toxic principles in plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tetradymol
horsebrush (Tetradymia)
lycorine
narcissus (Narcissus)
lectins
phytotoxins, toxalbumins
Xanthine alkaloids
caffeine
theophylline
theobromine
Pyridine alkaloids
nicotine
lobeline
grayanotoxins
rhododendron, azalea (Rhododendron)
meliatoxins
chinaberry (Melia azedarach)
dimethyl disulfide
mustards (Brassica)
alkaloids:
colchicine
diterpene alkaloids
ergot alkaloids
indolizidine alkaloids
lycorine
muscarine
peperidine alkaloids
pyridine alkaloids
pyrrolizidine alkaloids
solanine & solanidine
taxine alkaloids
tropane alkaloids
xanthine alkaloids
quinones
primary photosensitization; erythema and pruritus, edema, necrosis of skin
cardiac glycosides
squill (Ureginea maritima)
tropane alkaloids
atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine
soluble Ca oxalates
halogeton (halogeton)
muscarine
poisonous mushroom (Amanita muscaria)
diterpene alkaloids
Larkspur, Delphinium (Delphinium)
solanine alkaloids
chinese lantern (physalis)
insoluble Ca oxalates
caladium (caladium)
taxine alkaloids
cardiotoxic & GI
diterpene esters
croton (Codiaeum variegatum)
glucosinolate (thiocyanate glycosides)
soybean (Glycine)
phytoestrogens
alfalfa (Medicago sativa) USA
acids
insoluble calcium oxalates
soluble oxalates
isocupressic acid
quinones
tannic acid
triterpene acids
toxic principles in plants
acids
alkaloids
gossypol
glycosides
minerals
proteins & aa
resins & resinoids
unclassified toxins
plants causing mechanical injury
thiaminase
horsetail (Equisetum hyenale), Bracken fern, brake fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
triterpene acids
ruminants susceptible, horses resistant; depression, anorexia, constipation or diarrhea; icterus, photophobia, erythema of skin, swelling, necrosis, sloughing
senna
Coffee senna (senna occidentalis), sicklepod (senna obtusifolia)
pigweed
redroot (Amaranthus); acute - methemoglobinemia; chronic - abortion; soluble oxalates - hypocalcemia, kidney damage; unk toxin - renal tubular nephrosis - ruminants, pigs, horses
nitrate
acute - GI irritation, methemoglobinemia, abortion; chronic - dec progesterone -> abortion, dec performance
anthraquinones
cascara sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana DC)
pyrrolizidine alkaloids
rattle box, crotolaria (Crotolaria)
isocupressic acid
ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)
Piperidine alkaloids
anabasine -tobacco
conine -poison hemlock
ammodendrine -lupines
MOA: Lycorine plants
emetic & purgative
ptaquiloside
bracken fern, brake fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
coumarin glycosides
dicoumarol in spoiled plants; hemorrhage -> antagonism of vit K (inhibition of vit K epoxide reductase) -> deficiency of factors II, VII, IX, X
steroidal saponins
hepatogenic photosensitization & liver damage
gossypol
cardiotoxic & secondary liver damage; dec male fertility; binds proteins, aa, and Fe -> protein malnutrition, inhibits enzymes, interferes w/ hemoglobin synthesis; heat and iron salts dec toxicity
calcinogenic glycosides
hypercalcemia; calcification - elastic tissues - arteries, tendons, ligaments, inc density of bones -> lameness
resins
irritation of nervous or muscle tissue
lectins diterpene acids
sandbox tree (Hura crepitans)
red maple
acer rubrum; anorexia, depression, anemia, icterus, brown discoloration of MM, Hburia, dyspnea, cyanosis, death
colchicine
antimitotic - rapidly dividing cells most sensitive
tannic acid (tannins)
pride of barbados (Caesalpinia)
MOA: Niropropanol
peripheral neuronal degeneration & resp signs
C/S: Tannic acid ingestion (ruminants)
constipation
brown urine
anorexia
depression
rumen atony
Isocupressic acid plants
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)
Monterery cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa)
Colchicine plants
Autumn crocum, Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale)-Lily family (Liliaceae)
Glory lily, climbing lily (Gloriosa superba)-Lily family
Arum family (Araceae)
-Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema spp)
-Alocacia, elephant's ear (Alocacia spp)
-Flamingo plant (Anthurium spp)
-Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)
-Caladium varieties (Caladium spp)
-Dumcane varieties (Dieffenbachia spp)
-Pothos, Devil's ive (Epipremnum spp)
-Cutleaf philodendron, Swiss cheese plant (Monstera deliciosa)
-Philodendron varieties (Philodendron spp)
-Peace lily (Spathiphyllum spp)
-Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)
-Arrowhead vine, nephthytis (Syngonium podophyllum)
-Calla lily, arum lily (Zantedeschia oethiopica)
pyrrolizidine alkaloid plants
Rattlebox/ Crotolaria (Crotolaria spp)
Senecio, groundsel, ragwort (Senecio spp)
MOA: Solanine & solanidine alkaloids
GI
CNS
Resp
Cardiac
cycasin
GI, liver disease syndrome or ataxia, CNS syndrome; dogs - GI, liver - vomiting (blood), anorexia, diarrhea, depression, seizures; sheep - GI, wt loss; cattle - neuronal ataxia, weakness, wt. loss
Yellow starthistle Russian knapweed
Centaurea solstitialis, Acroptilon repens (Centaurea repens) - dz in horse - ENE or chewing dz; toxins - sesquiterpene lactones, aspartic acid, glutamic acid; c/s - sudden onset of inability to eat or drink, drowsiness, interupted by excitation, head down, dehydration
alsike red
(2) clover - Trifolium hybridum, Trifolium pratense - horses - hepatotoxicity and secondary photosensitization; hepatic encephalopathy with large amounts; c/s - lacrimation, photophobia, erythema, pruritus, edema, necrosis, sloughing of skin
indolizine alkaloids (swainsonine)
inhibit formation of glycoproteins; locoweed - neurotropic alkaloids; ntiropropanol - peripheral neuronal degeneration & respiratory signs; selenium - abnormal hoof & hair
MOA: Xanthine alkaloids
block adenosine (A) rec
inhibit phophodiesterase
MOA: Triterpene acid
-liver damage & HEPATOGENIC photosensitization
-lantadene A & B- damage of bile canaliculi mem & cholestasis
-dec elimination of phylloerythrin (chlorophyll metabolite)->photosensitization
T/F: Many Astragalus & Oxytropis spp are not toxic and are used as forage
T
Xanthine alkaloid plants
Cocoa (Theobroma cocao)
Coffee (Coffee arabica)
source of muscarine poisoning
poisonous mushrooms (Amanita muscaria)
Piperidine alkaloid plants:
-poison hemlock, spotted hemlock, California/ Nebraska fern (Conium maculatum)
-Lupines (Lupinus spp)
-tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum)
-tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)
-coyote tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)
nitropropanol glycoside
inhibits enzymes -> Krebs cycle & cellular oxidative phosphorylation; c/s - respiratory and neuro signs in cattle & sheep; neuro signs in horses and rodents
Forage induced photosensitization
moldy alfalfa (medicago sativa), red clover (trifolium pratense), moldy wheat (triticum aestivum)
systems effected by selenium tox
abn hoof & hair
MOA: Indolizidine alkaloids
inhibit lysosomal enz essential for glycoprotein formation
*locoweeds- neurotoxic alkaloids
-alteration of cellular fxn
grapes raisins
grapevine (Vitis); unk toxin - ARF in dogs only; GI signs (vomiting), ARF
MOA: Pyridine alkaloids
act on nicotinic rec at autonomic ganglia, NMJ & some CNS synapses
-low dose= depolarization
-lg dose= blockade
MOA: Colchicine plants
antimitotic- bind to tubulin & inhibit spindle formation during cell division
MOA: Diterpene alkaloid plants
competitive blockade of nicotinic rec at mm endplate
(similar to curare)
C/S: Diterpene alkaloid plant poisoning
-sudden death in cattle
-early signs= NM blockade
-Monkshood- cardiac arrhythmias
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