A&P The Chemistry of Life Flashcards

Terms Definitions
recorded observation
fats, oils, waxes
polymers of amino acids
Organic Molecules
Carbon containing molecule
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
positively charged particles located in the nucleus.
List some examples of polysaccharides:
chemical substance that reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction to take place
Molecules that have partially positive and partially negative charges
organic compound made of amino acids
a measurement of disorder and randomness. The more random a collection of matter is, the greather its entropy.
food storage molecules for mammals similar to starch but more highly branched
is more drastic confomational change in response to conditions such as extreme heat or pH. It is seen, for example, when you cook an egg and the egg white protein (albumen) turns from clear to opaque. Denaturation is sometimes reversible but often it pe
a substance in which another substance is dissolved
a concept which states that a combination of components can form a more complex organization
a macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages
catabolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
A molecule with repeating subunits of the same general type
The capacity to cause change, for instance by doing work.
Ionic Bond
chemical attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion.
a large, complex polymer essential to all life composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur; provides structure for tissues and organs and helps carry out cell metabolism
A chemical process that lyses or splits molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion
Simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
the first stage in glucose oxidation is the reaction pathway. This literally means "sugar splitting," and indeed ists major effect is to split the six-carbon glucose molecule into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. A little ATP is prod
particles settle to the bottom of a mixture (example is water and sand)
the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
Polar covalent
If the electrons are shared unequally between atoms
is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.
Complex Carbohydrates (Polysaccharides)
Macromolecules such as starch, gycogen and cellulose are Polysaccharides that contain many glucose units
Chemical reactions
A process leading to chemical changes in matter, involves the makind and/or breaking of chemical bonds
peptide bond
The covalend bond between two amino acid units, formed by condensation synthesis
proteins that make it easier for a reaction to take place...they provide a site where reactants (the "substrates" can be lower the energy necessary for the reaction to occur , as well as speed up many slow reactions almost every reaction in livign things use an enzyme
Functional Groups
small clusters of atoms that determine many of the properties of an organic molecule. for example, organic acids bear a carboxyl group, and ATP is named for its three phosphate groups. other common functional groups include hydrozyl, methyl, and amino gr
is a chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy
What are functional groups?
components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions. attachments that replace one or more of the hydrogens bonded to the carbon skeleton of the hydrocarbon.
activation energy
the amount of energy needed for a reaction to start
chemical reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
saturated fatty acid
all carbons (C) joined by single bond (–);
solid at room temperature (eg butter) 
Hydrogen Bonds
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
Anything less than 7 on the pH scale is...?
conservation of mass
the idea that matter cannot be created or destroyed
heat of vaporization
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
unsaturated fatty acid

at least one pair of carbon (C) atoms joined by double bond (=); liquid at room temperature (eg vegetable oils)
What are the 3 types of Domains?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Why is electron configuration important?
determines how a particular atom will react with atoms of other elements
What is the flow of energy?
Sunlight to producers to consumers. Producers are plants and other photosynthetic organisms that convert light energy to chemical energy, while consumers are animals that feel on producers and other consumers.
What does a strong acid + a strong base =
Neutralizes and forms salt
The Three Ways to Test for Organic Compounds
Paper Test Iodine or Benedicts Reagent Test Biuret Test
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