A&P Organic Chemistry Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Butane
C4H10
undecane
11
acetone
propanone
Lactose
Galactose+Glucose
Alkyne
-yne
stereoisomers
...
arene/ aromatic
Benzene
gluclose
sugar (C6H12O6)
Esters
ending -anoate
nitro group
1530-1350
phosphoester
-OPOOHOH + HOCH2CH3--------------OPOOHOCH2CH3
halohydrocarbons
-X (F,Cl,Br,I)
R-X
-oic acid
carboxylic acid
Bronsted-Lowry base
proton acceptor
Lipid monomers
glycerol fatty acids
cellulose
water insoluble polysaccharide produced by plants; 3 straight chains (humans cannot digest)
CFCs
Chlorofluorocarbons. (Bad for environment)
phenyl
benzene without a hydrogen
Bulky substrate
SN2 is impossible
\ ..
C=O:
/
sp2 trigonal planar 120
a branched chain starts with
iso
Formaldehyde with Grignard Reagent
Primary Alcohols
cyclo-
IUPAC prefix for a cycloalkane
aldehyde 1H NMR chemical shift
9.5-10.1
Polymers
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Levorotatory
Optically active molecule which rotates plane polarized light in counterclockwise direction. 
lipid/FATS
macromolecules used for energy storage - fats, oils, and waxes- MADE UP OF FATTY ACIDS
The oxidation of secondary alcohols produces what functional group
ketone
Secondary, Common in reactions with weak nucleophiles in polar protic solvents such as water, methanol, and ethanol
SN1/E1
iodine in mass spec
peak at 127
D₃PO₂
DZ salt to D substituted benzene
polysaccharide
more than two monosaccharides bonded through DhS
Alkanes
____ have the general formula CⁿH²ⁿ⁺².
sucrose
table sugar. glucose + fructose. digested to glucose and fructose
maximum number of optically active isomers
2^n
eclipse
the highest energy, least stable conformation is the one in which the six c-h bonds are as close as possible.
coenzyme
molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes. Ex. NAD, Vitamins
When nitrogen is bonded to four different atoms or groups, it's hybridization state is
sp3
organic compound
compound that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen and is found in living things
Alcohols
are organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxl groups
growth
increase in size without change in shape
kink
unsaturated fats have a _____ in them.
transesterification
one alkoxy group is substituted for another
natural gas
a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons located under the surface of the Earth, often near petroleum deposits; used as a fuel
Adhesion
ability to cling to other polar surfaces
Methyl benzene
Benzene with a methyl group substituted onto it
Trans Isomer
substituents other than hydrogen on opposite side of double bond
enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
chair conformation
Typically, the most stable cyclohexane conformation. Looks like a chair. See figure C-4.
Optical Isomers
The single enantiomers and have ability to rotate plane polarized light.
Regiospecific reaction
When only one of two possible orientation of addition occurs
an alcohol hydrogen halide (products)
monhalogenated alkane + H2O
amino acid
The molecule shown above is an: ___________________________________________________
hydrophillic
the heads of phospholids are part of the phosphate group and are ________________. (water-loving.)
organic acid + alcohol =
ester + H2O (esterification)
1 molecule + 1 molecule ------ 1 molecule
Dehydration
alphabetical order
when there are different alkyl groups among the branches, they are specified in __ __ according to the name of the group
branched-chain alkane
an alkane that contains a branching connection of carbons as opposed to a straight-chain alkane
dehydration synthesis
the joining of two organic molecules by the removal of water by a catalyst (dehydrating agent, often concentrated sulfuric acid)
Alkene
Hydrocarbons with a double bond in the chain.
C=C
written - methene
Acidity Trends
Increase if there's a large difference in electronegativity
Increase if stabilized by resonance
Increase if there are electron withdrawing groups
% enantiomeric excess
([α]/α of pure enantiomer) * 100
Alkyl group
Created by removing a hydrogen from an alkane, not stable by selves
heat of combustion
change in enthalpy of a combustion reaction, higher heat of combustion = higher energy for molecule= less stability
non polar covalent bond
covalent bond where electrons are shared equally
substitution
one atom or group in a compound is replaced with another atom or group. Typically, a hydrogen atom will be replaced by one of the functional groups in a substitution reaction
ketone, aldehyde
Ozonolysis of an alkene leads to these two products
fatty acids
consist of chains of C atoms attached, and a carboxyl group at the end
Elimination reaction
-Occurs when a small molecule is lost from a larger compound
- Usually results in the formation of a double or triple bond
Conjugate acid
The species formed when a base accepts a proton from an acid
reagents needed in the preparation of organomagnesium compounds
diethyl ether / 35°C
carboxylic acid characteristics (3)
highly polar, highly soluble in water up to C4, h-bond
activating group, O-P director
A substituent of an aromatic compound that speeds up electrophilic substitution
aldehydes and ketones in water reach equilibrium with
a hydrate (geminal diol)
Higher pKa acid
An acid will donate a proton to the conjugate base of any acid with this
What makes a carbon secondary
When it is attached to two carbons
What are the three different relevant types of orbitals for organic chemistry?
1. S-orbitals2. P- orbitals3. D-orbitals
the number of elements formed by what far outwieghs the rest of the number of what in chemistry
Carbon ; all other elements
Most of the molecules in our body are..
organic compounds and they follow chemical laws just like any other substance
which one controls the rate of a reaction???DDG1 or DDG2???
DDG1 because it has a higher E, must go through the TS1
/ 80
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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