Tissue Level of Organization Flashcards

Terms Definitions
one layer
main bone cells
main bone cells
look like boxes cells
thin and flat cells
-provides elasticity, contractility and support-Cells can dived-spindle shaped cell-nonstriated involuntary muscle
Bound by Basal Lamina
Unicelluar Glands
Scattered throughout epithelium
-goblet cells
-secrete mucins
Cells damaged are replaced
fibrous, encloses multicellular exocrine glands
Superficial Fascia
subcutaneous layer or hypodermis-Areolar tissues and fat that separates skin from tissure-isulates-lets skin and underlying structures move independently
specialized to perform sensory functions
only cell type in cartilage
-avascular- wastes/nutrients transferred via diffusion
lysosomal enzymes attack ijured cells
-Dead cells, necrotice tissue form pus
Superficial Fascia
subcutaneous layer or hypodermis
-Areolar tissues and fat that separates skin from tissure
-lets skin and underlying structures move independently
short, branched processes on neurons
conducting portion - epithelium-lined tube through which secretions of gland discharged onto epithelial surface
characteristic: all epithelial tissues lack blood vessels, and obtain nutrients either directly across apical surface or by diffusion across basal surface
characteristic: all epithelial tissues are composed almost entirely of cells, which are bound together by different types of cell junctions
Glandular Epitheli
Endocrine glands and Exocrine Glands
Cells bound by cell junctions (interconnections)
firm gel with chondroitin sulfates that combine with proteins to form protegoglycans
dominated by densely woven collagen fibers-pads between vertebrae, pubic bones and a few joints and tendons-resists compression, absorbs shock, prevents bone to bone damage
Hyaline Cartilage
most common-connections between ribs, nasal, repiratory passagesways
froms as interstitial fluid and enters lymphatic vessels-99% lymphocytes-1% macro and microphages
Tendons, ligaments
examples of Dense Regular CT
Neural Tissue
Specialixed for conduction of electrical impulses
-98% in brain and spinal chord
Brown fat
infants and young children only,
-between shoulder blades and around neck
-mitochondria rich, highly vascularized lots of capillaries
White Fat
most of fat in body
Endocrine Glands
Secrete things inside of body
Glandular Epitheli
Endocrine glands and Exocrine Glands
combination of diggerent types of cells and cell products that perform limited fuctions
Cells bound by cell junctions (interconnections)
group of similar cells and extracellular products that carry out a common function
Immune protection
characteristic: many types contain white blood cells; extracellular matrix interferes with disease-causing organisms (connective tissue)
characteristic: some epithelia able to detect changes in environment at that body or organ surface
Wandering cells
move throughout connective tissue proper, involved in immune protection and repair of damaged matrix
trabeculae - extensions of capsule which partition gland internally into lobes - contain ducts, blood vessels, nerves supplying gland
Ground substance
nonliving material produced by connective tissue cells - composed of protein, carbohydrate, water (blood, cartilage, bone)
Collagen fibers
long, unbranched extracellular fibers composed of collagen - 25% body's protein, make up tendons, ligaments
Deep Fascia
Irregular CT-resists froces from many directions-Capsules surrounding organs bound to deep fascia
Mast cells
common near blood vessels, contain histamine and heaprinCT cells
Supporting CT
Low diversity cell population and dense fibers (bone, cartiledge)
Stratified epithelia
occurs where mechanical stresses are sever-Skin surface-Lining of mouth-Keratinized-apical layer contain protein filaments, resistant to water loss ex. bottom of foot-Non-keratinized must be kept moist ex. mouth lining
Lamina Lucida
closest to epithelium, barrier that restricts movement of large molecules from underlying tissue into epithelium
Classification of Epithelia
Cell shape, number of layers
Composition of the Epithelial Tissue
Eptihelial and Glands
one surface is exposed (apical) and one is attached (basal)
What provides sturctural framework of body, protection of organs, and storage of energy?
Connective Tissue
Simple Squamous epithelia
-Most delicate epithelium-Occur where abosorption and diffusion take place or where slippery surfaces reduce friction (plerua, lining of hear and blood vessels)
What provides sturctural framework of body, protection of organs, and storage of energy?
Connective Tissue
Simple Squamous epithelia
-Most delicate epithelium
-Occur where abosorption and diffusion take place or where slippery surfaces reduce friction (plerua, lining of hear and blood vessels)
Layers of cells that cover internal and external surfaces
Pseudostratified columnar epithelia
contain cilia
occur in
-lining of nasal passages
-and parts of male reproductive tract
Areolar Tissue
least specialized, may contain fibers of all CT proper types
-resitant to distortion (elastic fibers)
-rich in capillaries
-between skin and muscle
most abundant cells, only cell always present in CT proper
Plasma cells
wandering cells - when B-lymphocytes activated by exposure to foreign materials, cells mature into plasma cells and synthesize into antibodies
connective tissue framework of gland - supports and organizes parenchyma
Basal lamina
contains collagen fibers, protein and carbohydrate molecules which are secreted by epithelium cells
Intercellular junctions
bind epithelial cells together in lateral membranes - tight junctions, adhering junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
Protein fibers
include collagen fibers (strong and stretch-resistant), elastic fibers (flexible and resilient), reticular fibers (woven framework)
Other leukocytes
wandering cells - migrate through blood vessel walls into connective tissue - usually seek out and phagocytize bacteria
Transitional cells
readily change shape or appearance depending on stretching of epithelium - found in places which are frequently distended and relaxed (lining of bladder)
Gap junction
formed across intercellular gap - provide passageway for small molecules to travel between neighboring cells
secretory portion and duct of exocrine gland have uniform diameter
Connective tissue
tissue designed to support, protect, bind organs
Adhering junction
zonula adherens - formed completely around the cell, deep to the zonula occludens near the apical surface of the cell - passageway for materials that have already passed through apical sruface and can then exit lateral membranes and continue toward basal
Fasciae- Connective Tissue layers (3 sections)
-Superfical fascia-Deep Fascia_Subserous Fascia
ex. of fluid Ctthe plasma is water matrix
Loose Connective Tissue
packing material of the body3 types-Areolar-Adipose-Reticular
looks like it's two layers but it's only one-found in intstines
Fasciae- Connective Tissue layers (3 sections)
-Superfical fascia
-Deep Fascia
_Subserous Fascia
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
-Provides protection from abrasion, dehydrations, chemicals
-Controls Permeability- any substance entering or leaving must cross epithelium
-Provides sensation- have large nerve supply
-Produce specialized Secretions
basolateral surface
includes base and parts where cell touches neighbor
Simple Columnar epithelia
found where secretion and absorption occur
-small intestine
-secretions protect against chmeical damage in large intestine and stomach
red blood cells - transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Synovial membrane
lines some bone joints, composed of loose connective tissue bounded by superficial layer of epithelial cells that lack basement membrane
Dense regular connective tissue
collagen fibers packed tightly, aligned parallel to applied forces - found in tendons, ligaments
Epithelial tissue
lines every body surface and all cavities (constitutes the majority of glands)
Cutaneous membrane
skin - composed of epidermis and dermis
Attachment to Basal Lamina
By Lamina Lucida and Lamina densa
Connective Tissue Proper/ FibroCT
many cell types and extracellular proteins
-Loose CT (adipose-fat tissue)
-Dense CT (tendons)
Cardiac muscle tissue
confined to thick middle layer of heart wall - shorter than skeletal muscle cell; only one or two nuclei; often branches; connected by intercalated discs
cell body of neuron - controls rest of cell, produces proteins for cell
Stratified epithelium
two or more layers of epithelial cells (where more stress applied, like in esophagus, pharynx, vagina)
What happens during inflammation of tissue?
-Damaged cells release prostaglandins, proteins, K ions
-Mast cells release chmeicals (histamines, prostaglandins)
-->surrounding tissue releases, blood flow increases
What happens with regeneration of tissue?
-Fibroblasts move into necrotic area and lay down collagen fibers (produce scar tissue)-The scar tissue is "remodeled" and you get brand new tissue
What does the bone matrix consist of?
2/3 calcium salts and 1/3 collagen fibers
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