Theatre History Flashcards

Terms Definitions

Refreshment Stands

wheeled platform
tearful comedy
comedie larmoyante
battens for lights

kinds of plays
the crucible
arthur miller
Founded theatre libre
Andre antoine
a type of flat
in front of prosenium
literature of the theatre 
life revolved around....
the church

plays performed on
pageant wagons
brighton beach memoirs
neil simon

cirque du soleil
blue man group
Which Roman writer wrote larger-than-life dramas?
Farcical actors, influenced by commedia, stocks characters, farse, women actors allowed onstage by 1607 (possible before then but no proof)
3 flats in a triangle
stage directions
upstage, downstage, right, left
Ephraim Lessing
(1729-1781) - Germany
Germany’s first truly significant dramatist

  i.     Miss Sara Sampson (1755) brings him fame
1.     Domestic tragedy
2.     Wins a triumph for sentimental drama (which has been championed by translations of Lillo’s The London Merchant)
3.     Draws upon Medea myth but sets it in contemporary England
4.     Soon becomes the most popular play in Germany, and it is imitated
                                             ii.     Translates the works of Diderot and is able to attract a large middle-class audience to the theatre for the first time
Encourages writers to break neoclassical rules and to portray wider historical themes
person who writes the play 
married to marilyn monroe
arthur miller
skin of our teeth
thornton wilder
Henrik Ibsen
-19th century, Norway
-Playwright ("Ghosts," "A Doll's House", "An Enemy of the People"), poet, and theatre director.
-big influencer of social realism and Shaw
-critized the blind acceptance of traditional gender roles in his work
seemed to question traditional religious beliefs on creationism
darwins theory
wrote school of scandal
richard brinsley sheridan
Sections within the town itself, within the city walls that are exempt from the laws. Ex.) Black
wagon wheeledon from behind the skene
writer of old comedy and lysistrata
1. Spanish Golden Age
2. Wagons
3. Plays of the Spanish Golden Age were performed on a number of these wagons that were connected
Epic Theatre
intellect rather than emotions, bringing forth social questions (B. B.'s)
naval pagents 
naumachina- recreates naval battels and uses prisoners 

Neil Simon
-kept broadway alive in 60's
The odd couple
Brighton Beach Memoirs

Oliver Cromwell
overthrew the monarchy
shut down theatres
rich people fled to France

God of theatre, wine, and fertility
Florenz Ziegfeld
Pioneered "follies" revueSeveral songs and dnace of variety
Morality play
Concerned with the principles taught by Christianity rather than stories in the Bible
opera composer and stage and directing theorists
reputation of american's finest actor, survived over 100 years
edwin booth
helped audience forget about their cares
escapist drama
3 act tragicomedy (spain) called Cape and Sword dramas. The cape was the short cape worn by nobility and always carries a sword, which was a powerful symbol or rank and position. Dealt with themes of Love and Honor. Dealing with lower upper classes. Comedia means play in the Spanish theatre, not comedy. Deal with code and honor, which is meant to govern the behavior of the nobility. Everything has poetic justice at the end in terms of the Spanish code of honor and Catholicism.
2nd Level
There's a second level that's playable. There are stage directions that indicate jumping down, climbing up, etc. Ex.) Balcony for Romeo and Juliet. Probably climbable.
Plautis 264-184BC
focused on romance, wrtoe the Manaechmi
Bourgeois Tragedy
domestic tragedies that focus on bourgeois family concerns. Often these were dramatizations of 18th century middle class morality (wicked punished and good rewarded).
what is an "extended" stage?
a thrust stage
Harold Pinter -
leading English language Absurdist playwright, no explanations of action or character, wrote The Birthday Party
Denis Diderot
(1713-1784) - France
Argues that neoclassical ideal is too narrow and restricting
Innovative in placing high emotion and potentially tragic conflict in a contemporary dramatic setting
Calls for the ‘fourth wall’
4th golden age elizabethan; named after queen elizabeth 1st (2nd queen elizabeth is living now); southwark was the theatre district and pleasureable entertainment
(16-17th century)

Henry VIII
couldn't get an heir
made himself- head of the church
had many wives- killed 1
What makes art work?
Aesthetic distance

need a balance of both
George Bernard Shaw
-early 20th century
-A playwright (Major Barbara, Mrs Warren's Profession) known for using paradoxes to make both characters and audiences reassess their values
-belived in perfetibility of human beings and always implied that humans have freedom of choice.
this form influenced later avant garde movements reaction to WW1
dada movement
based on oratorical skills
predominate 18 century acting styles
Jack Motlewry
Installs his chariot and pull in French theatres
A decree is issued by parliament that all theatres must be destroyed (for puritan rules)
Master of Revels
Selecting things for performance at court (dance, etc.). Office created by the King for controlling entertainment in court.
Three classes of People in Rome
Rich, ordinary, slaves
Storm and Stress
an antineoclassical movement in 18th century German which was a forerunner of romanticism
Auto Sacramentales
1. Spanish Golden Age
2. Plays written to celebrate the powers of the sacraments: Corpus Christi Festival is a great example
3. Written at the same time as all of the public plays and by the same people; plays for 2 types of audiences
Sam Shepherd:
Playwright who blended images of the American west, pop motifs, science fiction, and other elements of popular and youth culture. True West
-4 million people- 6% of the worlds Biodiversity

American musical comedy?
where did it come from?
americas only contribution to drama
evolved from opera
The importance of being earnest
What did Oscar Wilde write?
had enormous wealth, refused to open show until all elements were complete
duke sax meningen
Company size
Largest was 16 known. Most plays can probably be done with 10-12 people with reasonable doubling. We don't know how extras worked. There were usually 5-6 primary characters. Companies had to be licensed as well.
Doctor Faustus
Play by Marlowe based on a real person. Dr Sells his soul to the Devil in the play in exchange for power.
3 Famous Players
Take over King's players, Rented out Hotel de Bourgonne, theatre monopoly
Neoclassicism and 18th Century
Neoclassicism starts to really come about in the 18th century. Actors in Spain were seen as being economically and socially subject
the choruse sums up the play and its theme
what do you call a slanted stage?
a raked stage
Federal Theatre Project
subsidized by the WPA during the Depression, gave the chance for theatre artists to work outside of New York City; current event dramatization (shut down in 1939)

Tragedy definition
When a great person falls from power because of a tragic flaw in his character
The Second Shepherd's Play
A secular play about a clever schoundrel named Mak who steals a sheep, hides it in a crib, and passes it off as his son
The Rover
Play by Aphra Behn that was read for class. Written in 1677
benefits of a raked stage include...
amplify sound
better visibility
rain removal (orchestra)
aesthetically pleasing
movie camera took place of the theatre first plays:
train, kiss sneeze 

over past couple of years became more appealing to kids
spring awakening
in the heights
american idiot
lion king
bloody bloody andrew jackson
Tamburlaine the Great, The Jew of Malta, Edward the Second, and the Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
What did Christopher Marlowe write?
Globe I and II
We have some evidence for the globe. We're beginning to dig around the foundation where the globe theatre sat, but the dig is not as thorough as the Rose theatre dig. The original globe theatre was moved across the Tans river. This globe theatre burned down in 1613 and another globe was built on top of it called the second globe that still stands in London shortly after 1613
comedy- tone
light cheerful happy
action-no serious consequenes no suffering 
celebrats man's capacity to triumph survive 
end in an event celebration with some optimistic view to ensure future
character types: less identifiable reconigzable personality 
leads to laughter
laughter is a good medicine -Patch Adams 
The little foxes, watch on the rhine, and the searching wind
What did Lillian Hellman write?
Theatre Libre (Free Theatre)
a. Founded in Paris in 1887 by Andre Antoine
b. Featured works of realist and naturalist playwrights such as Ibsen and Zola
c. Created illusion of the fourth wall
d. Motivated lighting
George S KaufmanGeorge Abbot 30sHarold PrinceJulie Taymor -present
Directors who shaped the visual and noted for its sucess
What was it developed with? to do what?
Explain things they couldn't understand
He wrote Trojan Women, the Medea, and the Hippolytus; 5 times
What did Euripides write and how many times did he win the playwriting prize?

sea battles
papa pantelone
Chronicle Plays
History plays
Is Makana awesome?

devils run wild
Dr faustus
Christopher Marlow
song drama, music drama
entrance to the orchestra
offstage left and right
essence of drama 
is conflict 

where did it start

rediscovery of.......
arts and science

Theatre was started by....

criminals, animals, gladiator
vulgar near end of their rule
50,000 people
after the fall
arthur miller

Anton Chekhov

the marriage proposal
Phantom of the Opera
philosophical and literary movement that had significan impact on theatre production
(Machine plays) focuses on spectacle
2nd story of the skene
arch in front of scenery
production of plays/drama the doing
original Greek writer of comedy

Who wrote plays?
high ranking citizens
-19th century England
-A theatrical style that used comic skits and sexual humor (sometimes strip teases)
-Burlesque plays (i.e. The Begger's Opera) offended higher ups and led to the Licensing Act
individual believed audience should not be involved emotionally
bertold brecht
Sophisticated, mostly blank verse, not much sense of humor, excellent writer. Important preparation for Shakespeare because he gave us a model for chronicle plays and de casibus plays
Alexander Hardy
First professional French playwright, 5 act plays, messengers, did not follow all neoclassical rules, before turn of 16th century, focused mainly on pastoral plays later on (like neoclassicists) Wrote for Valleran Lacante
a crane hidden behind the proskenian
1. Italian Renaissance
2. A comedic moment that an actor would develop and audiences would always love to see. It would be seen in almost every performance that actor would ever do.
3. What an actor would be known for; became one of the most important parts of New Comedy and Commedia dell Arte
attempted to recreate the subconscious in a dramatic way
American Federation of television and radio artists

Comedies have...
no chorus & scenic division
Gilber and Sullivan
-Victorian era
-Partnership between librettist W.S. Gilber and composer Arthur Sullivan.
-wrote comic operas (i.e. Pirates of Penzance, The Gondoliers) which took the place of burlesque
The country wife
What did William Wycherly write?
this form idealized war and developing machine age
paradise now, famous work, arroused spectators to revolution
living theatre
Restoration (1660)
Now have actresses on stage, restoration of the monarchy in England, event and name of the period as a whole through 1700 according to theatre, restoration of the crown, theatres were closed, but theatre still occured here and there, Charles the 2nd was coming back
Short versions of full length plays. Done in regular performance spaces when it was safe to do so
Nahum Tate
Rewrote Shakespeare's plays to make them better (very popular at the time). ex.) King Lear and Romeo and Juiet (which he gave a happier ending)
Hired Men
people who are neither householders nor shareholders. They are salaried and usually actors. Boys were hired men and apprentices were either hired men or simply given housing and food and not salaried.
Alexander the Great
began the Hellenistic Age 336-146
Benefit Performance
tradition begun in 18th century theatre whereby the profits from an evening's performance were given to a performer or group of performers
1. Post Elizabethan England
2. A medical theory that consisted of four humors - Sanguine, Choleric, Phlegmatic, and Melancholic. The balance of these four humors guaranteed good health and temperament. If the humors went out of balance a person was opened up to a great number of physical and emotional defects
3. Ben Jonson, a new playwright that emerged after Elizabeth's death, wrote the "Comedy of Humors," which was a very popular play that dealt with this concept.
Eugene Ionesco
Absurdist playwright wrote The Chairs and The Rhinoceros, used caricatures, pushed dramatic action to the ridiculous
Tennessee Williams
Playwright who wrote selective realism (The Glass Menagerie & Streetcar Named Desire)
the largest population of black people in the world
way to honor others 
production of a play

August Wilson
-10 plays, 1 for each century
-theatre named after him

and principles
wealthy- closet dramas
Very long, many ghosts, violent action was onstage, hero dies.
Shakespeare followed his ideas
-late 18th century
-A social class of (middle class) people whose rising status came from emplyment, education, and wealth instead of aristocratic orgins
-In the effort to assimilate the aristocracy class they would to to the theatre and opera to inflate public image, causing a shift in the theatre audiences.
this person advocated new genre "drama beourgeois"
denis diderot
one of the most renowned theatrical families in 19th century englands
the keans
Cyril Turner
Wrote The Atheist Tragedy and The Revenger's Tragedy (Turner's name as well as MIddelton's name have been been associated with this play)
Twelfth Night
Viola is clever, attracts Orsino and becomes a favorite of his. Why doesn't she talk at the end of the play? Her real sex is revealed at the end of the play and she stops talking after Orsino is taking her as his wife. Shakespeare does this in many plays. Ex.) Isabella in measure for measure was very vocal and forceful towards Angelo and at the end the Duke tells Isabella he is going to take her as his wife and she does not say a word the rest of the play. He empowers a female character for the sake of dramatic activity but when the play is coming together the female character stops making an impact either through the absence of dialogue or by taking the character off of the stage
Seneca's style
the tragic character didn't have a tragic flaw and the chorus wasn't important
fire curtain
in front of front curtain on prosenium
1. French Theatre
2. Members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France that were constantly at odds with the Catholic Church.
Poor Theatre:
term coined by Jerzy Grotowski to describe theatre stripped to its barest essentials; according to Grotowski, lights/set/costumes reflect only BASE materialistic value and should be eliminated.
Sophocles - Oedipus Rex 
original Greek writer of tragedy

Thornton Wilder
Our town- greek chorus
Skin of our teeth
the matchmaker
A series of acting stations in a line, including heaven, pilate's house, jerusalem, and hell's mouth
most violent of riots because of rivalry between two actors
astor place riots
White Devil
Woman in the play named Victoria is immoral and impure. She is a source of sexual intrigue and there are many affairs.
A town south of Madrid. Had a smaller theatre. All of these spaces were torn down mostly in the 18th century or converted into Italian proscenium theatres, except for one which was completely torn apart except for the main structure of the building. In the 1950's it was decided to reconvert it so the only element that is original/authentic is the size of the theatre today.
Palais a Volante
Single, undiscript set, for unity of time/place plays, represents one scene. An unchanging set for French theatre
a lengtly hymn, sung and danced by a group of 50 men
in the beginning...
theatre told stories that related or taught religion
Naturalistic Drama
a. Movement begun in France in 19th century
b. Sub-division of realism
i. Extreme form
c. Emile Zola
i. Most famous proponent
ii. Scientific objectivity (like a "slice of life")
iii. Everything needs to seem like it is lifted directly out of every day life
d. Purpose: call attention to everyday problems and initiate reforms (kind of like a documentary)

What did they drink during the festival of Dionysus?
Blood then Wine
Aeschylus; Orestia
Who is the only playwright to have a surviving trilogy and what is it called?
Aphra Behn
Had status of a widow and some think her "marriage" was fake to give her more power as a woman widow. 1st female English playwright and first woman to make money for her craft. "Astrea" was her code name when she was spying for the crown in the Netherlands.
In the middle ages...
the Catholic Church started to preach against theatre
nigeria independence day and year became a republic
• Independence day: October 10th 1960o Became a republic in 1963.

Andrew Lloyd Weber

what made him famous
-w/ tim rice made "Rock operas"
Joseph & the amazing....-short didn't make him famous
Jesus Christ Superstar-most famous- controversial
Cats- poem by T.S. Elliot
Phantom of the Opera
Crimes of the heart, the miss firecracker contest
What did beth henley write?
Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher
Wrote Knight of the Burning Pestle. They were the most popular playwrights in later periods. Associated with tragicomedy
6th golden age of theatre 1800-1900 aka age of and contains:
AGE of melodrama 
emotion, suspenes, romance, conflict 
Love for Love, the way of the world
What did William Congreve write?
chang and eng bunker
siamese twins a big act in PT barnums circus
Arms and the man, saint joan, and pygmalion
What did george bernard shaw write?
Volpone, the alchemist, and every man in his humour
What did Ben Jonson write (the dude that got arrested :D)?
He is the father of tragedy; He wrote Agamemnon, Liberation Bearers, and Eminides
What is Aeschylus best known as and what did he write?
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