U3ET1 Flashcards

Competitive Edge
Terms Definitions
*synapomorphy- quadrupedal
active exercises
Total Protein
to smoke
Ankylosaurs, Stegosaurs
mammary glands
produce milk
defense for ornithopods
fecal blood test
Tyrannosaurus, latest cretaceous
eating, breathing, reproducing, separate from environment; you cannot produce life from non-life; life began on earth 3.5 billion ya
semi-erect posture
gets you bigger
awake in the day
*synapamorphy- 1.mesotarsal ankle
2. straight femur with in-turned head; fully erect posture, habitual biped- walks on two legs all of the time
fast RR >20 RRPM
•Amount of skin elasticity•Indication of hydration status•Pinch gently between thumb and forefinger•Normal - pinched skin returns to place immediately upon release•Poor - takes 3 seconds or longer for skin to return to its original position•Normal loss of elasticity with aging makes assessment of skin turgor difficult in elderly clients - with the patient in the supine position the forehead or chest tissue gives the best indication of skin hydration•Document mobility & turgor•Pinched skin moves easily and returns to place immediately upon releasecan be diminished by edema or dehydration
"wide foot" graviportal; secondarily quadrupedal; *synapomorphies- 1. short stocky metacarpals and metatarsals 2. shortened post-acetabular process of the ilium
jurassic & creataceous, pretty cursorial, replaced primitive orthithropods; up to 25 ft long, hands could go on ground for grazing, curved claws, no locking hinge on jaw
semi-erect, crurotarsal ankle, intense body armor/ spikes, herbivores
peg-like teeth
synapomorphy for sauropodomorpha, plant plucking teeth but not plant processing teeth, land herbivores eating land plants, used teeth for cropping
"warm blooded". controlling body temperature metabolically from inside; (mammals)
turtle shell; synapomorphy for turtles
"horned face"; *synapomorphy- 1. rostral bone (opposite of predentary; upper jaw beak bone) used as a hedge clipper; frill expansion on back of head in primitive ceratopsia
hearing of sounds via stethoscope.
a lesion that contains pus
turn sole of foot medially
Major Jurassic Groups
Thyreophorans, Sauropods, Birds
*synapomorphies-1. longer neck (1/3 of the length of the pre-sacral vertebrae 2. asymmetrical hand; 2 main lineages: Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda
land animals, possibly swam sometimes; herd together * synapomorphies- 1. short skull 2. big orbits 3. longer neck (Saurapoda have 12 or more cervical vertebrae) 4. retracted nares, SO BIG
late paleozoic
terrestrial vertebrates which were amphibians that evolved from a group of fish called lobe-finned fish
probably have completely unique biology because they are so different? maybe they kept their heads more horizontal to keep blood flowing? maybe the oxygen flow was in one direction like birds and alligators?
reptiles but not dinosaurs; (cladistic sister group) powered flight, have hollow bones that are light for flight, wing is long fiber, endothermic, keratin fiber wings
snakes, lizards, crocodiles, birds and dinosaurs have this skull; two openings in the skull roof, upper temporal fenestra, lower temporal fenestra
earlier group of pterosauria, triassic & jurassic, fairly small, long tail with vein on end
*synapomorphy- 1. thecodont teeth 2. semi-erect posture 3. crurotarsal ankle 4. hind limbs longer
part of Ankylosauria; jurassic and cretaceous; more body armor, less flexible like a shell; *synapomorphy- flexible shoulder joint; passive defense strategy- tucks its legs under and sits down so it cant get eaten
an unrelieved constipation of hardened feces, wedged in the rectum that a person cannot expel. With impaction the restricted mass beings to extend into the sigmoid colon. S/S of impaction include; the inability to pass to pass stool for several days, continuous oozing of diarrhea of stool, anorexia, nausea, abdominal distention, cramping, and rectal pain.
rotating the hand facing downward, palm side down.
Transit time
time from mouth to anus
Describe key components of basic nutrition
Diet consists predominantly of plant foods; can be nutritionally adequate if planned carefully.-Lactoovovegetarian – eats eggs and milk-Lactovegetarians – drinks milk, avoids eggs-Vegans – only plant foods-Vegan, Zen macrobiotic (only brown rice & herb tea) and fruitarian (only fruits, nuts, honey, and olive oil) are nutrient poor and may result in malnutrition.
-Long necks and tails, forlimbs shorter than hind limbs-but not by much.-Small skull and brains>Large nare's HIGH UP on skull rather than end of snout-Spatulate, spoon-like teeth-no cheeksHERBIVORE
lavarse los dientes
to brush one's teeth
Features of Ichthyosaurs
dolphin like marine lizard
external fertilization
fertilization happens external to the body- female secretes the eggs and the male squirts sperm onto them (ex-fish eggs)
"stiff tail", more bird-like in every detail; carasaginal gait- as fast as 60 mph but flexible hip; carnivores *synapomorphy- 1. stiff tail 2. loss of the 4th digit on the hand
in all vertebrates except mammals and reptiles, a chamber in the intestine that receives materials from the digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems; common structure for excretion but can be filled with blood and turned into an intromittent organ
*synapomorphies 1. 3 or more bones fused to the sacrum 2. perforate acetabulum 3. expanded ilium 4. opposable thumbs 5. long s-shaped neck
long tail and neck; 59 ft long
conceived and incubated so quickly the babies are born so immature; lots of development at the nipple
Robert Bakker
dinosaur fanatic; thinks that all dinosaurs are endothermic and that is what gave them a competitive edge
all mammals have these skulls, they have a lower temporal fenestra
Big Theropods
shorter neck to avoid whiplash, massive hind legs, bipedal and graviportal, have pubic boot
Basal Metabolic Rate- is the energy needed to maintain life-sustainingactivities like breathing, circulation, HR, Temp @ rest. Factors like age,body mass, gender, fever, starvation, etc. can affect energy requirements.
Medical Asepsis
aka: clean techniqueprocedures used to reduce the number or organisms present and prevent the transfer of organisms (i.e. hand hygiene, gloves, and cleaning the environment)
moving an extremity towards the body from the lateral position.e.g. bring the arms to the side
Therapeutic diets
Clear Liquid: broth, coffee, tea, carbonated beverages, clear fruit juices, gelatin (jello), & popsiclesFull Liquid: ice cream, custards, cooked cereals, all fruit & vegetable juicesPuree: scrambled eggs, pureed meats fruit & vegetables, mashed potatoes & gravyMechanical Soft: diced meats, cottage cheese, cheese, rice, soups, & peanut butterSoft or Low Residue: pastas, cooked fruits & vegetables, cakes & cookiesHigh Fiber: fresh fruits & vegetables, oatmeal, bran, dried fruitsLow Sodium: no added salt to severe sodium restriction (500mg Na diet) that requires selective food purchases.Low Cholesterol: 300 mg/dayDiabetic: recommended 1800 calories. Balanced intake of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Regular: no restrictions, unless specified
Name applied to many different kinds of fungal infection of the skin • Tinea pedis – chronic superficial fungal infection of the skin of the foot, especially between toes, on soles • Tinea capitis – fungal infection of the scalp • Tinea corporis – fungal infection of the glabrous (smooth & bare) skin
Paralytic ileus
a surgery that involves direct manipulation of the bowel, which temporarily stops peristalsis and usually last for about 24-48 hours
What type of pelvic structure do theropods have? Saurischian or Ornithischian?
True or False. Evolution of feathers happened before the evolution of birds?
Jurassic Geography
Trending towards endemic as the continent starts to drift apart
sack of membranes in sack of uterus; cushions and contains fetus, vascularized
maxillary fenestra
in Avetheropoda, extra hole in the skull for chewing muscles to attach
back-turned pubis
gives room for more guts in ornithischia, pubis is in back with ischium; ilium elongated in front
mesotarsal ankle
found in ornithodires; only flexes up and down with no rotation
internal fertilization
happens inside mothers body, the sperm fertilizes the egg and then it shells
starts to get lots of fish; beginning vertebrates and then land vertebrates arise
a covering formed from serum drying on the skin
the body is laying facing upward, back against the floor
Describe dietary modifications for older adults
Dietary modifications:1. Diets typically low in PRO foods and high in breads, cakes, cereals2. Provide PRO with cheese (calcium), eggs, & peanut butter, beans, peas3. Encourage whole grain cereals & breads4. Encourage cream soups & meat-based vegetable soups-Decreased need for calories: decreased metabolic rate.-Factors influencing nutritional status: .Income – fixed income, spend less on food. .Health – therapeutic diets; difficulty eating due to lack of teeth or dentures, or ill-fitting dentures; at risk for food-drug interactions. .Physical disability – makes preparation difficult. .Lack of transportation – males shopping difficult. .Living alone – decreases interest and pleasure of meals.Physiological changes:1. Decreased taste acuity2. Decreased gastric secretions (less efficient digestion) 3. Decreased thirst sensation (inadequate fluid intake) 4. Decreased GI motility
Adverse reaction
•Factors such as age, body mass, gender, environment, time of administration, pathologic state, genetics, and psychological characteristics can alter an individuals response to drug therapy -Older adults are usually highly responsive to medications -Drug doses need to be adjusted in proportion to body mass -Differences in relative proportions of fat and water in men and women may effect drug solubility -Oxygen deprivation at high altitudes may ↑ sensitivity to some drugs -Drugs administered on an empty stomach are more readily absorbed∗ Effect of a drug action may vary from a predicated drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence *Succinylcholine – induced paralysis – usually brief – Usually attributed to genetic characteristics that alter the person’s drug-metabolizing enzymes
a breathing patter when a PT. will breath with an occasional apnea.
Why gigantism?
1) Kept them warm, increased growth2) Self defense3) May have been cold-blooded, so it could be large
Cretaceous Paleogeography
Endemic as continents are now broken up
Cretaceous Consumers
same as jurassic with some new reptiles, dinosaurs rule the land
facultative biped
capable of bipedality, not all of the time
straight femur
femur with inward turned head found in ornthodires
kinetic skull
larger space due to loosing bars of bone making it easy to open mouth very wide
Six Rights for Drug Administration
•Right Drug -Check MD’s order (administering the wrong drug is the most common type of medication error) -Joint Commission has listed a number of drugs with sound alike names •Right Dosage -Need to Look at Drug Reference Guide (e.g. Davis’s Drug Guide, FDA website) & compare dose MD prescribed with usual dose for the route ordered•Right Time -Need to know the 24 hour clock e.g. 2000 = 8 pm -Administering the medication at the correct time is critical to maintaining specific blood-drug level, or avoid interactions with other drugs•Right Route -PO, SubQ, IM, IV, ID etc.•Right Patient -Check 2 unique patient identifiers – patient must state name and e.g. birth date or address, do not ask are you Mr. Smith? A confused patient may say yes. •Right Documentation -Time the drug was administered -Patient Teaching: name, dose, route, frequency, therapeutic effect, side effects, drugs, foods, herbs, and behaviors to avoid during therapy
Bowel training
is a process in which a patient develops a routine to defecate every day at the same time. E.g. by waking up every morning, attempting to defecate at the same time every day until he or she regains control of bowel reflexes. This requires time, patience and consistency on the patient half
Enterostomal Therapist
RN who is qualified to provide care forpersons with stomas, draining wounds, fistulae, incontinence, and actual or potential alterations in tissue integrity.
Lactose intolerance
a person who lacks the ability to produce the enzyme required to digestion of milk sugar
a) had reduced to no teeth and a probable ominivorus diet
competitive edge
all else being equal, yet when a new effective feature evolves that group has a competitive edge
habitual bipeds
an animal that walks on two legs all of the time
Describe the role of the Rn in relationship to other members of the health care team when caring for clients with nutritional problems
multidisciplinary approach-- coordinating plan of care with healthcare provider, dietitian, etc.
when heat is in the form of liquid is evaporated (steam) due to heat.e.g. sweating.
Clade theropoda known for having?
llow bones, pointed serrated teeth, and a furcula
Subcategories and features of Plesiosaurs
Pliosaurs- lizard like head, big flippers for propulsion, short neck

Plesiosaurs- long neck
Onset of Action
The time it takes for the drug to elicit a therapeutic response (minimum effective concentration) after the drug has been administered
Variations in Skin Moisture
Very dry: Characterized by scaling of the stratum corneum. More pronounced over the distal lower extremitiesWet Perspiration expected with activity
Feathers on small dinosaurs suggest that they...
Were homeothermic (were able to maintain a constant body temperature)
Discuss the rationale for early, aggressive intervention to prevent pressure ulcers
Minimizes the impact that risk factors or contributing factors have on pressure ulcer development
There are hypotheses that sauropod cervical vertebrae had air sacs connected to the lungs. Such structures would
provide the neck with less density and more stiffness for muscle control
Problems with Creating a Jurassic Park
DNA Acquisition- HOW?
Food- no way there's enough food
Disease- virus could result from DNA acquired
Bacteria- protective bacteria in stomachs might be different and does not exist anymore
Space- lack of space = lack of food
Wound classification is by the color (black, yellow, red)
•Black = necrotic•Yellow = exudate and yellow fibrous debris•Red = active healing phase, clean with pink to red granulation & epithelial tissue
Discuss the mechanism of action , efficacy , and safety or current pharmacological agents used in the treatment of diarrhea
•Do not use longer than 2 days•Do not use if fever present•Non – pharmacological treatment – clear liquids•Maintenance of Skin Integrity – stool irritates skin and can cause breakdown•Categories 1. Absorbents – act by absorbing substances such as bacteria that could be the cause of the diarrhea e.g. bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) 2. Synthetic Opiates – are the most effective, they ↓ GI motility & slow peristalsis – e.g. paregoric, tincture of opium. Over-the-counter loperamide (Imodium) is an opiate-related agent 3. Antidiarrheal combinations – most contain a synthetic narcotic ingredient e.g. Lomotil
Describe the role of the RN management of a client experiencing dysfunction in bowel elimination
The role of the RN is to assess the history of the pt and assess a physical examination. You must auscultate to assess bowel in each quadrant and palpate for tenderness or masses.Then the RN will then identify the correct diagnosis:-Constipation R/T insufficient physical activity AMB no BM x 5 days-Risk for Constipation R/T ( dehydration AWBMB no BM x 3 days-Diarrhea R/T laxative abuse AMB 15 loose stools a day-Risk for Diarrhea R/T anxiety AWBMB loose watery stools-Bowel Incontinence r/t immobility AMB fecal staining of bedding and clothing-Dysfunctional Gastrointestinal Motility r/t pharmaceutical agents AMB abdominal distention and absent bowel sounds-Risk for Dysfunctional Gastrointestinal Motility r/t sedentary lifestyle AWBMB absent or hypoactive bowel sounds, abdominal distention and cramping, and difficulty passing stool P: Critically think what the best strategies would be to reach the expected outcome or goals.NI’s always work to change the etiology of the problem in order to resolve the problemWant to incorporate the patient’s elimination habits or routines as much as possibleLeast invasive nursing interventions (NI’s) and most cost effective should be initiated first – nonpharmacological treatment recommendedI: ImplementationThe RN will determine the best ways to treat the problem:Promotion of Regular Bowel HabitsTake time to defecateEstablish a routine – more likely to occur 1 hour after mealsPromotion of Normal DefecationSquatting PositionPositioning on BedpanPromotion of Adequate Fluid & Food IntakeGrapefruit juice & the caffeine in coffee, tea, colas, & chocolate drinks act as diuretics & take fluids from the bowel so these liquids should not be counted as providing fluid intake for bowel activity.Studies have shown a mixture of prune juice, applesauce, & bran can provide adequate fiber for effective bowel management. 2 cups Kellogg’s All Bran; 2 cups applesauce; 1 cup 100% prune juice.Promotion of Regular ExercisePromotion of ComfortPromotion of Self-ConceptAvoiding straining and the Valsalva ManuverLaxatives & Cathartics E: EvaluateThe RN must determine if the pt was able meet the expected outcome.
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