Tissue Flashcards

Terms Definitions
thrombocytes function?
What are most glands?
Merocrine glands
Goblet Cells?
Modified columnar epithelial cells that secret mucus, a sticky fluid, at their apical surfaces. Lubricant for the linings of the digestive, respiratory & reproductive tracts and most of the urinary tract. Protects stomach from gastric acid.
where are elastic fibers found?
vocal cords
What is lamellae?
Concentric rings of extracellular matrix that const of mineral salts (mostly calcium and phosphates ) which gtive bone its hardness and collagen fiber which give bone its strength.
what binds body parts together?
fibrous connective tissue
What is lacunae?
Small smaces btween lamellae that contain mature bone cells called osteocytes.
What are dendrites?
Are tapering, highly branched and usually short cells processes (extensions). They are the major receiving or input portion of a neuron.
What is mesothelium?
Simple squamous epithelium that fors the epithelial layer of serous membranes such as the pericardium, pleura or peritoneum.
Squamous cells?
Flat, thin, look like floor tiles, allow for rapid passage of substances.
What are tubular glands?
Glands with tubular secretory parts.
What are fibroblasts?
Large, flat cells with branching processes. They are present in several connective tissues and are usually the most numerous.
What is bones function?
probides internal support, protects vital organs, serves as an attachment for muscles and forms red blood cells.
Epithelial is responsible for...?
Secretion, Absorption, Excretion and Sensory reception.
Example of mucous glands...?
Digestive tract and respirtory tubes.
what serves as a protective cushion for joints and organs?
adipose tissue
Glandular Epithelium consist of?
Secretory columnar and cubodial epithelia
What are Desmosomes?
They hold muscle tissue together. They attach to elements of the cytoskeleton known as an intermediate filament that consist of the protein keratin.
Exocrine Glands' function?
They secrete their products into ducts that empty onto the surface of a covering and lining of epithelium such as the skin or the lumen of a hollow organ.
What two principal cells does nerve tissue consist of?
Neurons and neuroglia.
What are adhesion belts?
In epithelial cells, adheren junctions often form extensive zones called adhesion belts and encircle the cell.
What are macophages?
Develop from monocytes, type of white blood cell. They have irregular shape with short branching projections and are capable of engulfing bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis.
How are Elastic fibers?
Smaller in diameter than collagen fibers, branch and join together to form a network. They add strength and stability. Found in skin, blood vessel walls and lung tissue.
What are the types of mature connective tissue?
1)loose(2)dense(3)cartilage(4) beon(5 liquid connective tissue.
What are Membranes?
Flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a party of the body. Lining or organ.
What is connective tissue?
Most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body. It binds together, supports and strengthens other body tissues; protects and insulates internal organs; compartmentalizes structures such as skeletal muscles; serves as the major transport.
What is the main role of Microvilli?
Increase Surface area
what are collagenous fibers?
thick thread like componets of collagen that make up tendons.
What are resident cells?
present in stable numbers in connective tissue
what are canaliculi?
small tubes in the matrix which connect haversian canals.
What is psudostratified epithelium?
Appears to have multiple layers of cells because the cell nuclei lie at different levels and not all cells reach the apical surface. Cells do not extend to the apical surface may contain cilia; others (goblet cells) secrete mucus. Only one layer.
How are Collagen fibers?
Very strong and resistant to pulling forces. Found in connective tissues, especially bone, cartilage, tyendons and ligaments.
What is elastic connective tissue?
Consist of branching elastic fibers. It is quite strong and it can recoil to its original shape after being stretched.
What is the central (haversian) canal?
Contains blood vessels and nerves.
what are the steps of tissue repair?
Inflammation, Organization and regeneration.
what is slow healing and has poor blood supply?
fibrous connective tissue.
What are the 2 types of Merocrine Glands?
Serous and Mucous
What does the dermis consist of?
Consists of connective tissue (areolar connective tissue and dense irregular connective tissue).
Where is dermatan sulfate found?
The skin, blood vessels, and heart valves.
What is liquid connective tissue?
Blood. Blood tissue is a connective tissue with a liquid extracellular matrixd called blood plasma.
How are multicellular glands catagorized?
These glands are catorized by wherther their ducts are branched or unbranched and the shape of the secretory portions of the gland.
What are White Blood cells?
Neutrophils gather at sites of infedction, and eosinophils migrate to sites of parasitic invasions and allergic responses.
What is Simple Cubodial Epithelium?
Cuboidal shape cells with round and centrally located nuclei. Found in organs such as the thyroid gland and kidneys and performs the functions of secretion and absorption.
What's a gland?
Consists of a single cell or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts (tubes) onto a surface or into the blood.
Nonkerantinized stratified squamous epithelium?
Found in the mouth and esophagus, does not contain keratin in the apical layer and several layers deep to it and remains moist.
What are the three types of muscular tissue?
skeletal, cardia, and smooth.
What do Exocrine glands secrete?
Mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, and digestive enzyemes.
What are the 3 types of Exocrine Glands?
Merocrine, Apocrine and Holocrine
What do mucous glands do?
secretes thick layer of mucous which is rich in glycoprotein called mucin.
What Epithelial Tissues do?
cover all the body surfaces inside and out and are the major tissue of glands.
what are smooth muscles?
lack strationa nd is found in the stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus and blood vessels. are involuntary.
how many types of blood cell are there?
3, erythrocytes-red, leucocytes-white and thrombocytes-platlets.
what are cardiac muscles?
occurs in the heart and is striated. has inter related disks is involuntary.
What are the first 3 characteristics of Epithelial tissue & describe them
-Cellularity; composed almost entirely of cells-Special contacts; form continuous sheets, held together by tight junctions and desmosomes-Polarity- apical surface=Free exposed surface & basal surface=lower attached surface
What is the basic unit of an compact bone?
Osteon or haversian system.
What is the difference between spongy bone and compact bone?
Spongy bones have trabeculae and compact bons have osteons.
What is a basement membrane?
It is a thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers, the basal lamina and reticular lamina. It serves as a point of attachment and support for the overlying epithelial tissue.
What does Areolar connective Tissue Do?
Combined with adipose tissue forms the sunbcutaneous lalyer, the layer of tissue that attaches the skin to underlying tissues and organs.
what do loose connective tissues do?
bind skin to underlying organs, fill spaces between muscle, lay beneath epithelium, provide nurishment for epithelial cells.
what are other names for collagenous fibers?
dense connective tissue or white fibers.
What is a Keratinized Cell?
accumulated by the older cells of the epidermis which causes them to become old and die.
How many types of Stratified Squamous Epithelium Cells are there?
2, Keratin and Non Keratin Cells
Cardiac Muscle tissue is found where?
Forms most of the heart wall, is striated and is usually involuntary.
Where is reticular connective tissue found?
Found in spleen where blood is filter and worn-out blood cells are removed and found in lymph nodes where they filter lymph and remove bacteria.
Is Epithelial tissue vascular(have its own blood supply)?
No. Epithelial tissue is avascular. It has its own nerve supply but the blood vessels that bring in nutrients and remove wastes are located in the connective tissue. Exchange of substances between the epithelium & connective tissue occurs by difussion.
What are the four parts of the osteon?
the lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi and central haversian canal.
What does blood plasma consist of?
A pale yellow fluid that is mostly water with a wide variety of dissolved substances-nutrients, wastes, enzymes, plasma proteins, hormones, respiratory gases and ions.
What are the second 3 characteristics of Epithelial tissue & describe them
-Supported by connective tissue. The basement membrane is formed by basal lamina & reticular lamina (collagen protein fibers)-Avascular but innervated-Regenerative
What is the basal surface of an epithelial cell?
The basal surfaces of the deepest layer of cells adhere to extracellular materials. Hemidesmosomes (the anchor cells) are found anchor the epithelium tp the basement extracellular membrane.
What is the function of a serous membrane?
Lines a body cavity (thoracic and abdominal) that does not open directly to the exterior and it covers the organs that loie within the cavity. Consists of areolar connective tissue coverede by mesothelium simple squamous epithelium).
What is the function of a mucous membrane or mucosa?
It lines a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior. Line the entire digestive, respiratoryu, and reproductive tract as well as the urinary tract. Goblet cells.
nerve cells
Osseous has (1)
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUEcontains octeoblasts and osteocyte
Nerve cells; neurons
neuroglial cells
function of transitional epithelium
permits distension
tough, endurable, can withstand compression-consists of many large bundles of collagen fibers, little ground substance. prevents direct contact between bones, which could damage bones

Locations: intervertebral disks, around some joints and tendons, between pubic bones
what are cuboidal cells?
are boxlike
connective tiss cells that engulf pathogens by phagocytosis
insertion of a thin, tubular instrument into incision in joint capsule, which allows visualization of joint injury and also allows diagnostic and small therapeutic techniques
NAMEare tall and column shaped
columnar cells
NAMEresembles both strafied and squamous and strafied cuboidal; basal cells dome shaped or squamous;depending on degree of organ strech
transitional epithelium
All (1) glands secrete thier substances on the skin or into the body cavities
All epithlea have an (1)
apical surface
Membrane that occurs between epithelial and connective tissue
basement membrane
a braincase composed of cartilage rather than bone, as the skull of sharks and of the vertebrate embryo before ossification.
exocrine glands
cells that secrete substance into ducts that open into internal or external surfaces. Ex. tears, salivary,sweat,oil, prostate glands.
this cartilage is the strongest of all
which germ layer did muscular tissue form from
Serous Glands
secrete thin, watery fluid, sometimes containing enzymes- found in cells lining some body cavities
NAMEthe general role of this main tissue is for support
All (1) tissue has a apical surface
NAMEare glands that have branched ducts
compound ducts
What does avascular mean?
means contains no blood
the (1) reinforces the epitheial sheet, helping it to resist streching and tearing forces, and defines the epithelial boundry
basement membrane
of or pertaining to certain glands whose secretions are acted upon by bacteria to produce the characteristic odor of perspiration (
synovial membranes
membranes that form inner linings of joint cavities
what kind of CT is areolar CT
loose CT
what type of CT is reticular CT
loose CT
Mucous Glands
secrete thick, stringy mucus, with a high glycoprotein content- found in passageways of respiratory and digestive tracts
What are the specail charracteristics of Epithelial tissue?
(1)cellulartiy (2)specialized contacts (3)polarity (4)supported by connective tissue
Which fibers of the connective tissue are the strongest?
collagen fibers
What does tubular?
means that the gland's seceretory cells form tubes
NAMEfunctions of this tissue include allows passage of diffusion and filtration and secretes lubricating substances in seroase
simple squamous epithelium
What does innervated mean?
suppiled by the nere cells
NAMEthis type of tissue is typically found where absorption and filtration ocurs
simple epithelia
Fragments of cells that help in blood coagulation.
goblet cells
a type of epithelial cell that secretes mucin, so called after its shape.
Simple Columnr Epithelium SCOE
Function: Moves particles out of bronchioles of lungs. Cells Absorb in the intestines. Secretion by cells and glandsLocation: glands and some ducts, auditory tubes, uterus, intestines, gall bladder.
what is the connective tissue layer of the mucous membrane?
lamina propria
what cells are found in hyaline cartilage
chondrocytes in lacunae
Structures of Bone Tissue
Osteon/Haversian System
cylinder-shaped unit of bone tissue, consisting of osteocytes and lamellae of bone matrix, arranged around an osteonic canal- compact bone consists of many osteons cemented together
Cell Types in C.T.
Wandering/free cells
can wander thoughout the tissue
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium? (2)?
(1)secretion particullay mucous (2)propulsion of mucous by cillary action
Based on the cell layers, what are two types of epithelium tissue?
(1)simple (2)straified
strafied squamous epithelium forms the (1)
external part of the skin
List the four types of tissues?
epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
pap smear
a test for cancer of the cervix, consisting of the staining of cervical cells taken in a cervical or vaginal smear
what type of fibers are found in the reticular CT
reticular fibers
Fibers in C.T.
Reticular Fibers
thin fibers composed of collagen. Form delicate, branching networks in walls of some organs (in reticular connective tissue)
Structures of Bone Tissue:
bone cells, found in lacunae, between lamellae- arranged in concentric rings
What are the three types of fibers found in connective tissue? (3)
(1)collagen (2)elastic (3)reticular
NAMEmeans that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface structure and function
epithelia tissue exhibiting polarity
Component Parts
F: make more organisms

CP: Testes, Ovaries, Penis, Vagina
true/false: connective tissue has a strong basement membrane
FALSE: CT has no basement membrane!!!!!
2 functions of nervous system
1. detects changes in body 2. generates nerve impulses
White Blood Cells (WBCs, Luekocytes)
defend the body against infection- can wander out of blood vessels, into other connective tissues
What is strafied squamous epithelium?
is the most widespread of the strafied epithelium
(1) and (2) of (3) forms the outer layer of the skin, dips into and lines the open cavities of the cardiovascular, digestive, and respirartory system, and covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity
(1)covering (2)lining (3)epithelium
the 5 types of adult connective tissue
1. dense2. loose3. cartilage4. bone5. liquid
 Red Blood Cells (RBCs, Erythrocytes)
 transport oxygen to the cells of the body- transport carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs, to be exhaled-remain in blood vessels
Where are strafied squamous epithelium most likly found?
in areas subjected to wear and tear and where its surface cells are constantly being rubbed away
what do cells in the same tissue have in common?
1. function2. embyonic origin
What is the only true example of holocrine glands?
sabaceous or oil glands of the skin
fat cells
smooth muscle
digestive tractinvoluntary
elastic fibers
has elastin stretches
is latin for cover
Compound Glands
-have branched duct
either individual cells or multicellular organs composed predominantly of epithelial tissue
cells; osteocytes: living bone cellsosteblasts: bone building cellsosteclasts: bone destroying
Cell junction between adjacent cardiac cells that prevents cells from separating during contraction. Also in skin and uterus.
Multicellular Exocrine Glands
-If the secretory cells form small, flasklike sacs
forms the wall of the heart
Wandering Cells
Move throughout the connective tissue
immune protection and repair of damaged extracellular matrix
chapter 7 Axial Skeleton
Hyoid Bone
Auditory Ossicles 
modified epidermis, protects ends of fingers
Contains cube-shaped cells functioning in secretion & absorption?
simple cuboidal epithelium
made of chondrocytes. ECM predominates. The ground substances are rich in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which is a huge sugar molecule. Has negative charge associated with it and will attract water. There are collagen and elastin (only in some) found in cartilage. Avascular tissue.
-a complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water when secreted.
-produced by unicellular exocrine glands in humans.
-once dissolved, turns into mucus
simple columnar epithelium
single columnar layer
-thickness provides some protection
-much cytoplasm--capable of secretion and absorption (digestive)
-joined by tight junctions
-may have cilia or microvilli
What embryonic germ layers are connective tissue derived from?
Nervous tissue
also termed neural tissue
consists of cells called neurons (nerve cells)
and glial cells (supporting cells)
Hormones are secreted by what gland
endocrine glands
elaborate myosin and actin filament in muscle
sweat is released across the surface of the skin, it changes from a liquid to a gas and carries heat away from the skin
Fibers Description Function Types
-Proteinaceous-Provide support & strengthTypes-Collagen (fibrous protein secreted in extracellular space, forms helix shape, strong high tensile strength)-Elastic (long thin branched fibers - make of protein elastins, allows for strech and distensibility)-Reticular (fine network of fibers, surrounds and supports, contiguous with collagen)
Most common in body. Appears glassy each cell is in its own lacunae.
Muscle under strict nervous control; skeletal muscle.
Voluntary muscle
Plasma cells
connective tissue cells (develop from white blood cells) that secrete antibodies (proteins that attack or neutralize foreign substances.
connective tissue->matrix->reticular fibers
-collagen proteins form thin (delicate), branching networks forming framework to support soft organs such as liver and spleen (holding them together)
What embryonic germ layers are nervous tissue derived from?
u digestive tract lining has two modificationsF microvilli- increase surface areaF goblet cells- secrete lubricating mucusu uterus and some areas of respiratory tract are ciliated
Mixed Glands
salivary glands - contain both serous and mucous cells, and produce a mixture of the two types of secretions
fiber in CT. Extremely tough. Common. high tensile strength if in line
begin to function at puberty and continue through life, associated with hair follicles (armpits, groin, around nipples)
apocrine glands
What is lacunae?
The hollowed-out pockets in the matrix of cartilage where chondrocytes live.
Functions of Connective Tissue (8)
Binding of OrgansSupportPhysical ProtectionImmune ProtectionMovementStorageHeat ProductionTransport
Stratified Columnar Epithelia are...
–Limited distribution in the body
–Found in the pharynx, male urethra, and lining some glandular ducts
–Also occurs at transition areas between two other types of epithelia
loose c.t.
many cells w/ loosely arranged matrix, soft gel-like
What type of tissue is this?: !http://photos-d.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc1/hs014.snc1/2634_61619601461_751331461_1487091_6313650_n.jpg!
Cuboidal epithelium
Tissues Make up Organs
To perform specific functions…the tissues are organized into organs
such as the stomach, heart, kidneys and lungs
what are the two different forms of stratified squamous epithelium and where can you find then on the body?
Keratinized, non-keratinized.
keratinized is mainly found in the skin, and non-keratinized lines wet cavities such as mouth, esophagus vagina, anal canal. Anything that has a "mucus membrane" is lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Scar tissue can form ______?
Adhesions- abnormal joining of tissues
What are mucous secretions?
Thick, viscous, and composed of glycoproteins.
The most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue
Collagen fiber
cell, such as a white blood cell, that engulfs and absorbs waste material, harmful microorganisms, or other foreign bodies in the bloodstream and tissues
What are the characteritics of elastic fibers?
Thin and stretchable
What is the central nervous system?
Brain and spinal chord
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Found in large ducts in most exocrine glands and in some parts of the male urethra
A chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissue;can cause tissue damage in every body system?
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, SLE, Lupus
What two glucosaminoglycans can be found in the ground substance of the matrix?
1) chondroitin sulfate (with hyaluronic acid)2) chondronectin
In which horn of the spinal cord are sensory neurons and interneurons found?
Dorsal horn.
What are the two basic types of leukocytes?
Granular and Agranular
What is compact bone made of?
a series of haversian systems
Is secreted in the synovial membrane & lubricates & nourishes the cartilage covering the bones at movable joints?
Synovial fluid; contains macrophages that remove microbes & debris from the joint cavity.
List the eight combinations of multicellular exocrine glands.
1) simple tubular2) s. coiled tubular3) s. branched tubular4) s. alveolar5) s. branched alveolar6) c. tubular7) c. alveolar8) c. tubuloalveolar
What are the supporting cells of the PNS?
Schwann cells, satellite cells.
Lymphocytes are agranular leukocytes characterized by what?
Having cytoplasm that forms a cresant around a large nucleus and being smaller than monocytes
What is the predominant cell found in areolar tissue?What does it do here?
fibroblasts that manufacture elastic, reticular, and collagenous fibers found in the tissue.
Structural classification of exocrine glands
Based on the branching pattern of duct and the shape of the secreting portion. Ex. single cell, simple straight tubular, simple, coiled tubular, simple acinar (rounded), simle branched acinar, compound acinar
How are muscle cells stimulated to contract?
Nerve fibers are attached to cells and located throughout entire muscle belly.
What does adipose tissue consist of?
adipose cells with fibers in a soft liquid intercellular matrix
What is the quantity of ECM in nervous tissue?
Nervous tissue is almost entirely cellular, there is little ECM.
What is an example of irregular dense connective tissue?
The dermis or lower layer of the skin
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