Toxic plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Protoanemonin
clematis
Glucosinolates
soybean
quinones
buckwheat
Kochia
Kochia scoparia
Thiaminase
Cocklebur
Xanthium spp.
Carboxyatractyloside
Larkspur
Delphinium spp.
Alkaloids
lycorines
barbados lily
Nitropropanol glycoside
milkvetch
xanthine alkaloids
coffee
sulfated glycoside
cocklebur
Cycasin
cardboard palm
diterpene esters
poinsettia
Nitrate plants
alfalfa
soluble oxalates
beet
Xanthium (cocklebur)
Carboxyatractyloside (in seeds)--->palatable dicotyledons; Clinical signs: anorexia, weakness, depression, nausea, vomiting (liver disease signs); Lesions: mottling of liver, and kidney, GI inflammation.
Marijuana
Cannabis sativa
Alfalfa
Medicago sativa
Careless Weed
Amaranthus spp.
Nitrates
thiaminase MOA
B1 deficiency
Cyanogenic glycosides
wild cherries
tropane alkaloids
angel's trumpet
Triterpene acids
Lantana camara
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton)
Soluable sodium (and potassium) oxalates; Causes nephrosis; Clinical signs: excessive salivation, anorexia, abdominal pain, seizures, and death.
Digitalis (foxglove)
Cardiac glycosides; entire plant is toxic; toxicosis seen mostly in horses; Clinical signs: GI and Cardiac; TX: Digibind
agave
what is this?
sunflower
what is this?
Caladium
Caladium spp.
Arum family
Araceae
Insoluble calcium oxalates
Irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
river lily
Lycorine; emetic/purgative
Kaffir lily
Lycorine; emetic/purgative
barbados lily
Lycorine; emetic/purgative
Japanese Yew
Taxus spp.
Oleander
Nerium oleander
Oleandrin (cardiac glycoside)
Mesquite
Prosopis giandulosa
High sugar content
coumarin glycosides
sweet yellow clover
Pyridine alkaloids MOA
Nicotinic stimulation
insoluble calcium oxalates
calla lily
Trifolium hybridum/pratense (alsike clover/red clover)
Unknown toxin; cause liver disease and contact dermititis in horses. Acute hepatic encephalopathy.
Hedera helix (English ivy)
Triterpenoid saponin; GI irritant, salivation vomiting, diarrhea.
Pteridium aquilimum (braken fern)
Thiaminase activity (horses), Total bone marrow depression, bovine enzootic hematuria, bladder carcinomas (in cattle) ptaquiloside; polioencephalomalacia in monogastrics. TX: thiamine hydrocholoride in monogastrics, antib
christmas cactus
what is this?
red maple
what is this?
fire lily
what is this?
spider lily
what is this?
calla lily
what is this?
Sicklepod
skeletal mm. myopathy, cardiomyopathy
Sagebrush
tetradymol; liver, 2ndary photosensitization
Ergot
Claviceps spp.

-Indole alkaloids
indolizidines MOA
neruotoxic, peripheral neuronal degeneration and respiratory signs, selenium causes hoof and hair
pyrrolizidine alkaloids most toxic part
seed
Vicia villosa (hairy vetch)
Unknown toxin; systemic granulomatous disease; Lesions: dematitis, conjunctivitis, multiple granulomatous lesions (Type IV hypersensitivity)
Insoluable oxalate plants (house plants)
Insoluable oxalates and proteolytic enzymes; GI irritaion by oxalate crystals; Clinical signs: excessive salivation, swelling of pharynx and tongue.
Ipomea (morning glory)
Lysergic acid derivatives (have to eat lots of seeds), Clinical signs: vomiting, diarrhea, dialated pupils, hallucinations (MOOD ALTERING); TX: Sedation and supportive care.
turkey berry
solanine/solanidine alkaloids; GI, CNS, Resp.
AND calcinogenic glycoside; hypercalcemia
Lupines
piperidine alkaloids; nicotinic stim. then blockade; CNS; birth defects
chalice vine
solanine/solanidine alkaloids; GI, CNS, Resp.
Woody aster
selenium; GI and resp.
Oak trees
Tannins; GI and Kidney
Sorrel/Dock
Soluible oxalate; GI CNS Renal
Jack-in-the-pulpit
Insoluble oxalates; GI mucosal irritiation
Rhubarb
Soluible oxalate; GI CNS Renal
Halogeton
Soluible oxalate; GI CNS Renal
Pothos: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
Oleander: toxic principle
oleandrin (cardiac glycoside)
Wild Plum, Cherry, Peach
Prunus spp.
Cyanogenic glycosides
Quinone MOA
photosensitization directly from the plant = primary photosensitization
Cardiac glycosides MOA
cardiotoxic by inhibiting Na/K/ATPase
physicnut
diterpene esters; blistering of skin and GI mucosa
maleberry
grayanotoxins; bind sodium channels of nerves of skeletal and cardiac mm. CNS, GI SLUDD
Red maple leaves
methmeglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, and heinz bodies in horses
Lamb's quarter
Soluible oxalate; GI CNS Renal
Nitrate; GI irritation
T/F oxalate poisoning damages renal tubules.
T
tree tobacco
piperidine and pyridine alkaloids; nicotinic stim. then blockade; CNS; birth defects
Clovers (mineral)
copper; liver damage, hemolysis, methmeglobinemia
Sweet clover
coumarin glycosides; hemorrhage via vit. K inhib
Nitrate; GI irritation
Pride of Barbados
Tannins; GI and Kidney
Pigweed: clinical signs
hypocalcemia, methemoglobinemia, renal failure
Chinese evergreen: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalates
senna unclassified toxicity
skeletal muscle myopathy and cardiomyopathy
lycorines MOA
Emetic and purgative, severe GI signs
lectins most toxic part
seeds, must be chewed
Castor bean
lectins; ricin/ inhib. cell protein prod. = cell death, GI mucosa, endothelium
chives
propyl disulfide; free radical prod. = damage RBC membranes; heinz bodies = anemia
sandbox tree
diterpene esters; blistering of skin and GI mucosa
lectins; ricin/ inhib. cell protein prod. = cell death, GI mucosa, endothelium
precatory bean
lectins; ricin/ inhib. cell protein prod. = cell death, GI mucosa, endothelium
Macademia nuts
dogs; hyperthermia; weakness in hind limbs; unknown toxin
T/F all soluble oxalates are biotransformed to insoluble oxalates in the body w/ calcium in the plasma. What does this do?
T; hypocalcemia
Spider lily: clinical signs
severe vomiting and diarrhea
pigweed unclassified toxicity
renal tubular nephrosis in ruminants, pigs, horses
Isocupressic acids MOA
may be vasoconstriction and decreased uterine blood flow that stimulates release of fetal cortisol and abortion in cattle!
methemoglobinemia, respiratory signs
2 clinical signs of the sunflower
neurotoxic
clinical sign of the amino acids in the sago palm
What part of the plant contains the highest insoluble oxalates?
leaves>seeds>stems
Arrowhead vine, Nephthytis: scientific name and family
Synognium podophyllum
Arum family: Araceae
Dumbcane: scientific name and family
Dieffenbachia "Exotica alba"
Arum family: Araceae
Window-leaf philodendron: scientific name and family
Monstera obliqua
Arum family: Araceae
Periwinkle: scientific name and family
Catharanthus roseus (Vinca roseus)
Dogbane family: Apocynaceae
Narcissus, Daffodil: toxic principle
lycorine alkaloid, central ChE inhibitor, calcium oxalate crystals
Cashew: clinical signs
contact dermatitis similar to poison Ivy
the fumes from roasting causes severe irritation of skin, eye, and respiratory mucosa
insoluble calcium oxalates MOA
penetrate oral mucosa, tongue, throat; local ONLY, histamine release possible, can cause suffocation
unknown
what is the toxic principle of the red maple?
Amanita muscaria
muscarine; stim. of CNS and stim. of Muscarinic receptors (parasymp. signs)
What is primary photosensitization?
when the photodymanic substance comes directly from the plant
Window-leaf philodendron: clinical signs
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Agave: scientific name and family
Agave spp.
Agave family: Agavaceae
Elephant's ear: scientific name and family
Alocasia spp.
Arum family: Araceae
Elephant's ear: clinical signs
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Desert rose: scientific name and family
Adenium obesum
Dogbane family: Apocynaceae
Mango: clinical signs
the sap, leaves, green fruits, and skin of ripe fruits cause allergy in some individuals
grape and raisin unclassified toxicity
acute renal failure in dogs only
GI irritation, tachycardia, mydriasis, seizures
4 clinical signs of umbrella tree
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
4 clinical signs of caladium
Song of India: scientific name and family
Dracaena reflexia
Agave family: Agavaceae
Arrowhead vine, Nephthytis: clinical signs
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Red maple: clinical signs
ingestion of dried leaves in horses causes hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinemia, and Heinz body formation
soluble oxalates, alkylating agent, irritant
3 toxic principles of the umbrella tree
severe GI signs, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, skin irritation
5 clinical signs of yellow oleander
What spp. are most sus. to triterpene acids? via?
ruminants; icterus, photophobia, erythema of skin, swelling, sloughing
African blue lily: clinical signs
irritation of the eye and irritation and ulceration of the mouth, vomiting
axonal degeneration in the CNS
clinical sign of the unknown toxin in the sago palm
gossypol
cottonseed
Tulip
Tulipa
Jimmyfern
Cheilanthes cochisensis
Unknown
Piperidine alkaloids
Hemlock
diterpene alkaloids
monkshood
Cardiac glycosides
squill
lectins
precatory bean
Dicentra (bleedingheart)
Isoquinoline-like alkaloids; GI problems, muscle tremors, convulsions. Stimulation of the nervous system; gastroenteritis.
Tobacco
Nicotiana tabacum
Buckwheat
Fagopyrum sagittatum
Holly
IIex opaca
Russian Thistle
Saisola iberica
Nitrates
lectin MOA
hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
triterpenoid saponins
holly family
selenium storing
milk vetch
anthraquinones
coffee weed, senna
Amaranthus (pigweed)
Nitrate accumulator and soluable oxalates (toxins cause perirenal edema and nephrosis); Lesions: ascites, hydrothorax, edema of ventral abdomen, degeneration and necrosis of proximal renal tubules.
pigweed
what is this?
flax
thiocyanate glycosides; antithyroid
Rattlebox
pyrrolizidine alkaloids; hepatotoxic
Ragwort
pyrrolizidine alkaloids; hepatotoxic
cauliflower
thiocyanate glycosides; antithyroid
Foxglove, Digitalis
Digitalis purpurea
Destroying Angel
Amanita spp.
Poison Oak
Toxicodendron quercifolium
Black Walnut
Juglans nigra
Spotted Water Hemlock
Cicuta maculate
Alcohol
Guajillo
Acacia berlandieri
Excitatory amines (N-methyl-B-phenethylamine and thyramine)
muscarine
amanita muscaria (poisonous mushrooms)
calcinogenic glycosides MOA
hypercalcemia, calcification
Nerium (oleander)
Cardiac glycosides; LD 0.005% bw; Clinical signs: GI and Cardiac; Gastroenteritis: TX: Digibind
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock)
Poperidine alkaloids (nicotinic effects); Deformations in cattle, sheep, goats, swine (arthrogryposis, cleft palate, spinal column deviations)--->crooked calf disease.
Allium (onions, garlic, chives)
Disulfides (potent oxidizing agents-->Heinz bodies, hemolytic anemia); Animals affected: Cattle and cats (most sensative); Sheep and goats most resistant.
spotted dumbcane
what is this?
russian knapweed
what is this?
lycorine
river lily's toxic principle
butterfly weed
what is this?
Elephant's ear
Alocasia spp.
Arum family
Araceae
Insoluble calcium oxalates
Irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Rape seed
thiocyanate glycosides; antithyroid
Tall Fescue
Festuca arundinaceae

-Indole alkaloids
grayanotoxins cause of death
aspiration pneumonia
most toxic part of lycorines
bulb
copper MOA
liver damage, hemolysis, methemoglobinemia
Cycas revoluta (sago palm, cycad)
Cycasin; GI and hepatic
Lilium Hemerocallus (tiger lily, easter lily)
Unknown toxic principle; Initially-->GI upset, followed by renal failure (48-96 hrs post-ingestion); Lesions: severe acute renal tubular necrosis with no oxalate crystals. Seen mostly in cats. TX: emesis, acti
liver damage
clinical sign of cocklebur
princesse's plume
selenium; GI and resp.
squill
cardiac glycoside; cardiotoxic via inhib. na/K ATPase
Japenese Yew
taxine alkaloids; Cardiotoxic, GI
Arrowhead
Insoluble oxalates; GI mucosal irritation
Ponderosa Pine
Isocupressic acid; vasoconstriction (abortion)
monkshood
Diterpene Alkaloids; block nicotinic receptors (sudden death in cattle)
Mango: toxic principle
resin 3-pentadecyl cathechol
Monstera: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
Agave: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalates
African blue lily: toxic principle
unknown
coumarin glycoside tx
blood or vit K1
Cycasin MOA
CNS, GI and liver damage
Juglans nigra (black walnut), Berteroa incana (hoary alyssum)
Unknown toxin; black walnut shavings are used for bedding; seen in horses; Clinical signs: onset 24 hrs (dose dependent), depression, limb edema, lamanitis.
beans
lectins; ricin/ inhib. cell protein prod. = cell death, GI mucosa, endothelium
Sheepkill
grayanotoxins; bind sodium channels of nerves of skeletal and cardiac mm. CNS, GI SLUDD
Meadow saffron
Colchicine alkaloids; interferes w/ mitosis GI, Cardiovascular, Resp., renal, hepatic, CNS, Coagulopathies
ZZ plant: scientific name and family
...
Spotted dumbcane: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
avocado unclassified toxicity
noninfectious mastitis and agalactia in cattle, horses, goats, rabbits
Triterpene acid MOA
liver damage and hepatogenic photosensitization; Lantadene A and B damage bile canaliculi and cholestasis; decreased elimination of phylloerythrin (metabolite of chlorophyll) which causes photosensitization
colchicine MOA
antimitotic by binding to tubulin; effects all body systems
Milkvetch
nitropropanol; resp. and CNS via inhib krebs
selenium; GI and resp.
Bracken fern
ptaquiloside; BM supression = aplastic anemia; neoplasia
tetradymol; liver, 2ndary photosensitization
Candelabra cactus
diterpene esters; blistering of skin and GI mucosa
Violets
nitropropanol; resp. and CNS via inhib krebs
Yellow oleander, Lucky nut: toxic principle
cardiac glycoside
xanthine alkaloids MOA
block adenosine receptors and inhibit phosphodiesterase
hypocalcemia, methemoglobinemia, renal failure
3 clinical signs of pigweed
What spp. is most susceptible to sol. oxalates?
sheep
Philodendron: clinical signs
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Charming dieffenbachia, Tropic snow dumbcane: scientific name and family
Dieffenbachia amoena
Arum family: Araceae
Corn plant, Cornstalk plant: scientific name and family
Dracaena fragrans
Agave family: Agavaceae
Purple allamanda: toxic principle
unknown strong irritant and cathartic
Pachypodium: clinical signs
irritation of the eye and skin
Yellow allamanda: toxic principle
unknown strong irritant and cathartic
River lily: clinical signs
lycorine (phenanthridine alkaloid) in bulb
Plumeria, Frangipani: scientific name and family
Plumeria spp.
Dogbane family: Apocynaceae
Crape Jasmine: scientific name and family
Tabernaemontana divaricata
Dogbane family: Apocynaceae
Holly: clinical signs
mainly GI signs including salivation, vomiting, colic, and diarrhea
Agave: clinical signs
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
triterpenoid saponins MOA
direct irritation of the GI mucosa without skin and mm. affected
6 classifications of acidic plants
insoluble calcium oxalates, soluble oxalates, isocupressic acid, Quinones, tannic acid, triterpene acid
3-methyl indole (fog fever); Tryptophan converted to 3-methyl indole in rumen-->affects lungs (pulmonary emphysema and edema)
3-methyl indole (lush green forages)
excessive salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia, hypotension, convulsions, dermatitis
7 clinical signs of the daffodil
rubrum lily
nephro. toxic in cats only (GI signs too)
Plumeria, Frangipani: clinical signs
severe GI signs, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, skin irritation
Purple allamanda: scientific name and family
Allamanda blanchettii
Dogbane family: Apocynaceae
Spotted dumbcane: scientific name and family
Dieffenbachia maculata
Arum family: Araceae
Bitter ash: scientific name and family
Rauwolfia spp.
Dogbane family: Apocynaceae
Calla lily: clinical signs
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
sesquiterpene lactones, aspartic acid, glutamic acid
3 toxic principles of russian knapweed
japanese show lily
nephro. toxic in cats only (GI signs too)
Cashew: toxic principle
toxic phenols such as cardol in shell liquid
What category of C/S do piperidine and pyridine alkaloids fall in low and high doses? Acronym for high?
low =sympathomimetics (nicotinic stim.) high =parasympathomimetics (nicotinic blockade); SLUDD
Purple allamanda: clinical signs
irritation of the eye and GI mucosa, vomiting and diarrhea
What is special about piperidine and pyridine alkaloids?
onset is swift and C/S are severe
/ 221
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online