UCSB Geography : Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
urban economies
regional multiplier
mixed-use development
infill development
goods and services
purchasing power parity (PPP)
innovations in agriculture
 Hybridizing plants/animals Irrigation Metal Plows – iron  steel Chemicals• Fertilizer• Pesticides• herbicides
gentrification and demographic inversion
corporation in farming business
50,000 people or more.
 Travel for entertainment or vacation World’s largest private industry
o Industrial Revolution, England (Mid 1700’s)• Fuels will replace human and animal power• Cotton textiles were the first to industrializebreak-of-bulk points
worldwide urbanization trend
o Worldwide Urbanization Trend• Higher proportion of people living in urban areas now• Bigger and growing cities• Shanty towns – things on outsides of large underdeveloped cities• Result of over urbanization
settlements (central places) and hinterlands (market areas)
theories of development: neoliberal counterrevolution
Suburbs in developing countries. Squatter settlements, poorly planned urbanization. Not legally owned or occupied. Little to no social or public services. Informal economic activities dominate. Created through a combination of push and pull factors. Related to, but different than the concept of a ghetto.
'No industry is an island;From perspective of manufacturer there are backward and foreward links
categories (sectors) of economic activities: quinary
executive decision-making
Metropolitan (Statistical) Areas (MSA)
• MSA (micro/metropolitan statistical area)• At least 1 county• Large pop concentration + adjacent communities
primary sustinence crop that is intensive
reasons for shifts
 Mechanization• Machines can do the work of multiple people in the same amount of time Economic Globalization• Outsourcing• Import cheap labor Wealth + education• Nobody wants to do the tasks that are menial labor• Tourism + luxury goods has exploded because people have money to spend public sector (government)• At all levels government has grown (local, state, national, international)• Government is a major supplier of jobs
Culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific territory and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, beliefs and customs. Thematic regions, groups with common ancestry and common culture. Sense of place. There are 5,000 nations worldwide.
industrial “parks”
buisnesses grouped together in tight proximity
trickle-down effects
innovations in the MDC's eventually get passed down to the LDC's?
people fleeing from something in there country, causes mass migration
anticipated place utility
o Anticipated Place Utility• How you expect a place meet your needs, satisfy you, etc.
Christaller's Central Place Theory
• CHRISTALLER’S CENTRAL PLACE THEORYo Pattern of Urban Systems in a Region• More spread out than random
sex-role division of labor
sex-role division of labor
globalization of manufacturing (transnational and conglomerate corporations)
o Transnational & Conglomerate Corporations• Do lots of different money making activities• Sell multiple different products
offshore gambling
 Can dock casino boats in international waters River boat casinos in Iowa
A state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation. (A state whose territory contains one nationality, AKA ethnic group. Examples: Japan, Sweden, Costa Rica.
Gross National Income. Total value of goods and services produced by a country per year plus net income earned abroad by its nationals. Used to be called GNP.
Centrifugal Forces
Forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of the state.
Gross Domestic Product. Total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specified time period, usually a calendar year.
Agglomeration Effects
Cost advantages that occur when individual firms locate together in space. Ex: Shared transportation facilities, utilities, social services. Often this is a specialized labor pool.
Quinary economic activities
Separately recognized section of tertiary activity management functions involving highest level decision making in all types of large organizations.
Least Cost Theory
Sometimes called Weberian Analysis. Explains the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment in terms of minimization of three basic expenses: Relative transport costs, labor costs, and agglomeration costs. Transport costs are the major consideration when determining a location.
no-need-to-limit-growth arguments
 Food growth doesn’t have to be linear, technology People have been regulating population growth rates God’s job to regulate population growth New pop = technological innovation Higher pop = larger work forces, larger group of consumers No lack of food, distribution problem Overpop = regional, not global
tourism that is designed to not harm the enviornment, becoming very popular
Central Business District (CBD)
o Urban Nucleus: Central Business District (CBD)• Core/most intensive land use is the nucleus (known as the CBD)
crude death rate
deaths per 1000 people, per year
channelized migration and migration streams
o Channelized Migration (Migration Streams)• More migration to certain places than would be predicted by a gravity model• Migration streams = the extra migration than what predictedo There are streams to the south, but also out of it
concentric ring pattern
o Pattern of Concentric Rings Around Market Town Dairying and market gardening Specialty farming Cash grain and livestock Mixed farming Extensive grain farming or stock raising
Purchasing Power Parity
A monetary measurement which takes account of what money actually buys in your country.
Primate City
One very dominant city within a country. Features a concentration of colonial activity and economic activity.
Centripetal Forces
Forces tending to bind together the citizens of a state and promote unity and stability. Factors include Nationalism, Institutions and Infrastructure.
indicators or measures of development: economic and noneconomic (demographic and human welfare) indicators
o Economic Indicators of Development Gross domestic product/income (GDP/GDI) vs. gross national product/income (GNP/GNI) % Labor force in Agriculture Energy use per capita Worker productivity Availability of Consumer Goodso Non-economic indicators Demographic• Fertility rate• Death rate• Infant mortality  Human Welfare• Adult literacy and education• Caloric Intake• Access to safe water• Availability of medical recourses• Availability of public assistance
hierarchical nesting of central places and polygons (urban hierarchy)
hierarchical nesting of central places and polygons (urban hierarchy)
American Indian gaming
 Biggest form is casino gambling on Native American reservations
smart agriculture
using GPS & GIS to optimize growing and use of chemicals (micro monitoring fields)
relaxing von Thünen's assumptions
 If transport paths made available certain places farther away are technically “closer”, etc.
Ranges from Boston all the way down to D.C.
market control mechanism
Supply demand price - lecture 10 chart*
regular market area polygons (hexagons)
o Urban Hierarchy of Places, Polygons• Order of commodities• Threshold = # of people in market area required to support a commodity• Range = how far people are willing to travel to buy the commodityo Low order = small threshold, short rangeo High order = large threshold, long range• With different size cities polygons form within polygons (see pic)
pattern of population density in cities
• LAND USE/DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS (SOCIAL AREAS)• CBD Has low population density because people can’t afford to live there• Pop density curve as you get farther from the CBD is concave down, starting rising then decreasing, switches to concave up but still decreasing• Often divided by social status, family status, ethnic status, ect.
census tract
small areas created by the census of ~4000 people
Weber's cost-minimization approach to factory location
o Transport of Resource (Raw Materials) to Factory, Product to Market• Closer to raw materials usually means farther from market
African slave trade
large numbers of migrating people into other countries out of Africa
Consequent Boundary
Also called Ethnographic, is a border drawn to accommodate existing religious linguistic, ethnic or economic differences between countries. Example: Boundary between N. Ireland and Eire.
Spatially variable costs:
An input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its amount and its relative share of total cost.
Rank Size Rule
Population of urban areas follow this rule. The population of any given town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. That is, the Nth-ranked city will be 1/N the size of the largest city.
explanatory vs. normative models
explanatory - shows what isnormative - shows what should be (huff model)
origin and diffusion of Industrial Revolution
o Industrial Revolution, England (Mid 1700’s)• Fuels will replace human and animal power• Cotton textiles were the first to industrializeo Diffusion of Industrial Revolution• Tried to prevent it with secrecy, wanted to control markets, etc.
land rent (locational rent)
o Land Rent Varies With Distance From Market Town Intensive farming most profitable close to market Extensive farming more profitable farm (cheaper to transport)
calculating the carrying capacity
based on limiting factors (food, land, water, ect.)
elastic and inelastic demand
• Elastic – price goes up, demand goes down• Inelastic – price goes up, demand stays high (gas, diamonds, gold)
• Extended by NAFTA to all of Mexico in mid-1990’s• About 3000 factories right here• Huge portion of Mexico’s industrial output
changing structure of workforce in U.S.A
o Labor Shifts Across Sectors Mid 1800’s large majority primary workers 66% Secondary rises in the middle then comes back down Drifted to current day 83% tertiary +, 16% secondary, 1 % primary
replacement fertility rate (replacement rate)
2.1-2.5 kids per woman in her lifetime
Locational Interdependence Theory
When a locational decision of one firm is influenced by locations chosen by its competitors. Influences the manner in which competitive firms with identical cost structures arrange themselves in space to assure themselves a measure of spatial monopoly in their combined markets. Compared to the Least Cost Theory, Locational Interdependence is concerned with variable revenue analysis rather than variable costs.
Break of bulk points
A location where goods are transfered from one type of carrier to another. Ex: Ship to train.
American Indian ‘Trail of Tears’
• Trail of tears – Indians from Florida to Oklahoma
effect of accessibility and land value on the internal structure of North American cities
o Accessibility and Land Value• The most accessible locations (area closest to the core of the city), the more valuable the land is• Most accessible locations demand the highest rent• Land value decreases as you leave the center of the city, distance decay• Intensive to extensive urban land use
scales of migration (total and partial displacement, external and internal migration)
o Varying Scales of Migration• Total vs. Partial displacement• Total displacement migration = new activity space doesn’t overlap at all w/ old activity spaceo External migration = out of countryo Internal migration = stay in country• Partial displacement migration = new activity space has some overlap w/ old activity space
population (age-sex) pyramids, including some distinctive shapes and their meanings
A graphical device for seeing the age sex distribution of the population of a countryTypical types are stationary, constrictive, bulges or holes, pyramid
3 major concentrations of population and top 10 countries
 Most populated countries in the world• China, India, US, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, Japan 3 major concentrations• Eastern Asia, South Asia, Europe
population density and elevation
population tends to be close to the ocean, thus lower elevation = higher pop density?
Sauer’s Agricultural Origins and Dispersal
book on where agriculture started and it spreading
behavioral approach to economic geography
Economic maximization is not the only motivator: tradition, likes and dislikes are motivators
world history and pattern of growth rates, including current rates
 Jumps in population after big events• Agricultural revolution, industrial revolution, medical revolutionDrops after catastrophic events (Large wars, plauge)o Growth Now Estimated 1.23% pop growth this year Pop growth rate is slowing down Max worldwide growth rate was in 1960’s Majority of growth is in less developed countries, richer countries tend to have growth rates very close to 0
African American internal migration in 20th c.
• Blacks all leave south when cotton pickers invented, many moving back to urban south
definition of population geography
the study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places
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