A&P Pam Puckett Lecture Test 2 Flashcards

hyaline cartilage
Terms Definitions
diaphyses
shafts
Acetylcholine
ACh
nevus
a mole
chondrocyte
cartilage cell
periosteum
fibrous covering
transverse fracture
fracture--across
synergist
helper muscle
platelets
parts of thrombocytes
Melanocytes
melanoma cancer cells
action potential
nerve impulse
Fibrocartilage
has lots of collagen
hematopoiesis
formation of blood cells
diaphysis
characteristic of long bones--shaft
amphiarthroses
joint with some movement
tibia
"shin bone" --weight bearing
skin
sometimes called the cutaneous membrane
hair follicles
formed from the epidermis
Erythrocyte
blood cell that carries oxygen
Elastic Cartilage
cartilage with more elastin
microvilli
extensions of the cell membrane
epidermis
composed of stratified squamous epithelium with keratanocytes and melanocytes
Visceral Pericardium
covering of the heard
hyaline cartilage
articular cartilage at joints
osteomalacia
common bone problem involving softening of bone (Rickett's in children)
ulna
bone that forms the elbow
diarthroses
joint that is very moveable
Simple Columnar Epithelium
functions are protection, secretion, and absorption
Cardiac Muscle
muscle found only in heart
Parietal Pericardium
lining of the Pericardial Cavity
erythemia
evidence of a fever by redness
erythropoietin
regulation of the production of erythrocytes is accomplished by a hormone produced in the kidneys in response to low levels of oxygen in the blood (?)
joints
classified functionally by the amount of movement
dorsiflexion
joint movement where toes are up
extension
joint movement that increases the angle between bones
flexion
joint movement that decreases angle between bones
elevation
joint movement with a lift--like shoulder
14
number of phalanges (thumb and finger)since the thumb is opposable
eversion
joint movement with sole to outside
arm
composed of humerus, radius, ulna, capals, metacarpals, phalanges
5
number of metacarpals forming the palm
shortens
Since the actin filaments are connected to the Z lines, the sarcomere _____
anaerobic
type of cellular respiration that makes 2 ATP molecules
Neuroglial Cell
a connective tissure cell that protects and supports the neurons
cartilage
heals slowly, because there is little blood supply
Melanoma
quick growing cancer that is in the more deadly form
lining of the Buccal cavity
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
epiphyseal disk
the area between the ossification centers that causes the bone to lengthen until it becomes ossified
axial skeleton
contains the cranial bones, facial bones, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs
testosterone and estrogen
male and female sex hormones
appendicular skeleton
contains the pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, arms, and legs
synovial joint
most complex type of joint--include articular cartilage, joint capsule, and a synovial membrane
amphiarthrotic
type of movement in a symphysis joint
gout
joint problem caused by the deposition of crystals in a joint
bursae
some synovial joints have fluid filled ______ located between the skin and the underlying bone prominences
adduction
joint movement toward the midline of the body
synchondrosis
a type of cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage that ossifies with growth--epiphyseal disk
sarcoplasmic reticulum
membranous network in a skeletal muscle fiber found in the sarcoplasm
prime mover
muscle primarily responsible for a movement
antagonists
biceps and triceps brachii are _____ because one extends the lower arm while one flexes it
sarcolemma
cell membrane in a skeletal muscle fiber
tropomyosin
protein that is attached to troponin and covers the binding spot on the actin molecule
Epithelial Tissue
found in coverings, linings, and some glands
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
found in male urethra and pharynx
Apocrine Gland
sweat gland located in the axilla, groin, and around nipples
Holocrine Gland
secretory gland in the epidermis that is a type of exocrine gland
aging
causes red marrow of the diaphyses of the long bones changes to yellow marrow
tendons and ligaments
composed of dense fibrous connective tissue
pectoral girdle
composed of 2 clavicles and 2 scapulae
rheumatoid arthritis
joint problem that is an auto-immune disease
short bone
type of bone that includes the carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals
flat bone
type of bone that includes the sternum, ribs, cranium, hipbones, scapula (usually curved)
saddle joint
type of synovial joint where convex and concave bones fit together--carpal and metacarpal of thumb
cellular respiration
uses glycogen store in muscle and glucose in blood
all or none
single muscle cell whose contraction is ___ __ _____
actin, myosin
myofibrils are composed of _____ and ____
Squamous Epithelial Cells
flat cells in which diffusion occurs easily
cyanosis
evidence of a fever by lack of oxygen; blueness
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
square cells with a centrally located nucleus
Sweat Glands
coiled tines with pores on the surface of the body
Serous Membranes
body cavities that are not exposed to the outside have a membrane that produces a more liquid solution
Columnar Epithelium
cells that are taller than they are wide with a nucleus located near the basement membrane
Reticular Connective Tissue
found in liver, spleen, and various lymphatic organs
Stratum Lucidum
a fifth, clear layer of the epidermis found only in the palms and soles
endochondral
most of the bones of the body that develop from cartilage
sesamoid bone
type of bone that develops inside a tendon (ex. patella)
gomphosis
type of fibrous joint in union of a cone-shaped bony process in a bony socket-teeth in maxilla and mandible
non-displaced fracture
fracture where the bone ends are still aligned
synovial fluid
part of a synovial joint that is secreted by the membrane and mostens and lubricates the articular surface
gliding joing
type of synovial joint in wrist and ankle for back and forth movement
lactic acid
in the absense of oxygen pyruvic acid gets turned into ____ ___
acetylcholinesterase
what ACh is in the synaptic cleft is decomposed by the ever present enzyme ________
Apocrine Sweat Gland
parts of the cell are lost during secretions from this gland.  It produces a smelly sweat during fear, pain, and sexual arousal.
Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue
has strong collagen fibers that bind structures
compact bone
the hard bone found at the ends of long bones and on the outside of the shaft
cartilaginous joints
a type of joint where a layer of cartilage holds bones together
Ca++ (sliding filament theory)
The receptors open ion channels, which causes _____ to elave the sarcoplasmic reticulum where they are stored.
Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium
several layers of flat cells found in the skin that fill up with keratin
suture, syndesmosis, and gomphosis
3 types of fibrous joints are _____, ______, and _____
change shape and move
the binding of the Ca++ with the troponin causes it to ___ ____ ___ ____ pulling the tropomyosin off the actin binding spot
the Na+/K+ pump stops working
occurs when the pH of the muscle tissue goes down
Basal Cell or Squamous Cell Carcinomas
grow less quickly and less deadly than melanomas
1. hematoma formation2. spongy bone and fibrocartilage callus develop3. bony callus develops4. osteoclasts move in and polish callus down (remodeling)
the process of repair after a bone is broken
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