UCSB second midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
megacities
monoculture
market orientation
supply-demand curves
raw-material (resource) orientation
suburbs as bedroom communities
exurbia (counter-urbanization)
o Exturbia• Counter urbanization trend• People living in wilderness/rural areas• gentrification
space-cost functions
o General Space-Cost Functions• Costs go up in certain area• Profit is based on revenue – costs• Its only profitable to do business in areas where your costs will be below you revenue
World Cities
Interconnected, internationally dominant centers that together control the global systems of finance and commerce. Typically, a concentration of TNCs. Tokyo, NYC and London are world cities.
ZPG
Zero population growth, just replacement rate
problems of suburbanization
o Problems of Suburbanization• Deterioration of the inner city• Urban underclass• Decline in mass transit → automobile congestion• Dependence of oil• Cost of maintaining highways• Sprawling development• Loss of farmland• Homogenization of the built environment• Everywhere in the USA has the same things (target, starbucks, best buy, Wal-Mart)• Edge Cities• People live on edge of cities by highways
need-to-limit-growth arguments (Malthusian and neo-Malthusianism)
• Recourses are finite/limited• Food production can only increase linearly• Optimal maximum population – “carrying capacity”• Malthusiansim, neomalthusianism
market equilibrium
When supply = demand
Megalopolis
The original conurbation describing the Northeastern United States. (From Washington DC to Boston.)
TNC
Also known as Multinational corporations. Private firms with branch operations outside of the country of its headquarters. The firm must operate in at least two separate national economies. TNC’s contributed $19 trillion in sales, or 1/10 of global GDP. 56 million employees directly, 150 million indirectly. 29 of the worlds top economies were TNCs. Example company: Nestle.
Gerrymandering
Redrawing voting district boundaries in such a way as to give one political party maximum electoral advantage and to reduce that of another party, to fragment voting blocks, or to achieve other nondemocratic objectives. Named after Governor Elbridge Gerry.
Conurbanation
When major metropolitan complexes expand and join one another.
demography
the statistical study of human populations
ecumene
Area of Earths surface inhabited permanently by humans
today's largest cities and fastest growing large cities
biotechnology
directly altering genetic code for better plants
spectator entertainment
sports, Movies, plays, vegas shows
shifting cultivation
• Primarily in rain forests• Cut down and burn plants to put nutrients back into soil
Subsequent Boundaries
Established after the cultural landscapes exists. There are two types of subsequent boundaries, Consequent and Superimposed.
Urban Realms Model
Describes automobile dependent metropolitan areas.
Antecedent Boundaries
Established before features of cultural landscape are developed. Example: The western portion of the US and Canada.
technology transfer
technologies are passed to other countires? (LDC's)
categories (sectors) of economic activities: secondary
Manufacturing, processing, construction, power production
basic and nonbasic industries
o Basic and Nonbasic industries• Read book• Basic – brings in money from outside the city• Nonbasic – money inside the city moved to someone else in the city
externalities
costs or saving not resulting DIRECTLY from the activity of a particular economic agentNot due to 1 company but to all companies in that industry(localization economies)or in that region(urbanization ecoomies)
north-south line
division of the world, north developed, south undeveloped (wraps around to include australia + new zealand
Hotelling's Locational Interdependence model of retail location
 Location allocation model Other companies around you determine best market area for your business
outsourcing
sending work out of country for cheaper labor
foot-loose industries
 Do not have much spatially variable costs Location doesn’t matter as much for sales Example: mail order companies, catalog companies, internet based co.’s
agricultural hearths
culture hearth where many agricultural innovations came
spatial median
• Spatial median – location that minimizes the sum of the distances to all other pointso Best spatial median is with a weighted spatial median• Heavier materials pull more
maquiladora operations
• Businesses in Mexico that are operated by US• These are located only the US – Mexico border• Zona libra• 12 mile buffer in northern Mexico on the border, where factories located in there are treated like US domestic companies
animal domestication (herding)
 Animals who were originally domesticated were pets/religious symbols, not foodeventually bred animals specifically for eating
dependency ratio
ratio of young children/elderly people that are dependant vs. the working force who provides for themselves
infant mortality
• Mortality – age adjusted death rate# of deaths before age 1 per 1000 live births
world population distribution
 Almost half the world’s population in the 2 concentrated pockets in Asia 1st reason is because land is only 29% of earth, almost everyone lives on land 2nd - 90% of the people live on about 20% of the land 3rd – only about 60% of land is permanently inhabited
Quaternary economic activities
Research, gathering and dissemination of information and with administration, including administration of other economic activities. Considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities. Example: A teacher.
Micropolitan
10,000 people or more, but not 50,000
Political stability
Based upon boundaries and Centrifugal vs. Centripetal Forces. Rules and laws are crucial for a countries and personal development. Trust is also a large factor. (In some countries, language and religion.)
Effective administration
Fair and reliable justice system. Insurance of domestic tranquility. Defense system. Promotion of general welfare.
Ancillary Activities
Economic activities that surround and support large scale operations
Suburbanization
Movement away from the center. A response to overcrowding. Transportation played a large role in this in the mid 19th and early 20th centuries. Speed of the transportation was a factor also.
Location theory
firms choose locations that maximize their profits and individuals choose locations that maximize their utility
spatial search and choice models
• Chart from lecture 9
definition of economics
A study of production, distribution, and consumption of comodities
irregular market area polygons
When compeating companies/cities are of diffrent sizes or spaced out unevenly they have diffrent size pulls causing the polygons to not all the same size/shape
hunting and gathering
 Tough way to make it Gathering provides more food than hunting Hard to support a lot of people Much less than 1% now lives by this method
technological changes and carrying capacity
• Technological advances can increase carrying capacity
core/periphery/semi-periphery
on north polar projection, core = MDC, periphery = LDC
four core ideas of GNH
• Promotion of sustainable development• Preservation and promotion of cultural values• Conservation of natural environment• Establishment of good governance
women and development
 In developed countries women are becoming more nearly equal to Men Literacy, wages, employment %, Life expectancy
Electoral Geography
The study of the geographical elements of the organization and results of elections.
Export Processing Zones
Industrial zones in foreign countries. (Outsourced manufacturing.)
Material Index equation
MI=Weight of raw material/weight of finished product.
definition and characteristics of development
 Material condition of inhabitants and extent to which regions recourses are brought into full productive use Modernization and urbanization Particular social, cultural, and political changes Large amount of capital or wealth High production and consumption
subsistence, commercial (market), planned economies
subsistence - when preforming economic activities for your immediate social group, little accumulated wealthCommercial (market) - buying and selling, price and production can vary, guided by a profit motiveplanned economics - controlled or influenced by the govt
informal housing (squatter settlements)
• Shanty towns – things on outsides of large underdeveloped cities• Result of over urbanization
definition and varieties of cities
• WHAT ARE CITIES?o Varieties of Urban Areaso Metropolitan Areas
theories of development: modernization
linear development, traditional -> pre conditions for take off -> take off -> drive to maturity -> high mass consumption -> post-industrial
extensive vs. intensive agriculture
 Extensive – low cost, low profit• Small about of labor, and other financial investments per acre/area• Produces less valuable products• Can take place on lower quality farm land/climate• Supports fewer people per acre Intensive – high cost, high profit• High cost per acre• Lots of labor, and/or irrigation, chemicals• Produces more valuable products• Requires better conditions• Supports higher # of people
edge cities (urban realm)
• Edge Cities• People live on edge of cities by highways
von Thünen model
o What to Grow Where? Model of land use purely based on economic geographyo Assumptions Isolated state Isotropic plain 1 transport mode, cost up with distance Economic rational
Spatially fixed costs
An input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located.
Profit-Maximization Approaches
The correct location of a firm is where the net profit is greatest. Believes the two other theories are too restrictive. Relies on the substitution principle that recognizes you can replace costs with alternatives. Ex: Replacing labor with automated machines. Substituting high shipping costs with cheaper rent. This also shows the Spatial Margin of Profitability chart. This chart will show where less than optimal, but still profitable locations exist, these locations are called Satisficing Locations.
margin of cultivation
the area where a certain type of agriculture is profitable
zoning
laws set up to tell you what can be built where, certain zones are commercial, some are residential, some are farming, etc.
Demographic Transition Model
 Model of how pop growth or decline happens over time Talks about 4 stages (+ 1 more) of countries• Stage 1 – death and birth rates fairly balanced, slow pop growth• Stage 2–birth rate high, death rate declining, increasing pop growth• Stage 3 – low death rate, birth rate declines, still pop growth• Stage 4 – low birth and death rates, slow pop growth• Stage 5 – birth rate below the low death rates, declining pop
modal ring shift
• Modal ring = ring of highest pop density around the city center• Has been showing a pattern of shifting outward
agglomeration economies and diseconomies
The spatial grouping of people or activites for mutual benefitadvantages - shared work force, auxilary service providers and suppliersspecialized regions developed around industrysdisadvantages - compitition for recources and labor forcepopulation and congestionadditional costs for agglomeration, ie land value going up
more developed and less developed countries (know general world patterns)
 MDC• US, Canada, western Europe, japan, Australia, New Zealand (north) LDC• (south) sub-Saharan Africa, south America, asia, eastern europe
aggregate (multivariate) measures of development
you cant directly measure development, all the indicators can change seperately so its subjective
Brandt North-South line
Line drawn that encircles the world at 30 degrees North, but dips South to include Australia and New Zealand. You’re generally poor if you live in the South and rich if you live in the North.
Break of bulk points
A location where goods are transfered from one type of carrier to another. Ex: Ship to train.
push(-) and pull(+) factors
• Push - bad things making you want to leave• Pollution, war• Pull – things making you want to come• Good job, nice climate, family• Life events
spatially fixed and variable costs (basic and locational costs)
fixed - basic (energy, rent, ect.)variable - locational (taxes changing place to place, variable labor costs)
Green Revolution (third agricultural revolution)
• New strains developed that grow in harsh growing conditions• Send these new strains to Africa, Asia, and Latin America underdeveloped countries
total fertility rate
# of children the average woman has in her lifetime• Things affecting fertility rateo Social/cultural – how many kids does a typical family haveo Science/medicineo Government policies
crude birth rate
# of live births per 1000 people, per year
physical Earth factors related to distribution
 About 2/3 of earth’s population live within 300 miles of the ocean Arable land – good farming land (flat lands, valleys, flood plains) Climate
GDP (GDI) vs. GNP (GNI)
• GDP = wealth generated within a countries borders no matter who earned• GNP = wealth generated by Americans/American companies no matter where they do it
Geographic characteristics of states
This is broken down into Size, Shape, Location and Boundaries.
theories of development: sustainable development
resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come
role of transit in suburbanization
o Role of Transit Mid 19th, Early 20th Century• Light rail (street cars) – allowed some suburbanization to begin
intensive and extensive landuse in cities
land closer to CBD is more expensive and thus more proper for intensive activities, the farther you get from the CBD the more extensive the land use becomes
Human Development Index of the U.N.
way of deviding the countries of the world into development levels
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