A&P Respiratory System Test Review Flashcards

STIFF LUNGS
Terms Definitions
tonsill/o
tonsils
pulmon
lung
Pharyng/o
thoart
nas/o
Nose
deglutition
swallowing
pector/o
chest
BA
bronchial asthma
demibranch
single lamella
bronchiectasis
dilated bronchi
PNEUM(ON)-
combining formlung
Larynx
laryng/o
voice box
oasissuf
condition of
Inferior
Towards the bottom
RML
right middle lobe
capn-
Combining Formcarbon dioxide
-sider
combining form; iron
DOE
dyspnea on exertion
inspiration
when the diaphragm lowers
ANS
trachealis muscle controlled by...
Bronch/o
The bronchi (singular bronchus)
anthrax, anthrac-
combining formcoal; anthrax
Hypoxia
inadequate oxygenation of tissues
olfaction
The sense of smell.
bronchitis
inflammation of bronchial membranes
hemoglobin
iron containing protein whcih transports 97 percet of oxygen in the blood
-ectasis
stretching out, dilation, expansion (suffix)
pleuropexy
surgical fixation of the pleura
laryngectomy
excision of the voice box
cyanosis
Bluish discoloration particularly of the nailbeds and perioral area. Again, this is usually seen in conjunction with clubbing and edema.
adam's apple is part of
larynx
mitochondria
Where does cellular respiration take place (what organelle in animal cells)?
ALVEOLI
 SURROUNDED BY FINE ELASTIC FIBERS MADE BY FIBROBLASTS CONTAIN OPEN PORES THAT: CONNECT ADJACENT ALVEOLI ALLOW AIR PRESSURE THROUGHOUT THE LUNG TO BE EQUALIZED ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES (DUST CELLS)  WANDERING MACROPHAGES REMOVE DEBRIS BECAUSE THERE IS NO CILIA TO MOVE THINGS UP AND OUT OF THE LUNGS TYPE 1 CELLS: SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM TYPE 2 CELLS: SECRETE ALVEOLAR FLUID THAT ALSO CONTAINS SURFACTANT
Apneusis
cessation of respiration in the inspiratory position
diameter, length, tension
3 factors affecting pitch
A common, shared opening between alveolar sacs.
Atria
thorax, thorac-
combining formchest cavity, pleural cavity, thorax
emphysema
Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
hemoptysis
Coughing up blood or blood-stained sputum, usually due to bleeding somewhere in the respiratory tract.
diaphragm
muscle separating the chest and abdomen. It contracts and relaxes to make breathing possible.
most important muscle controlling respiration that is bell shaped and forms the floor of your chest
diaphragm muscle
dysphonia
any disturbance of normal vocal function.
pleaura
thin double layers serosa. parietal on thoracic wall and visceral on the lungs.
INTERNAL RESPIRATION
gas exchange between systemic blood and the tissue cells
Atelectasis
lung collapse: due to plugged bronchioles (collapse of alveoli) or wound that admits air into pleural cavity (pneumothorax) Happens when P(ip) = P(pul)
terminal bronchioles
-last componet of the conducting system
-the smallest tubule of the bronchial tree to have noth ciliated and mucus producing cells
 
Plueral effusion
Collection of fluid between the plueral membranes.
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of breathing with gradually increasing and decreasing tidal volume interspersed with periods of apnea.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
most effective body position for resp measures
standing
Respiratory zone
extends from the termainl bronchioles to the alveoli; contains about 7 generations of branching; sites of gas exchnage between the air and lungs
Which pleura has afferent pain fibers
parietal pleura
stridor
A musical sound heard with a stethoscope on inspiration.
Asthma
Is a chronic inflammatory lung disease involving recurrent breathing problems.
There are many capillaries surrounding the alveoli. Which blood vessel brings this blood to the lungs?
pulmonary arteries
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx, often with accompanying sore throat, hoarseness or loss of voice, and dry cough.
Inspiratory reserve volume
air forced in beyond tidal volume
COMPLIANCE
 THE EASE WITH WHICH THE LUNGS AND THORACIC WALL CAN BE EXPANDED MORE COMPLIANT AT LOWER VOLUMES DECREASED COMPLIANCE (STIFF LUNGS) ANY CONDITION DESTROYING LUNG TISSUE CAUSING IT TO FILL WITH FLUID DEFICIENCY IN SURFACTANT IMPEDES LUNG EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION EXAMPLE: ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME.
how many lobes are in the right lung
3
Pulmonology
The study of the lungs, lower airways, and upper airways.
The process of taking in oxygen and getting rid of the waste carbon dioxide.
Respiration
-cocc, coccus
berry coccus (a type of spherical bacterium)
the bronchi lead to small air sacks called
alveoli
sarcoidosis
Also called Boeck sarcoid, this is a systemic disease of unknown etiology with the most severe manifestation being granulomatous pneumonitis.
false vocal cords aka?
true vocal cords aka?
vestibular folds
vocal folds
cystic fibrosis
a hereditary chronic disease of the exocrine glands, characterized by the production of viscid mucus that obstructs the pancreatic ducts and bronchi, leading to infection and fibrosis.
EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME
VOLUME OF AIR THAT CAN FORCEFULLY EXHALED AFTER NORMAL EXHALATION.
AMOUNT (ML): 1100
residual volume
amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation (has to be there so your lungs don't collapse
Squamous alveolar epithelium, endothelial cells lining adjacent capillary, fused basement membranes
3 main components of respiratory membrane
Trachealis muscle
bundles of smooth muscle that lie on the non-cartilagenous side of the trachea and when contracted, can decrease the diameter of the trachea;contracted when coughing to try and expel particles through the quicker movement of air through the smaller opening
What is emphysema?
A condition of the lungs characterized by enlargement of the air spaces distal to the bronchioles.
Klebsiella pneumoniae
This is the most frequent of the gram-negative bacilli and it normally affects already compromised lungs, such as with the very young or the very old, hospital or nursing home patients, immuno-compromised hosts, or alcoholics.
Nasal SeptumName internal or external(Position)
Internal Splits or divides nasal cavity in left and right sides.Position (Vertical Partition to vestibule)
The muscle the forms the body of the vocal folds.
Vocalis muscle
to achieve subglottic pressure necessary for speech, we can
adjust expiratory force OR
adjust airway resistance
Other S/S of inadequate oxygenation
Diaphoresis (early or late), Decreased urinary output (early or late), Unexplained fatigue (early or late)
What is the Larynx?
Where vocal chords are contained and air passes through
What causes smoker's cough?
Nitric acid is created by the smoke and it kills cilia which cause mucous to drain down into the lungs. Smoker's must cough frequently to move the mucous out of the lungs.
These are round in shape and have a large nucleus. They contain lamellar bodies which in turn contain phospholipids that release the fluid called pulmonary surfactant.
type II pneumocytes
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest
Magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional (axial) planes
"J" receptors - juxtapulmonary capillary receptors
Unmyelinated C fibers in walls of pulmonary capillaries. Activated by increase in pulmonary interstitial fluid P. Cause rapid shallow breathing, bronchoconstriction, bradycardia, hypotension. Apnea if acute stimulation.
List the four processes in respiration.
VGTA
1. Ventilation- movement of air into and out of the lungs
2. gas exchange between blood and air-filled chambers of the lungs.
3. Transport of gases- accomplished by cardiovascular system
4. Absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide by tissue cells.
List the three important functions of the larynx.
the thyroid and cricoid cartilages maintain an open passageway for air movement;
the epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into the larynx;
the vocal folds are the primary source of sound production
Factors that effect rate of loading and unloading of O2
pressure of O2, temperature, blood pH, pressure of CO2, concentration of BPG
What effects does emphysema have on the body?
causes dilation of the alveoli and loss of elastic tissue, resulting in poorly functioning alveoli, making it difficult for a patient to EXHALE
What happens if the pressure of CO2 is too low?
Hypocapnia, CO2 must accumulate to trigger respiration.
Why is the hyaline cartilage on the outside of the trachea in the shape of a C ?
It allows for stretching so that food can move down the esophagus.
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