Upper Flashcards

Terms Definitions
BLBLBLIDMU
BrachioradialisECRLECRBAPLEPBEPLSuperficial: Anconeus, Brachioradialis, ECRL, ECRB, ED, EDM, ECUDeep: Sup, APL, EPB, EPL, EI
Lumbar Splanchnic
L1-L2
Infraspinatus (Innervation)
Suprascapular nerve
Pronator Quadratus (Action)
Pronate wrist
Palmaris Longus (Action)
Flex wrist
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (Innervation)
Ulnar
Pectoralis Minor (Origin)
Ribs 2-5
Rhomboid Major (Origin)
Vetebrae T2-T5
Elbow Flexion
Biceps C5,6 MusculocutaneousBrachioradialis C6 Radial(+ reflex)
Infraspinatus
Suprascapular Nerve (C5-6)Infraspinous fossa--> middle greater tubercle of humerusLaterally rotates arm, rotator cuff
Pectoralis Minor (Innervation)
Medial pectoral nerve
Coracobrachialis (Action)
Flex arm at shoulder
Pectoralis Minor (Action)
Depress the scapula
C8 dermatome
pad of little finger
Hand
Contains the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.Articulates only with the radius, at the carpals (scaphoid and lunate only).
DELTOID
ORIGINLateral third of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula to deltoid tubercle INSERTIONMiddle of lateral surface of humerus (deltoid tuberosity) ACTIONAbducts arm, anterior fibers flex and medial rotate, posterior fibers extend and lateral rotate NERVEAxillary nerve (C5, 6) (from posterior cord)
Common Wrist Injuries
Fracture: Scaphoid, TriquetrumDislocation: Lunate
Latissimus Dorsi
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6,7,8)T7-sacrum, iliac crest, lower 3-4 ribs--> intertubercular groove (Lady between two majors)extend, adduct, medially rotate arm
Supinator
Deep Radial Nerve (C8)Lateral epicondyle/radial collateral, annular ligaments-->proximal third of radiusSupinates forearm, rotates forearm when elbow is flexed
Smith's Fracture
Reverse Colle's Fracture-->distal radius tilts anteriorly
Pectoralis Minor
O: Ribs 2-5
 
In: Coracoid process
 
Inn: Medial pectoral nerve
Teres Minor (Insertion)
Greater tubercle of humerus
Serratus Anterior (Insertion)
Medial border of scapula
Biceps Brachii Short Head (Origin)
Coracoid process
C5 dermatome
upper lateral arm over deltoid
Capitulum
Ball-like medial condyle at the distal end of the humerus, where the radius articulates.
BRACHIALIS
ORIGINAnterior lower half of humerus and medial and lateral intermuscular septa INSERTIONCoronoid process and tuberosity of ulna ACTIONFlexes elbow NERVEMusculocutaneous nerve (C5, 6) ( from lateral cord). Also small supply from radial nerve (C7)
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Median Nerve (C5-T1)Medial epicondyle-->base of 2 and 3 metacarpalflexes forearm, flexes and abducts hand
RUMWCTU
Radial Nerve Injury: Wrist DropUlnar Nerve Injury: Claw HandMedian Nerve Injury: Thenar Atrophy, Ulnar Deviation
Profunda brachii artery
From Brachial ArteryCourse: Posteriorly through Triangular Interval and Radial Groove with Radial NerveSupplies: Extensors
Erb's Palsy
Injury to Upper Trunk (C5/C6)Causes:breech birth, violent displacement of head from shoulderEffects:Proximal weakness of arm-->loss of abduction, flexion, and lateral rotation-->waiter's tip hand (arm in medial rotation, loss of lateral rotator function)
Trapezius
Spinal Accessory Nerve CN XINuchal ligament, skull, C7-T12-->lateral third of clavicle, spine of scapula, acromionElevate, retract, depress scapula
Biceps Brachii
O: Short - Coracoid process
     Long - Supraglenoid tubercle
 
In: Tuberosity of radius, bicipital aponeurosis
 
Inn: musculocutaneous nerve
Extensor digiti minimi
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
 
In: Extensor expansions of 5th digit
 
Inn: Deep brance of radial nerve
Latissimus dorsi (Action)
Adduction, extension, medial rotation at shoulder
Infraspinatus (Action)
Lateral rotation of arm at shoulder
Wartenberg’s syndrome:
Entrapment of superficial radial nerve as it emerges between the tendons of the brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus
Wrist extension
extensor carpi radialis and ulnaris, extensor digitorum
Radius
Lateral, shorter bone of the forearm. Thin at the proximal end and wider distally.Articulates with the humerus, ulna, and carpals (scaphoid and lunate only!).Contains the radial tuberosity, styloid process, head, and ulnar notch.
Scaphoid
Most lateral carpal of the proximal row.Large and oblong. S shaped on the right hand, Z shaped on the left. Distal to the radius, proximal to the trapezoid and trapezium.Articulates with the radius.
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
ORIGINUpper eight ribs and anterior intercostal membranes from midclavicular line. Lower four interdigitating with external oblique INSERTIONInner medial border scapula. 1 and 2: upper angle; 3 and 4: length of costal surface ; 5-8: inferior angle ACTIONLaterally rotates and protracts scapula NERVELong thoracic nerve (C5, 6, 7) (from roots) slips from ribs 1 and 2: C5; 3 and 4: C6; 5-8: C7)
FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS
ORIGINHumeral head: common flexor origin of medial epicondyle humerus, medial ligament of elbow. Ulnar head: medial border of coronoid process and fibrous arch. Radial head: whole length of anterior oblique line INSERTIONTendons split to insert onto sides of middle phalanges of medial four fingers ACTIONFlexes proximal interphalangeal joints and secondarily metacarpophalangeal joints and wrist NERVEMedian nerve (C7, 8) (from medial and lateral cords)
Boutonniere Deformity
"Button Hole"Injury of central slip base of middle phalanx, lateral slips separate--> slips through extensor expansion tendon-->pulls DIP into hyperextensionPIP hyperflexion with DIP hyperextension
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Ulnar (C7-T1)Medial epicondyle of humerus--> pisiform, hook of hamate, metacarpal 5flexes forearm, adducts hand
Colle's fracture
Land on hand, support with wrist-->fracture of styloid of radius-->distal end of radius tilted dorsally
Palmar Interossei
Deep Ulnar (T1)Palmar, long finger sides of MC 2,4,5--> bases of PP 2,4,5 and extensor hoodPAD: Adducts fingers to axis, aid lumbricals in bye bye, extension of 2-4
Klumpke's Paralysis
Lower Trunk injury (C8-T1, Ulnar Nerve)Causes: breech delivery (birth palsy/obstetric paralysis), cervical rib, abnormal insertion or spasm of scalene musclesEffects: Claw Hand
Pectoralis Major
Medial (C8-T1) and Lateral Pectoral Nerves (C5-C7)medial 1/2 clavicle, sternum, ribs 2-6--> lateral intertubercular groove of humerus (Lady between two majors)Flexes, adducts, medially rotates arm
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS)
Median Nerve (C5-T1)Medial epicondyle-->middle phalanges of fingersFlexes proximal phalanges joints, flexes hand and forearm
Teres Major
O: Inferior angle of scapula, dorsal surface.
 
In: CREST of lesser tubercle
 
Inn: Lower subscapular nerve
Flexor pollicis longus
O: Anterior radius
 
 In: Base of distal phalanx of thumb
 
Inn: Anterior interosseous nerve
Teres Major (Insertion)
Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus
Median nerve innervation
pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, first two lumbricals, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis
Ulnar nerve injury
susceptible to injury in medial epicondyle groove (funny bone) and olecrononpartial claw hand--paralysis of intrinsic hand muscles (except thenar), abducted and externally rotated thumbsensory loss of medial 1.5 fingers and ulnar border of hand
Trochlea (Humerus)
Medial condyle where the ulna will attach to the humerus. Flat, smooth portion on the distal end of the humerus.
EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS
ORIGINLower third of posterior shaft of radius and adjacent interosseous membrane INSERTIONOver tendons of radial extensors and brachioradialis to base of proximal phalanx of thumb ACTIONExtends metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb NERVEPosterior interosseous nerve (C7, 8)
Abductor digiti minimi
Deep branch of Ulnar Nerve (T1)Hypothenar MusclePisiform-->medial base of PP of 5th digitAbducts 5th digit, assists in flexion
Subscapular Nerve (Upper and Lower)
C5-C6, posterior cordUpper: SubscapularisLower: Subscapularis, Teres Major
Triangular Interval
teres major, long head of triceps, mid-shaft humeruscontains radial nerve and profunda brachii artery
Extensor Digiti Minimi (EDM)
Deep Radial Nerve (C7)Lateral epicondyle and interosseus membrane-->extensor expansion, base of middle and distal phalanges of 5th digitExtends little finger, adducts
Dorsal Interossei
O: Double heads from adjacent sides of two metacarpal bones
 
In: Extensor expansions of fingers 2, 3, and 4 on the side allowing abduction or deviation
 
Inn: Deep branch of ulnar
Rhomboid Major (insertion)
Medial border of scapula below the spine
Branches of the Axillary Artery
I: Supreme thoracic ArteryII: Thoracoacromial and Lateral thoracic ArteriesIII:Subscapular and Posterior humeral circumflex Arteries
Musculocutaneous nerve injury
usu. in fractures of upper humerus; motor loss-elbow flexion weakness (esp when supinated), loss of biceps tend. reflex, sensory loss on anterolat. forearm
Deltoid Tuberosity
Bump on the lateral edge of the humerus, about halfway down the bone.Roughened attachment site for the deltoid muscle.
Flexor Digitorum Profundus (FDP)
Ulnar (C7-T1) and Median Nerves (C5-T1)Anteromedial ulna-->base of distal phalangesflexes hand and only distal interphalangeal joints
Axillary Lymph nodes
Big dipper shape, distal to proximal: Humeral, Subscapular, Pectoral, Central, Apical
Carpal Tunnel contents
Median nerve, 4 tendons of the flexor carpi superficialis, 4 tendons of the flexor carpi profundus, and flexor pollicis longus
Lateral Supracondylar Ridge (Humerus)
Ridge along the lateral surface of the humerus, just above the lateral epicondyle.
Lymphatic Drainage of Breast
Lateral: Pectoral to Central to Apical to ClavicularMedial: Parasternal to Subdiaphragmatic
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (Sublimis)
O: Humeral - medial epicondyle Ulnar - coronoid process Radial - proximal anterior radius
 
In: Middle phalanx of fingers 2-5
 
Inn: Median nerve
4. Entrapment in radial tunnel:3) Distal end of tunnel;
Leash of Henry (radial recurrent vessels) compress posterior interosseous nerve resulting in loss of digital extension.
Costoclavicular syndrome or Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS)
where subclav v./a. and lower trunk enter axilla, between scalene anterior and medius, and 1st rib and clavicle-compression = lower trunk palsy and vascular insufficiencyalso can be compressed by pancoast tumor
How many muscles are innervated by the median nerve
6.5(anterior muscles except flexor carpi ulnaris)
Flexor Digitorum Profundus Origin and insertion
O: Proximal ¾ of medial ulna, anterior surface of ulna, interosseus membrane I: Middle Phalanges of medial 4 digits
What are the muscles of the anterior superficial forearm
1. Pronator Teres2. Flexor Carpi Radialis3. Palmaris Longus4. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
How many muscles are innervated by the ulnar nerve
1.5Flexor carpi ulnaris and half of the flexor digitorum profundus
hypothesia
diminshed sensation
Nerve to subclavius
Innervates:
Subclavius
From C5-C6
the humerus is bigger
distally
Lateral Pectoral
Innervates:
Pectoralis major
From C5-7 (lateral cord)
C8 controls
deep F/E of thumb
kyphosis
Abnormal rearward curvature of the spine, resulting in protuberance of the upper back; hunchback.
Coracobrachialis
I: Medial midshaft of humerusO: Coracoid Process of ScapulaN: Musculocutaneous N. (C8-T1)F: Flexor of Arm
lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm
musculocutaneous nerve
thenar muscles
opponens pollicis, ABductor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis brevis- innervated by recurrent median nerve
Digital Tenovaginitis Stenosans
trigger finger/ snapping finger
 
FDS and FDP tendons enlarge proximal to tunnel and person passively tries to extend the finger a snap is audible
Which roots supply the median nerve
ALL
lateral humeral condyle is known as
capitulum
What nerve innervates forearm extensors, brachioradialis, skin of posterior arm, forearm and thumb
radial nerve
Subscapularis
I: Lesser Tubercle of HumerusO: Medial 2/3 of Subscapular FossaN: Upper and Lower Subscapular N. (Posterior cord C5-6)F: Medial Rotation
Supraspinatus
I: Superior facet of greater tubercle (Humerus)O: Medial 2/3 of suprapinous fossa (scapula above spine, deep)N: Suprascapular nerveF: Abduction of arm initial 15 degrees
auscultation
the act of listening, either directly or through a stethoscope or other instrument, to sounds within the body as a method of diagnosis.
Radial Nerve
posterior of arm and forearm
and extensors of hand:
Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearmTriceps brachiiAnconeusBrachioradialisExtensor carpi radialis longusExtensor carpi radialis brevisSupinatorExtensor digitorumExtensor digiti minimiExtensor carpi ulnarisAbductor pollicis longusExtensor pollicis brevisExtensor pollicis longusExtensor indicis
 
Bursitis of Elbow
results from excessive friction between the triceps tendon and the olecranon
 
pain is severe during flexion of the forearm because of pressure exerted on the inflammed subtendinous olecranon bursa by the triceps tendon
Arterial Anastomoses around Scapula
allow for collateral circulation
 
if a problem with axillary artery flow, flow in the subscapular artery can be reversed
 
abrupt surgical ligation does no allow for adequate collateral circulation
Reynauds Syndrome
Abnormal episodic vasospasm of the digits in response to cold exposure. Upon warming, the affected digits undergo reactive hyperemia, becoming engorged with blood. There is a characteristic biphasic or triphasic color response of the affected digits: pallor to cyanosis and upon rewarming, rubor (redness). During the hyperemic phase (rubor), there is considerable pain and throbbing.
What does the lesser trochanter provide an insertion for?
Iliopsoas tendon
Where does the biceps brachii insert
radial tuberosity
Besides rhomboid major/minor, what other muscle retracts the scapula
Trapezius, third portion
Where does flexor digitorum superficialis originate
medial humeral epicondyle
Where does the flexor carpi ulnaris insert
pisiform
Palmaris Longus
I: Medial Epicondyle of the HumerusO: Palmar Aponeurosis of the HandN: Median NerveF: Flex wrist joint
Pronator Quadratus
I: Distal anterior surface of the radiusO: Linear ridge on distal anterior surface of UlnaN: Anterior Interosseous Nerve (median)F: Pronation
Medial cutaneous of forearm
direct branch of medial cord
Depression of Scapula
When shoulders are moved inferiorly; m= trapezious and pec minor
Elevation of Scapula
superior angle of scapula moves superiorly; shrug shouldersm= trapezius and levator scapulae
Bicipital Muscle Reflex
relaxed limb: pronated and partially extended
examiner's thumb placed on biceps tendon anf tapped with reflex hammer
 
normal response- involuntary contraction of the biceps, confirms integrity of C5 and C6 cord segments
Autononous dermatomal region of C7
pad of index finger
What is the PCL?
Arises from the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia and passes upward, forward, and medially to insert into the lateral surface of ht emedial femoral condyle.
 
Prevents backward sliding of the tibia on the femur (or anterior displacement of the femur on the tibia) and limits hyperflexion of the knee.
 
It is taut during flextion and lax during extension. 
Symptoms of impingement syndrome
numbness, tingling, radiating pain, cannot sleep on it, weakness
Where does the biceps brachii short head originate
coracoid process
What direction does pronator teres run
medial to lateral
Palmaris longus inserts where
distal half of flexor retinaculum
the rhomboids are __________ in relation to lats and traps
the are deep
What muscle originates from the C1-C4 transverse processes
levator scapulae
What exercises would work the levator scapulae
shrugs, chinups
What muscle inserts at the subscapular fossa (anterior surface of medial border)
serratus anterior
Where is the lesion if one cannot initiate abduction?
Suprascapular Nerve
Medial rotation of shoulder
internal rotation; front of humerus moving toward the body;m= subscapularis, lat dorsi, teres major, pec pajor....and minorly assisted by ant. deltoid
lateral rotation of shoulder
external rotation; moving humerus away from body; m= infraspinatus, teres minor, and post. deltoid
Fractures of Humerous
Fractures of the Surgical neck- common in elderly, axillary nerve damage can occur
transverse fractures of the shaft of humerous- result from direct blow to arm
supracondylar fracture- distal part of humerus near the supracondylar ridges
fracture radial groove- radial nerve; fracture distal hum- median nerve; fracture medial epicondyle-ulnar nerve
 
Injury to Musculocutaneous Nerve
results in: paralysis of the coracobrachialis, biceps, brachialis
 
flexion of the elbow and supination of forearm is weakened
 
loss of sensation on lateral surface of the forearm
de Quervain’s tenosynovitis
(inflammation of the tendon sheaths in first extensor compartment of the wrist). Passive volar bending of thumb stretches the inflammed tendons producing pain (positive Finkelstein’s test).
What cords form the median nerve
lateral and medial cords
Where is the coronoid process
it's anterior on the ulna
What is the action of the subscapularis muscle
shoulder internal rotation
Where does the 2nd section of the trapezius originate
cervical vertebra
All the rotator cuff muscles and what else, holds the humeral head in the socket
triceps muscles
What exercises would work rhomboid minor
rows, low cable rows
What is the origin of teres minor?
lower infraspinous fossa
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
I: Dorsal surace of base of proximal phalanx of the thumbO: Posterior surface of radius (distal to abductor pollicis longus)N: Posterior Interosseous NervesF: Extends MC and CM joints
Posterior Compartment of Upper Arm
Extensors; innervated by radial nerve; perform extension of the elbowLateral head of the tricepsMedial head of the tricepsLong head of the triceps- (superficial to the medial head)- crosses the should joint so it can extend the shoulder joint*
Median Intermuscular septum is composed of...
brachial artery- lg. artery easily visible in cross section;median nerve- anterior to the brachial artery;Ulnar nerve- posterior to the brachial artery
Synovial Cyst of Wrist
appears most common on dorsum of wrist
 
swelling referred to as ganglion
 
can compress the median nerve by narrowing the carpal tunnel
Anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint
most often in young adults
excessive extension and lateral rotation of the humerus
What is Drawer sign?
Anterior Drawer sign is a forward sliding of the tibia onto the femur due to rupture of the ACL.
 
Posterior Drawer sign is a backward sliding of the tibia onto the femur due to rupture of the PCL. 
What is the action of the ulnar collateral ligament
prevent valgus stress
What is the insertion of extensor carpi ulnaris
base of 5th metacarpal
What is the labrum at the glenohumeral joint?
the glenoid labrum
What is the insertion of the extensor digitorum
medial four fingers
What is the origin of the supinator muscle
lateral humeral epicondyle
Most superficial muscles of the back are
latissimus dorsi and trapezius
The radial nerve emerges from what in the brachial plexus
the posterior cord
What is the difference between separation and dislocation?
-Dislocation: a disarticulation of the humerus and the scapula-Separation: a tearing of ligaments; it is characterized by stages decided by the number of tears in any or all of these various ligaments.
what 4 structures are found in the cubital fossa?
-Brachial A.-Median N.-Radial N.-Biceps tendon
radial nerve damage
if damage is mor proximal ---> loss of extension of elbow wrist and fingers; if damage is more distal (midshaft humerus)--->then triceps will not be affected= loss of only extension of wrist and fingers; if damage is even more distal might only damage superficial radial nerve thus only sensory function would be lost
the more proximal the damage the---- the loss of function
greater; fuctional deficits are downstream from the damage
What is the function and innervation of the subscapularis m.?
Helps stabilize the glenohumeral joint.  Innervated by upper and lower subscapular n.
What is the palmar aponeurosis?
Formed from deep fascia, covers the soft tissues in the hand.  A continuation of the flexor retinacula inferiorly
What is the axilla?
Pyramidal shaped area formed by m. and bones of the shoulder and the lateral surface of the thoracic wall
Severe Crushing injuries of the hand
fracture of distal phalanx- usually comminuted
fractures of proximal and middle phalanges- result of crushing or hyperextension injuries
Supreglenoid and infraglenoid tuercles provide the origins for what?
The long heads of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles respectively.
What is the anterior cruciate ligament?
IT arises from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia and passes upward, backward and laterally to insert into the medial surface of hte lateral femoral condyle.
 
It prevents forward sliding of hte tibia on the femur (or posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia). It prevents hpyer extension of the knee joint.
 
It is taut during extension. 
The triceps action is what
elbow extension, the long head resists humeral dislocation during AB-duction
What two ligaments attach at the coracoid process
coracoacromial ligament and the coracoclavicular ligaments (trapezoid and conoid)
The action of this ligament is to hold radius in the radial notch
the annular ligament
What is the action of the biceps brachii
supination and elbow flexion
What makes up the border of the quadrangular space?
-Inferior margin of Teres Minor-Surgical neck of Humerus-Superior margin of Teres Major-Lateral margin of Long head of Triceps Brachii
Muscles of the Anterior compartment of the forearm
Flexor digitorum profundus- lg muscle, sitting right on the ulnaFlexor policis longus- smaller than flexor digitorum profundus and sitting on radiusflexor carpi ulnaris- ant to flexor digitorum profundusflexor digitorum superficialis- superficial to FDPFlexor Carpi RadialisPalmaris LongusFunction- mostly flextion, but pronator quadratus and pronator teres are also found in this compartment and serve to pronate the forearm
What are the m. of the lateral wall of the axilla?
Subscapularis, teres major, latissiumus dorsi, and long head of the triceps brachii m.
What innervates the intrinsic m. of the hand?
General sensation from radial, ulnar, and median n. (RUM).  Motor supply is the ulnar n. except the 3 thenar m. and 3 lateral lumbricales which are innervated by the median n.
Where do the extensor muscles of the forearm and the supinator muscle take origin?
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
What is Colle's fracture?
A fracture of the distal end of the radius characterized by displacement of the hand dorsally and radially.
What are the branches of the subclavian artery?
Vertebral artery Internal thoracic artery Thyrocervical trunk Costocervical trunk Dorsal scapular artery (occasionally) Rembember: VIT C & D
What are the upper roots of the Brachial plexus?
  C5 and C6
What is the lateral and medial sacral arteries branches of?
 
What is the obturator artery a branch of? 
Deep femoral artery
Internal iliac artery 
What is the action of the teres major muscle
shoulder extension, shoulder AD-duction, some internal rotation
What are the branches of the Brachial artery and where are they found
-Brachial artery: goes from medial superior arm to cubital fossa-Profunda Brachii: larges branch, runs through triangular interval, supples posterior comparment on arm-Radial and Ulnar collateral: start after cubital fossa
What happens if Trapezius or Serratus Anterior Muscles are injured?
Difficulty ABducting the arm above the level of the shoulder; NOTE*Trapezius and Levator scapulae DO NOT actually abduct the arm. They rotate the scapula so that other muscles can abduct the arm.
What is the innervation of the trapezius?
Motor part of the accesory nerve (XI)
What are the m. of the anterior wall of the axilla?
Pectoralis major, subclavius, and pectoralis minor
What are the layers of the posterior compartment of the forearm and what is their general function?
Superficial and deep layers.  Extend the wrist and fingers and supinate the hand.
What are the m. of the superficial layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm?  What innervated them?
Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, and pronator teres m.  All innervated by the median n., except the flexor carpi ulnaris which is innervated by the ulnar n.
What is Erb-Duchenne palsy?
  An injury to the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. It is caused by a birth injury during a breech delivery or a violent displacement of the head from the shoulder such as might result from a fall from a motorcycle or horse. It results in a loss of abduction, flexion and lateral rotation of the arm, producing a waiter’s tip hand, in which the arm tends to lie in medial rotation resulting from paralysis of lateral rotator muscles.
What is the insertion of pronator quadratus
distal quarter of anterior surface of the radius
What are some somatosensory tests that can be performed on the upper extremity?
C6-Tap on tendon of Bicep in cubital fossaC7-Tap on tendon of Triceps posterior to elbow
Some of the muscles of the forearm act on the proximal and distal radialulnar joints to produce which actions
Pronation and supination; the ulna remains stationary and the radius rolls over the top of it
What are the angles and processes of the scapula?
3 angles - lateral, superior, and inferior
3 processes - acromion, spine, and coracoid process
What are the m. of the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm?  What are they innervated by?
Supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicus brevis, and extensor indicis.  Innervated by the radial n.
What is the nerve supply and action of the subscapularis?
Upper and lower subscapular N Adducts and rotates arm medially
  What are the boundaries of the quadrangular space and what are its contents?
Bounded superiorly by the teres minor and subscapularis muscles, inferiorly by the teres major, medially by the lon head of the triceps and laterally by the surgical neck of the humerus. It transmits the axillary nerve the posterior circumflex humeral artery.
The trochlear notch is found on what bone
it's on the ulna, a c-shaped depression, it fits on the trochlea of the humerus
what artery will you see if you peel away the pronator teres?
Inferior Ulnar Collateral as it joins with the Anterior Ulnar Recurrent
  What is the action and nerve of the supply of the teres minor?
Axillary nerve Rotates arm laterally
ulna is what to the radius, medial or lateral
medial to the radius, pinky finger side, ulna is underneath the radius
What is the radial collateral artery a branch of and what does it anastamose with?
  It is a branch of the deep brachial artery and it anastamoses with the radial recurrent artery.
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