A&P test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Crest
prominent ridge
Infant cry:pain
442 Hz
sly, clever, crafty
cunning
/d/
Fz: 350
dBHL: 28
Avg male f0
123 Hz
amygdala tells hypothalmus
stress horemones
/th/ voiced
Fz: 5500
dBHL: 18
Agents
the source of action
Ingressive
associated with inflowing air; inhalation
posterior belly of diagastric, stylohyiod, and platysma are the muscles innervated by what nerve
facial
Observable characteristics that vary among individuals. See also ordinal variable, nominal variable, interval variable, continuous variable, discrete variable, dependent variable, independent variable.
Variable
Hypokinetic dysarthria treatment
Pharmacological, surgical, articulation, phonation, respiration, prosody
Bilingual
Uses two languages equally well
Surfactant
Substance which reduces surface tension to keep alveolus from collapsing during respiration, when pressure is negative in the alveolus.
Amplitude
Loudness ( Decibels & pascals)
Aliasing
happens when higher frequencies appear as "fake" lower frequencies; due to undersampling and lack of low-pass filtering
Children's perceptions of speech is what?
categorical
what cranial nerve stimulates the heart
vagus
where does the optic nerve terminate
thalamus
the characteristic acoustic features of fricative constants is
noise energy
Gain
Weight Example:
Weigh yourself = 145 lbs
Weigh Dog = 30 lbs
How Much did you “gain”?
Another example:
40 db sound into the hearing aid
The hearing aid amplifies it by 40 db
“gain” is 40 db
More Technical:
Gain=output-input
Similar to true experiments. Have subjects, treatment, etc., but uses nonrandomized groups. Incorporates interpretation and transferability in order to compensate for lack of control of variables.
Quasi-experiment
Which small medical brain structure contains multiple gray matter nuclei whose activity can provoke various "drive states" like hunger, thirst, etc?
Hypothalamus
culture
a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, rules, and norms shared by a group of people and shaped from one generation to the next.
Resonant frequencies of the vocal tract shown on a spectrogram
formants
What are extrememly important in determining the intelligibility of speech?
Consonants
writing materials, such as paper, cards and envelopes
stationary
Three adductor muscles
LAteral cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid, oblique arytenoid
Cricoarytenoid arthritis. Results in hoarseness, stridor, pain w/phonation.
Laryngeal arthritis.
What is keyword for d?
dog (d)
Complex sounds can be
Periodic or aperiodic
Pull and stretches vocal folds
Cricothyroid muscle
What auditory training test would you use for the following? Ex) Want to look at speech perception in the words of a 6yr old?
WIPI
pressure required for average conversation speech
7-10 cm H20
Both the quality and quantity of responsiveness by caregivers play a large role in early language development. T or F
True
what type of aphasia results from damage to memory, precept, or attentional systems
secondary
for people with hearing loss constants are easier to perceive than vowels
false
Candidacy Criteria Med-El
Adults older than 18
Bilateral moderate(in low frequencies) to severe SNHL
Conductive or Mixed hearing loss
Word recognition of 50% or better
dialect
language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors (155)
Objectivity; the findings of the study could be confirmed by another person conducting the same study
Confirmability
The dispersion of data points around the mean of a distribution.
Variation
conditioned stimulus
an originally neutral stimulus that aftrer association with an unconditioned stimulus triggers a conditioned response
Provides info on timing and amplitude of muscle contractions, used as a biofeedback tool for Mendelsohn maneuver
Electromyography
Timing of swallow, inhalation after swallow, swallow coordination, coughing, how long they can hold their breath, breathing pattern at rest, ventilator
Respiratory Status
oral cavity
lips (labial), teeth (dental), cheeks (buccal muscle), hard palate (maxilla), soft palate ( velum), uvual, mandible faucial arches (anterior and posterior)
What is the approximate decible level of /v/?
20
Fluency
Fluent speech is smooth, flows well, and appears to be effortless.
attaches inferior border of cricoid cartilage to first tracheal ring-holding cricoid in place. thicker than others.
Cricotracheal membrane
arises from the cricoid cartilage lateral to the pars recta
pars oblique
aka natural pitch level. suitable pitch level for an individual-determined by physical characteristics of voice mechanism
optimal pitch
Relaxers of vocal folds (2)
Thyromuscularis, superior thyroarytenoid
Information-processing model
"box and arrow" representations of cognitivew processes and interactions b/t these processes
damage to BG or AcH/dopamine, involuntary movement that is difficult to control
Hyperkinetic dysarthria
Embryonic failure resulting in cleft structures. Weak, aphonia voice.
Laryngotracheal cleft.
the substitution of a velar stop consonant for consonants usually produced more anterior in the oral cavity.
backing
error involving the deletion of a phoneme
omission
Word assigned to space between the vocal folds
Glotus
3 major goals of Scientific Endeavors
description, prediction, explanation
define marginal babbling.
early type of babbling containing short strings of consonant like and vowel like sounds
what type of aphasia is caused by damage to the posterior portion of the left inferior gyrus of the frontal lobe
brocas
the region of the temporal lobe is usually signifigantly larger in what hemisphere
left
acoustic vowel quadrilateral
a graphic representation of an individual's vowel space created by plotting the coordinates for the first and second formats of each vowel
Period
The time it takes to complete one cycle is called the period
If 2 cycles are completed in one second, for example, each complete cycle takes ½ second. There is a reciprocal relationship between frequency and period
P=1/F
What is sound?
An alteration in pressure, particle displacement or particle velocity in an elastic medium
More simply put, it is vibration in an elastic medium
Vibration is the rapid back & forth motion of a single object
hypernasality
when air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavities on sounds other than /n/, /m/, /ng/ (160)
A variable that receives stimulus and measured for the effect the treatment has had upon it.
Dependent Variable
What would you call a complete "brain slice" (a cut through the entire cerebrum) that reveals the most dorsal on only one side) or hemisphere
Sagittal
meaning
how a person interprets or makes sense of a symbol.
Pull the larynx forward to upper UES volitionally, hold their breath to close off the airway at the larynx, dump material through oral cavity and pharynx into the esophagus
Chug-a-lug
Mixed dysarthria treatment
Identify most severely impaired errors and attempt to make the greatest impact on functional communication/intelligibility
muscle origin
named first, corresponds to the point of attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during contraction
Substitutions
It is common for young children to make sound substitutions that disappear with maturation
upper part of the inrinsic laryngeal membrane
quadrangular membrane
Intrapleural pressure is always
Negative relative to atmospheric pressure
irregular words
words that can'y be accurately decoded because they don't conform 1:1 grapheme:phoneme
Caused by recurrent branch lesion from disease, trauma, or idiopathic LMN damage. VF paralysis. Results in breathiness, weakness, diplophonia, noisy inhalation, stridor, nasality, weak cough.
Flaccid dysphonia.
What is concussion?
Grade 1-mild, does not lose consciousness; Grade 2-does not lose consciousness but has confusion and does not recall the event; Grade 3-loss of consciousness, does not recall event = mild TBI
the transposition of a sound in a word. "slip of the tongue"
metathesis
The following is an example of what type of auditory training? Ex)Play w/2 animals and the child points to the dog for "woof, woof" and the snake for "ssss."
Sound discrimination
What do prosodic regularities include?
frequency, duration, stress and intonation
what is the largest bundle of axons providing communication between the cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
Hypokinetic dysarthria common in Parkinson is characterized by
reduced vocal intensity, reduced jitter, increased shimmer, not monotone
Pure tone
A sound which is produced by an instantaneous sound pressure which is a simple sinusoidal function of time.
omissions
when a child leaves a phoneme out of and word (159)
A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to a dependent variable. Includes treatment, state of variable, such as age, size, weight, etc.
Independent Variable
Bolus is brought into the mouth via suction created in the oral cavity
Straw drinking
The average shoudl approaches what dB SPL?
85 dB SPL
to give way to a greater force, to surrender
succumb
Thoracic fixation used for
Increasing strength and power for forced expiration, for muscles of upper body to pull against relatively rigid structure
visual analysis system
VAS IDs features consistent wih letter shapes. Letter positioning encoding
Progressive neurological disease that attacks the neurons responsible for voluntary movement. VFs may be hypo or hyper fx, breathy, reduced loudness, wet hoarsenss, HN, artic problems
Mixed Flaccid Spastic Dysphonia (ALS)
What does medial frontal brain damage do?
apathy; arousal, motivation
Describe 'episodic memory'.
memory for specific events where one was an observer or participant encoded with context (time, spatial), can be recent or remote
What is #3 of the 4 types of auditory training?
Identification
The method of science
1. collect data, 2. look for relationships among data, 3. Generate a theory or hypothesis, 4. Test hypothesis, 5. Generate new hypothesis and repeat 2-4
what is intersubjective awareness?
recognition of when one person shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person.
conduction aphasia involves lesions to what area
parietal cortex and arcuate fasciculus
acoustic analysis of the ------- is appropriate to monitor progress of phonological process, velar fronting in a child
spectral slope of burst
four main parts to a sound wave:
Wavelength
Period
Amplitude
Frequency
The extent to which the results of a study are generalizable or transferable. See also validity
External Validity
See if the patient is alert, patient's reaction to therapist, trach tube, secretions, interest in food, types of food
Entering the room
True or false: An SLP can override a patient's desire
false
SLP Cognitive/Linguistic Therapy Goals and Objectives
Goal: Improve higher level thinking skills
 Problem solving
 Abstract reasoning
 Deductive reasoning
Function of laryngeal depressors
To depress and stabilize the larynx via attachment to hyoid bone
Visual input lexicon
VIL a store of familiar words. Recognition of familiar words.
List some "coma stim" activities.
object use (wash cloth, toothbrush); communication; visual stim (lighting, familiar objects); auditory stim (voice, music); movement stim; tactile stim (massage, brush hair); olfactory stim (coffee, perfume)
What is a homonym?
Words that sound the same but are spelled differntly and have different meaning (hi vs high)
Factors that determine the Glottal Cycle
1. mechanical coupling stiffness 2. stiffness 3. mass 4. viscous forces 5. Bernoulli force
according to the book what 2 informal measures of language development do a clinician use?
informal language screens, parent
what type of matter of the spinal cord process information
the gray matter
the vowel in the word head is a
mid low front vowel
Hearing loss effects relationships between parents and children
A parent’s reaction to the hearing loss will have an impact on the outcome of habillitation.Particularly if the hearing loss is of severe to profound degree, it may affect the normal communicative interaction between parent and child
Pull tongue to /k/ position and hold, assess diadochokinetic rates for /k/, repeat Can you Keep the Kitchen Clean
Posterior tongue lingual function
Later Recovery and Residual Language Impairments: TBI
 Higher level language deficits for narratives, verbal disorganization, difficulty with inferences and nonliteral meanings
 Similar to adolescents with language impairment
Maternal Behaviors that Affect Bonding (5)
1. Responsiveness- over or under response undermines the attachment
2. Playfulness
3. Sensitivity
4. Encouragement
5. Pacing
What are the ICF model branches?
top: impairment; middle: body function and structure, activity, participation; bottom: environmental and personal factors
What 5 sounds are more missed w/someone w/a SNHL?
/s/, /p/, /k/, /d/, /vl th/
what is supported joint attention?
joint attention in which an adult use techniques as speaking with an animated voice or showing an infant novel objects
what would many rapid EPSP (excitory postsynaptic potential) near each other on the postsynaptic cell probably lead to
action potential in a postsynaptic cell
Fitting the external component of cochlear implant
Following a 3-6 week recovery period, the first fitting, or “initial stimulation” takes place
audiologist sets specific parameters of stimulation, setting levels that are comfortable
Aural re/habilitation key for use of implant
Which brain areas comprise the extra pyramidal motor system?
subcortical motor nuclei, the basal ganglia
Assessment of Children with Acquired Language Disorders
Ross Information Processing Assessment (2nd Edition)
RIPA-2 (1996)
Normed on 126 individuals with TBI ages 15 - 90
10 subtests: immediate memory, recent memory, temporal orientation for recent/remote mem, spatial orientation, orientation to environ, recall of info, problem solv/abstract reason, org, auditory process/ret
Obstruction of the airway will most likely cause:
stridor, maybe aphonia, weak cough, weak voice, glottal coup
What kinds of records can an SLP review for assessment?
past rehab, school, employment, medical
What is #4 of the 4 factors relating to the message and how well it can be affected by a speech reader?
Intersubject variations and movements: different way people produce the same sound
Where does the Dorsal tract travel after it synapses at the Medulla?
VPL Ventero Postero Lateral nucleus of Thalmus
Why is a cochlear implant different than a hearing aid?
A cochlear implant bypasses the absent or damaged cells and stimulates the auditory nerve directly by converting acoustic energy to electrical energy
Recommend no eval or a formal swallow eval
At the end of the screening
What the cons of "coma stim"?
no data to support the technique, can possibly worsen the situation
What is the infant doing in the control of articulation stage?
experiment with sounds and loudness of voice. Marginal babbling emerges
Which part of the alveoli permits gas exchange and why?
The extremely thin membrane which is permeable to both oxygen and carbon dioxide
acoustic measures such as jitter and shimmer
may be used as a screening tool,may be used to monitor voice changes over time,may be used to detect early changes in voice that may not be detectable with perceptible ear
Piaget (who is he, and what did he do?)
-he studied behavior, and came up with the 4 periods of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor Period (0-24mos)
2. Pre-operational Period (2yrs-7yrs)
3. Concrete Operations Period (7-12yrs)
4. Formal Operations Period (12 yrs & older)
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Term:
Definition:
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