Thinking and Language Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cognition
mental activities
intuition
an immediate, automatic, and effortless feeling or thought
algorithm
methodical procedure guaranteeing a solution
Broca's area
controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
means-ends analysis
assess difference between current situation and goal and try to reduce the discrepancy
Morpheme
Smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word such as a prefix
fixation
can't see problem from new perspective
availability heuristic
estimating the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind
Phoneme
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people
problem solving
crucial factor is understanding the problem and focusing on key info of problem --> construct a mental representation of the problem
Language
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; It contrasts with strategy-based solutions
syntax
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
over confidence
a tendancy to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgements
two-word stage
beginning around age 2, children speak mostly in two-word sentences
one-word stage
the stage in speech development from age 1 to 2, during which the child speaks single words
fear factor
human tendency to fear the wrong things (ancestral history, can't control, immediate)
Overconfidence
The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
Prototype
A mental image or best wxample that incorporates all the features we associate qith a category
Instinct Theory
William James & McDougall; animals are "pre-wired"- born with preprogrammed tendencies to respond to certain situations in certain ways
mental set
approach problem in ways that were successful in the past
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
computer neural networks
computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
belief perseverance
tendency for people to cling to a particular belief even after the information that led to the formation of the belief is discredited
Functional Fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
semanticity
the sounds or signs of a language have their own individual meaning
semantics
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
prototypes
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the ________ provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category
one -word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
grammar
a sustem of rules in a given language that enables us to communicate with and undertstand others
framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is frames can significantly affect decisions and judgments
The representative heuristic
the liklihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent info.
insight example
explain johnny appleton
convergent thinking
thinking that brings together information focussed on solving a problem (especially solving problems that have a single correct solution)
heirarchies
To simplify things further, we organize concepts into category ________.
belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
representativeness
judging the liklihod of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes may lead one to ignore other relevant info
trial and error
approach to problem solving that involves randomly trying possible solutions and discarding those that fail to solve the problem
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
anchoring heuristic
a mental tendency to base estimates on previously presented information, even if that information has nothing to do with the case at hand
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