The Solar System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
T:do not contain
rings
J: outer __ planets
4
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
June
Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun,more daylight than darkness and rays more direct = summer
T:mercury and venus do not have
moons
Winter Triangle
3 Constellations
Canis Major - Sirius
Canis Minor - Procyon
Orion - Betelgeuse
Scientific name for big dipper
Ursa Major
Pluto
a dwarf planet that sometimes crosses the path of Neptune- has 3 moons: Charon, Nix, and Hydra
Lunar Eclipse
Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon - the moon is in Earth's shadow (full oon phase)
oort cloud
spherical halo of material surrounding the solar system out to a distance of 50,000AU, where most long-period comets reside
Latitude
Degrees North or South of the Equator
Night - Altitude of Polaris is Equal to observer's Latitude
Day - Altitude of Celestial Equator is Complimentary (=90°) to the latitude.
Must use altitude of the sun at noon.
What type of planet is Pluto
Dwarf Planet
asteroid
Rocky objects revolving around the sun that are too small and numerous to be considered planets
T:___ ___ ___ with solid surface
small, dense, rocky
North point
Direction on the horizon below the north star.
core
The central region of the sun, where nuclear fuision takes place
mars
the planet fourth in order from the sun, having a diameter of 4222 miles (6794 km), a mean distance from the sun of 141.6 million miles (227.9 million km), a period of revolution of 686.95 days, and two moons.
heliocentric
a model of the solar system in which Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Solstice
9 hours day, 15 hours night = Winter (12/22)
15 hours day, 9 hours night = Summer (6/22)
What characteristics enable us to tell if a star will become a giant or supergiant star
Mass and Luminosity
sunspot
A dark area of gas on the sun's surface that is cooler than surrounding gases
Milky Way Galaxy
the name of our galaxy, a spiral galaxy that contains about 400 billion stars
ursa major
it is the scientific word for the big dipper
Superior Conjunction
When a planet is in line with the Sun and Earth, on the opposite side of the Sun than Earth.
The Sun is between the planet and the Earth.
0° Elongation in back of the Sun (Inferior Planets)
because its axis is tilted as it revolves around the sun.
Why does the Earth have seasons?
main
most important
Mercury: Minimum Surface Temperature
(-173C)
Patera
shallow crater; scalloped, complex edge
Meteors
"shooting stars" or "falling stars".
Uranus
rocky core the size of earth,atsmospere mainly carbon dioxide, blanket of clouds trap heat,creatind a surface temp hot enough to melt lead
lunar regolith
covers all terrains, gray unconsolidated debris composed of igneous, brecca, glass beads, lunar dust
ellipse
elongated, closed curve that describes Earth's yearlong orbit around the Sun
_________________________________________
the pull that keeps us on Earth
asteroids
rocky solar system objects or widely varying size usually found between the orbits of mars and Jupiter in an area called the asteroid belt
Tyco Brahe
The Danish astronomer who made accurate astronomical observations. His measurements formed the basis for Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
parts of a comet
Coma, Nucleus, and tail
Retrograde Motion
Apparent backwarsd motion of the planets in Earht's sky
astronomy
the study of , planets, andother objects in space.
Neutron star
star of extremely high density composed entirely of neutrons.
Rotation
A spinning motion of a planet about its axis.
mercury
closest planet to the sun; has a larger than expected iron core.
Apoapsis
The point in orbit farthest from the planet. The opposite of periapsis.
moon's characteristic
gravity is 1/6 of earth, no atmosphere, not active tectonics, smooth landscape
Penumbra
The part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part.
Properties of Earth
Diameter (pole to pole): 12,714 km
Diameter (equator): 12,756 km
Circumference (poles) 40,008 km
Circumference (equator) 40,075 km
Mass 5.98 X 10 kg
Average density 5.52 g/cm
Average distance to sun 149,600,00km
Period of rotation: 23 h, 56 m (1 day)
Period of revolution: 365 days, 6 h 9m (1 year)
Astronomical Unit
The average distance between the Earth and the Sun.
Gravity
The force that pulls all objects in the universe toward one another
temperatures
measure of how hot or cold things are
nebula
a large cloud of gas and dust spread out in an immense volume
Year
Time it takes for a planet to complete one revolution around the Sun. (Different planets have different lengths of years because of the size of their orbit)
Galilean moons
The largest of Jupiters moons They are IO, EUROPA, Ganymede, and Callisto
Planets listed in order:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
star
a huge ball of burning gas in space which produces it's own energy and gives off both heat and light.
Solar System
a star and all the objects that travel around it; made up of planets, moons, asteroids, meteoroids, comoets, sun; also know as the sun system
Comets
Balls of rock and ice that have a tail made of gases
White dwarf
star that has exhausted most or all of its nuclear fuel and has collapsed to a very small
Our solar system is made up of:
8 planets and 3 dwarf planets
vernal
spring
umbra
darker shadom
Sun
A dwarf star
Ultraviolet
Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths shorter than the violet end of visible light. The atmosphere of the Earth effectively blocks the transmission of most ultraviolet light, which can be deadly to many forms of life.
fusion
smashing together of particles
Aurora
an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands of light caused by charged solar particles following the earth's magnetic lines of force
inner planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Saturn
6th planet
-largest most visible rings
-largest moon, Titan
Inner (Terrestrial) Planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Pluto, Eris, and Ceres
are dwarf planets.
satellite
1. Man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon.
2. Any celestial body orbiting around a planet or star.
Earth
planet third closest to the sun
earth's communication systems
solar flares interfere with
Angular momentum
Angular momentum depends on object's mass, rotation rate (revolutions per second), and radius.
Conserved - therefore, as a dust cloud collapses, its rate of rotation will increase
space station
A long-term orbiting platform from which other vehicles can be launched or scientific research can be carried out
meteoroid
a reletive small rocky body that travels through space
supernova
a star that explodes and becomes extremely luminous in the process
axis
An imaginary line around which a planet rotates, or spins.
Revolution
Movement of the Earth around the sun.
Waxing crescent moon
A crescent-shaped moon growing bigger
greenhouse effect
trapping of heat by the atmosphere
primary eclipse
when the planet blocks the star
Neptune 1
-twins with Uranus
-blue-green cuz of methane
-Great Dark Spot
-belts and zones
-clouds
-highest wind speeds 2200 km/h
-much energy on inside
meteorite
a meteoroid that has struck the surface of the earth
Zodiac
An imaginary belt across the sky in which the Sun, moon, and all of the planets can always be found.
Valles Marinaris
Mariner Valley; large rift valley on Mars
Asteroids and Comets
Asteroids-rocky objects too small and numerous to be considered planets
comets-loose collections of ice,dust,and rock particles
Moon
formed when rocky mass size of Mars hit earth
material blasted into space and aggregated by gravity into the moon
meteor bombardment created craters
prominence
a huge, reddish loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of sunspot regions
Ceres
The smallest dwarf planet in the solar system and the only one inside the asteroid belt. It was considered the eighth planet for half a century.
Moon Phases
The changing appearances of the Moon as seen from Earth
Comet
Dust, frozen water, and gas with a tail.
Meteor
A streak of lightning of hot gases produced by a burnig meteorid in the earths atmosphere
Black Holes
Dense Objects with Gravity so strong that not even light can escape their surface
The planet that is "just right" for life to exist
Earth
law of universal gravitation
Nexton's______showed how to calculate the gravitational force between any two objects.
Chunks of ice and rock that travel around the sun in a variety of orbits
Comets
Big Bang Theory
the theory that states the universe began with a tremendous explosion 13.7 billion years ago
geocentric
a model of the universe in which earth is at the center of the revolving planets and stars
Venus and Earth
What are the two neighboring planets that are closest together?
Space probe
A vehicle sent into space to explore places too dangerous for people.
solar eclipse
A blocking of the Sun's light that happens when Earth passes throught the Moon's shadow. At the time the Moon is between Earth and the Sun.
Gas Giants
The name given to the four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
name three features of sun's surface
sunspots, prominences, solar flares
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
doppler effect
Retrograde Rotation
The spining motion of a planet from east to west, opposite to the direction of most other planets and moons. Means "moving backwards".
planet
A large body of rock or gases that revolves around the sun
Albedo Feature
A dark or light marking on the surface of an object that may or may not be a geological or topographical feature.
how much bigger is the sun than the moon
400 times
Wasp 12b
Takes this planet 1.1 earth days to go around its star 1 time. Surface temperature is estimated to be 1,500 C. Wasp 12b is slowly being eaten by its star.
what is at the center of the milky way?
a black hole
keplers laws of planetary motion
all plants revolve around sun in elliptical, not circular orbits, sun is not exact center of earch orbit
irregular galaxies are often close to...
spiral galaxies that may distort their shape
Crater density is only about 15% of that found on lunar maria
Venus' lowland plains are believed to be relatively young (500-600 million years old). Evidence for this is
This planet would float in a swimming pool if there were one big enough to hold it.
It spin very fast, making one day on this planet ten and one-half hours long.
impact basin
crater
rotate
to spin around
sphere
a round 3D object
rille
Valleylike structure that meanders across some regions of the Moon's maria.
pluto is now considered a
planetismal
Zone
High, cool, light-collored cloud that rises and flows rapidly through the Jovian atmosphere.
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center., earth orbits the sun and rotates on its axis,, Heliocentric theory
Where do sunspots occur?
On the Photosphere
Jupiter
fifth, largest planet, atmosphere is hydrogen and helium, rocky core, great red spot, 61 moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede is largest, Castillio
Orbit
The path an object follows around another object
2 bare minimums for life
1) water
2) disequilibrium
surface gravity of mars
38 % of earths
prominences
reddish loops of gas that link different parts of sunspot regions
corona
the outer layer of the sun's atmosphere
name layers of sun's atmosphere
photosphere, chromosphere, corona
prograde motion
counterclockwise rotation of planet as seen from above north pole, rotation in same direction as suns
focus
one of two center points of an ellipse
Highlands (on moon)
Bright, densely cratered regions; make up most of the moon; make up all of the "back" side of the moon; older than maria
stoney meteorite
most common type of meteorite, similar in composition to rocks found on the surface of the Earth
venus
second planet from the sun similar to earth in mass and size has a thick atmosphere and a surface with craters fault like cracks and volcanoes
the flash of light produced when a meteoroid passes through Earth's atmosphere
meteor
Irregular galaxy
a small galaxy that has no identifiable shape and that contains a great amount of dust and gas
nuclear fission
The splitting of an atom's nucleus into two smaller nuclei. (p.307)
light from the sun takes ___ minutes to reach earth
8.3
No
Are the phases of the moon dependent on the speed of the Earth's rotation?
Local Group
A small group of about two dozen galaxies of which our own Milky Way galaxy is a member.
The Asteroid Belt
divides the inner and the outer planets
Heliocentric system
In system, Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
gibbous
When a moon seems to bulge at one side.
Law of Inertia
Newtons law that states that an objects motion will not change unless that object is acted on by an outside force
Galaxy
a large group of stars thats held by gravity
Neptune
a giant planet with a ring of ice particles
dwarf planet
small round bodies that orbit the sun- basically under-sized planets.
Orbit
The path of an object as it revolves around another object in space
the sun
This is located at the center of our solar system.
Meteoroids
small bits of rock and metal not in an orbit around sun
Why is radiation so dangerous for astronauts?
little or no atmosphere
period of revolution
time it takes an object to revolve around another object once
How long does it take for earth to complete an orbit?
365 1/4 days
100% - they are the same
The moon's rotational rate is what percentage of its orbital rate around the Earth?
(1) solid core
(2) liquid core
(3) lower mantle
(4) asthesnosphere
(5) lithosphere
Place the layers in order, from the Earth's center (1) to the Surface (5)
Large in size, almost entirely gas
How are the gas giants the SAME as each other?
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