval - Idea developed from a Medieval philosopher that said the most simple explanation is usually the correct explanation. The idea of eccentric orbits in traditional cosmology went against this as it was too complicated.
Blaise Pascal believed in what?
a leap of faith
DISCOURSE ON METHOD
written by Descartes and published in 1637. It was this work in which he published his principles of systematic doubt and emphasized deductive reasoning. Also supported Baconian idea of "practical philosophy." Suggested could use understanding of nature to harness it for 'enjoyment' but also for 'preservation of health.'
Andreas Vesalius
16th c. - Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern biological science because of his studies of cadavers and the circulation of blood. He also was the first to assemble skeletons. Wrote On the Fabric of the Human Body.
Rise of National Monarchies
Monarchs provided money for scientific studies to centralize government, promote trade, and reduce the influence of the church in state affairs. In 1484 King John of Portugal appointed mathematicians to work out a method for finding latitude at sea. In 1660 King Charles II established the Royal Society and naval laboratories. Queen Elizabeth I established Gresham College at Oxford to study navigation and astronomy c. 1597.
LEONARDO DA VINCI
(1452-1519) One of the few men BEFORE the 17th century who was a true scientist. His dissections demonstrated the circulatory system and accurate anatomy. He surmised the earth's rotation and the earth's orbit around the sun. He invented a great many practical devices based on accurate observations of the physical world. BUT he was an isolated genius. He didn't do much to transmit ideas. He was known primarily as an artist in an age of art. His notebooks were published long after his death. Some have only been recently discovered. Since modern science depends much on publication and corroboration, etc. he did not really contribute much to the revolution that really got underway in the 1600s/17th century.
Elliptical orbits, planets speed up when close to sun, sun emits power that draws planets toward it.
3 Laws of Planetary motion
Who helped to advance the new approach, the scientfic method?
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
What did the telescope did for Galileo?
Allowed him to observe the motion of the planets a
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