Toxic Plants I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Panicum coloratum
rhododendron, Azalea
diterpene alkaloids
soluble oxalates
Cardiac glycosides
anthraquinones MOA
Cyanogenic glycosides
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
triterpenoid saponins
steroidal sponins
Lycorine; emetic/purgative
Narcissus spp.
Azalea spp.
Sorghum halepense
Cyanogenic glycosides & nitrates
Ryegrass Ergot
Claviceps purpurea
diterpene esters
pencil tree
dimethyl disulfide MOA
Pyridine alkaloids
Tobacco plant
tropane alkaloids MOA
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids MOA
Cannabis sativa (marijuana)
Tetrahydrocannabinols; CNS depression and derangement; Clinical signs: ataxia, depression, dialated pupils, stuperous, inappropirate urination.
Lupinus (lupine)
Quinolizidine alkaloids (mimic acetylcholine)-->nicotinic effect (causes uterine contraction-->keeps calf in one postion-->crooked calf); Crooked calf disease--> arthrogryposis, cleft palate, vertebral column abnormalities (in cattle)
what is this?
what is this?
Nitrate; GI irritation
xanthine alkaloids; SLUDD
Sacred Mushroom
Psilocybe, Paneolus
Fly Mushroom
Amanita muscaria
Asiatic Lilly
Lilium spp.
Yellow Buckeye
Aesculus octandra
Red Maple
Acer rubrum
Giant Rhododendron
Rhododendron maximum
Wright Buckwheat
Erigonum wrightii
Photodynamic agent
meliatoxin MOA
enterotoxin and neurotoxin
Tannic acids
pride of Barbados
insoluble calcium oxalates
Fishtail palm
Cyanogenic glycoside-containing plants (cherry, plum, apples)
Cyanogenic glycoside; Blood is fully oxygenated but cannot be utilized by cells (bright red blood). TX: cyanokit
Zigadenus (death camas)
Steroid alkaloids; Grows from onion-like bulb (no odor, carapace is black); Clinical signs: onset in 1-6 hrs GI and cardiac, excessive salivation, vomiting, dyspnea; confirm by zygacine in GI contents.
Datura (Jimson weed)
Atropine, scopalamine, hyoscyamine (muscarinic antagonists); Clinical signs: colic, dialated pupils, dry/tacky mucous membranes, tachycardia. Seeds have highest concentration of toxin.
toxic principle of oleander
sago palm
what is this?
yellow oleander
what is this?
butterfly milkweed
what is this?
Pothos/Devil's Ivy
Epipremnum spp.
Arum family
Insoluble calcium oxalates
Irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Resin; CNS and mm.
selenium; GI and resp.
brussel sprouts
thiocyanate glycosides; antithyroid
Red maple: toxic principle
Wild or Chokecherry
Prunus spp.
tetradymol MOA
hepatotoxic and 2nd photosensitization
Solanine and solanidine alkaloids
chalice vine
Acer (maple)
Unknown toxic principle; Wilted or dried leaves; Acute hemolytic anemia; Clinical signs: in horses-->brown discoloration to blood and red tinted serum; Icterus, splenomegaly, hemoglobinuric nephrosis
Tulipa (tulip), Narcissus (daffodil), Iris (iris)
Alkaloids (in bulbs); GI irritants-->gastroenteritis. TX: GI protectants (sucralfate, H2-antagonist, misoprostol)
american nightshade
solanine/solanidine alkaloids; GI, CNS, Resp.
teranortriterpenes; GI CNS
Resin; CNS and mm.
cardiac glycoside; cardiotoxic via inhib. na/K ATPase
cyanogenic glycosides; inhib of cytochrome oxidase = inhib of cellular resp., inhib of glycolysis = death
Tropane alkaloids; block adenosine receptors (parasympathomimetic, SLUDD)
Tropane alkaloids; block adenosine receptors (parasympathomimetic, SLUDD)
Moldy alfalfa
primary photosens. and 2ndary
St. John's Wart
Quinones; primary photosensitization
Constipation, brown urine, anorexia, depression, hemoglobinuria, and hematuria are all C/S of what plant poison?
Soluible oxalate poisoning treatment is _______ after c/s have appeared.
Desert rose: toxic principle
cardiac glycoside
Philodendron: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
propyl disulfide MOA
hemolysis and heinz bodies
Nitropropanol glycoside
resp signs and neuronal degeneration--cracker heels, roaring
toxic principle of the spider lily
cardiac glycoside
toxic principle of yellow oleander
diterpene esters; blistering of skin and GI mucosa
Sorrel/ soursop
Soluible oxalate; GI CNS Renal
Elephant's Ear
Insoluble oxalates; GI mucosal irritiation
Poison hemlock
piperidine alkaloids; nicotinic stim. then blockade; CNS; birth defects
Indolizidine alkaloids; CNS signs via inhibit enzymes for glycoproteins
protoanemonin; severe irritation of GI mucosa and dermatitis
Elephant's ear: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
Dumbcane 2: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
Window-leaf philodendron: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
Calla lily: toxic principle
insoluble calcium oxalate
diterpene alkaloids MOA
curare like action = competitive/non-depolarizing blockade of nicotinic receptors at muscle endplates
Soluble oxalates MOA
Hypocalcemia and precipitation of insoluble Ca oxalates in soft tissue and kidney damage
steroidal sponins MOA
liver damage and hepatogenic photosensitization
dog laurel
grayanotoxins; bind sodium channels of nerves of skeletal and cardiac mm. CNS, GI SLUDD
Swiss Cheese plant
Insoluble oxalates; GI mucosal irritiation
Cat Tail
diterpene esters; blistering of skin and GI mucosa
Alsike clover
hepatotoxic; 2ndary photo. in horses only
Mother-in law's tongue: clinical signs
GI irritation signs
diterpene esters MOA
direct irritation of skin and mucosa-->skin and GI irritation
equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia
disease the yellow starthistle causes in horses
Which group is most sens. to cottonseed tox?
monogastrics (gossypol)
Philodendron: scientific name and family
Philodendron spp.
Arum family: Araceae
Pothos: clinical signs
irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Pothos: scientific name and family
Epipremnum aureum
Arum family: Araceae
Pachypodium: scientific name and family
Pachypodium spp.
Dogbane family: Apocynaceae
Dwarf bouquet, Calypso queen: toxic principle
alkaloid, saponins, resin
Mango: scientific name and family
Mangifera indica
Cashew family: Anacardiaceae
River lily: toxic principle
lycorine (phenanthridine alkaloid) in bulb
alsike and red clover unclassified toxicity
hepatotoxicity and secondary photosensitization in horses only
macademia nuts unclassified toxicity
weakness in dogs, spontaneous and complete recovery in 48 hours
type 1 hypersensitivity
toxic effect of the christmas cactus in humans
lotus (blue flower)
nitropropanol; resp. and CNS via inhib krebs
tiger lily
nephro. toxic in cats only (GI signs too)
Dumbcane 2: scientific name and family
Dieffenbachia sequine
Arum family: Araceae
irritation of eye, irritation of mouth, vomiting
3 clinical signs of agave
severe GI signs, mydriasis, convulsions, respiratory signs, cardiac arrest
5 clinical signs of butterfly milkweed
What is the antidote for diterpene alkaloids? What plants?
physostigmine, neostigmine; larkspur; monkshood
Red maple: scientific name and family
Acer rubrum
Red maple family: Aceraceae
Corn plant, Cornstalk plant: toxic principle
similar to other Dracaena spp.
hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinemia, heinz body formation
what 3 things will the ingestion of the dried red maple leaves cause in horses?
How do insoluble oxalates cause mucosal irritation?
crystals are "needle" like and penetrate cells
Yellow oleander, Lucky nut: cardiac signs
severe GI signs, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, skin irritation
T/F gossypol must be bound to plasma proteins to be toxic
F; only free gossypol is toxic
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