Upper 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Coracobrachialis (innervation)
Greater Splanchnic
Deltoid (Innervation)
Axillary nerve
Subscapularis (Origin)
Subscapular fossa
Supraspinatus (Action)
Abduct at shoulder
Extensor pollicis Brevis (Innervation)
Extensor Pollicis Longus (Innervation)
Knee flexion
Hamstrings, S1, sciatic
ORIGINLong head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula. lateral head: upper half posterior humerus (linear origin). medial head: lies deep on lower half posterior humerus inferomedial to spiral groove and both intermuscular septa INSERTIONPosterior part of upper surface of olecranon process of ulna and posterior capsule ACTIONExtends elbow. Long head stabilizes shoulder joint. medial head retracts capsule of elbow joint on extension NERVERadial nerve (C7, 8) (from posterior cord ), four branches
Subclavian Artery
Aorta-->first ribBranches: Suprascapular, Internal Thoracic, Transverse cervical
O: Supraspinous fossa
In: Greater tubercle of humerus, superior third.
Inn: Suprascapular nerve
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis(Action)
Flex digits 2-5
Radial nerve cord
Posterior cord C5-C8
ORIGINMedial two thirds of subscapular fossa INSERTIONLesser tuberosity of humerus, upper medial lip of bicipital groove, capsule of shoulder joint ACTIONMedially rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint NERVEUpper and lower subscapular nerves (C5,6) (from posterior cord)
ORIGINLong head:supraglenoid tubercle of scapula. Short head: coracoid process of scapula with coracobrachialis INSERTIONposterior border of bicipital tuberosity of radius (over bursa) and bicipital aponeurosis to deep fascia and subcutaneous ulna ACTIONSupinates forearm, flexes elbow, weakly flexes shoulder NERVEMusculocutaneous nerve (C5, 6) (from lateral cord)
Radial Nerve
C5-T1, posterior cordBEASTSuperficial: Brachioradialis, ECRL, sensory dorsal handDeep: Extensors, Abductor Pollicus Longus, Supinator(penetrates) Upper: TricepsTriangular interval with profunda brachial artery
Dermatomes of Hand
C6-ThumbC7- MiddleC8- Pinkie
From SubclavianCourse: Runs over Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Scapular Notch (army over, navy under)Anastomoses: Dorsal Scapular, Circumflex ScapularSupplies: Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Glenohumeral and Acromioclavicular joints
Musculocutaneous Nerve
C5-C7, lateral cordBiceps BrachiiCoracobrachialis (pierces here)Brachialis
Radial Nerve (C5-T1)Long head: infraaglenoid tubercle, lateral head: superior radial groove, medial head: inferior radial groove--> olecranon of ulnaextends forearm (long head extends/adducts arm)
Triceps Brachii
O: Long - infraglenoid tubercle
     Lateral - posterior humerus ABOVE radial nerve
    Medial - Posterior humerus BELOW radial nerve
In: Olecranon process of ulna (same as anconeus)
Inn: Radial nerve
Extensor Digiti minimi (Action)
Extend digit 5
Small Hand Muscles
Lubricals 1-4Dorsal interossei 1-4Palmar interossei 1-3
Flexor digitorum Profundus (Action)
Flex digits 2-5
Biceps Brachii Long Head (Origin)
Supraglenoid tubercle
C6 dermatome terminal branch
pad of thumb
Olecranon Process
"Elbow"Largest, most proximal and prominent process of the ulna. Anterior concavity grips the trochlea of the humerus and locks into the olecranon fossa when the forearm is fully extended.
ORIGINCommon extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus INSERTIONExternal expansion to middle and distal phalanges by four tendons. Tendons 3 and 4 usually fuse and little finger just receives a slip ACTIONExtends all joints of fingers NERVEPosterior interosseous nerve (C7, 8)
Rhomboid Major
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5)T2-T5--> medial border scapula from spine to inferior angleRetract scapula, rotate to depress glenoid cavity
Degenerative joint disease of the wristTreatment: Surgical fusion of carpal bones
Internal Thoracic Artery
From SubclavianCourse: descends medially to breastSupplies: breast
Lateral Pectoral Nerve
C5-C7, lateral cordPectoralis Major
Axillary Nerve
C5-C6, posterior cordTeres Minor, Deltoid, Superolateral ArmQuadrangular space with circumflex humeral artery
Glenoid Labrum Tears
FibrocartilageCauses: Common in athletes throwing football/baseball: Shoulder instability, subluxation-->tear in glenoid labrumEffects: pain while throwing, esp during acceleration; popping or snapping during abduction/lateral rotation
Rhomboid Minor
O: Spinous process of C7-T1
In: Medial border of scapula AT spine level.
Inn: Dorsal scapular nerve
O: occipital bone, spine of all cervical via ligamentum nuchae, spines of all thoracic.
In: Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, SUPERIOR lip of crest of spine of scapula (SAC)
Inn: Accessory nerve (CNXI), C3, C4
Pectoralis Major (innervation)
Medial Pectoral NerveLateral Pectoral Nerve
Deltoid (Origin)
SAC Spine of scapula, Acromion, Clavicle
Extrinsic Thumb muscles
Flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and longus
C7- dermatome terminal branch
pad of index finger
Ulnar nerve at hand
C8,T1Thumb adduction (adductor pollicus, finger adduction (palmar interossei and 3,4 lumbricals)finger abduction (dorsal interossei and 3,4 lumbricals)MP flexion and PIP/DIP extension (same)
Second most lateral carpal of the distal row. Medial to the trapezium and lateral to the capitate. Distal to the scaphoid.Articulates with the second metacarpal.
Radial Fossa
Small depression lateral to the coronoid fossa.Receives the head of the radius when the elbow is flexed.
Latisimus Dorsi
ORIGINSpine T7, spinous processes and supraspinous ligaments of all lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, lumbar fascia, posterior third iliac crest, last four ribs (interdigitating with external oblique abdominis) and inferior angle of scapula INSERTIONFloor of bicipital groove of humerus after spiraling around teres major ACTIONExtends, adducts and medially rotates arm. Costal attachment helps with deep inspiration and forced expiration NERVEThoracodorsal nerve (C6, 7, 8) (from posterior cord)
ORIGINAnterior surface of radius below anterior oblique line and adjacent interosseous membrane INSERTIONBase of distal phalanx of thumb ACTIONFlexes distal phalanx of thumb NERVEAnterior interosseous nerve (C7, 8)
Ape Hand
Injury to median nerve (C5-7)Causes: supracondylar fracture or compression of carpal tunnelEffects: lose pronation, thumb opposition, lateral two IPs, impair two medial IPs. Flattening of thenar muscles
Abductor pollicis brevis
Recurrent Median Nerve (C8)Thenar MuscleFlexor retinaculum-->lateral base of PP of thumbAbducts and helps oppose thumb
Ulnar Nerve
C8-T1, medial cordFCU, FDP (ulnar half), abductor digiti minimi m., flexor digiti minimi brevis m., opponens digiti minimi m., ulnar 2 lumbrical mm., palmar and dorsal interosseous mmPosterior to medial epicondyle-->funny bone!
Thoracoacromial Trunk
From 2nd stage AxillaryCourse: Pierces clavipectoral fasciaSupplies: ABCD: Acromial, (Breast) Pectoral, Clavicular, Deltoid branches
Thenar Space
Thenar compartment of hand btwn synovial tendon sheath 2 and common flexor sheathEasily infected-->swells
Adductor Pollicis
O: Oblique - capitate, trapezoid, base of 2nd metacarpal Transverse - shaft of 3rd metacarpal
In: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Inn: Deep brance of Ulnar nerve
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
In: Posterior surface of base of 3rd metacarpal
Inn: Radial nerve
Anconeus (4th head of triceps brachii) (Action)
Extend elbow
Triceps Brachii Long Head (Action)
Extend arm at elbow
externsor retinaculum compartments
1. abductor pollicis longus, ext. pollicis brevis2. ext. carpi radialis longus and brevis3. ext. pollicis longus4. ext. digitorum communis and ext. indicis propius5. ext. digiti minimi6. ext. carpi ulnaris
Big toe extension
Extensor hallucis longus, L5, deep peroneal (babinski)
Most medial carpal of the distal row. Somewhat heart shaped.Articulates with the fourth and fifth metacarpals.
ORIGINCommon extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus INSERTIONPosterior base of 3rd metacarpal ACTIONExtends and abducts hand at wrist NERVEPosterior interosseous nerve (C7, 8)
Medial Cutaneous Nerves (Brachial and Antebrachial)
C8-T1, medial cord
Tennis Elbow
overuse of ECRL and ECRB, lateral epicondylitis
Flexor Digiti Minimi
O: Hook of hamate
In: Medial side of baes of proximal phalanx 5th finger
Inn: Deep branch of ulnar nerve
Levator Scapulae (insertion)
Medial border of scapula above the spine
Ulnar nerve cord and spinal nerves
Medial cord, C8, T1
Hand of benediction
Failure of thumb, index and usually middle finger to flex into fist.because of a lesion in the proximal median nerve
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Origin and insertion
O: Medial epicondyleI: Ulna Pisiform bone, and hook of Hamate, 5th metacarpel
Median nerve paralysis-wrist effects
weak flexion and abduction, causes hand extension and ulnar deviation (adduction)
Lateral Epicondyle
Bump on the lateral side of the distal end of the humerus, just above the capitulum.Muscles attach here.
Anterior and Posterior Circumflex Humeral Arteries
From: 3rd stage AxillaryCourse: surround surgical neck of humerus, posterior through Quadrangular SpaceSupplies: Deltoid, Arm muscles at shoulder joint-> collateral circulation
Anterior dislocation of the Lunate
Cause: fall on dorsi-flexed wristEffects: carpal tunnel, avascular necrosis of lunate
Posterior forearm superficial muscles
ext. carpi radialis longus, ext. carpi radialis brevis, ext. digitorum communis,ext. digiti minimi ext. carpi ulnaris
Thoracodorsal nerve, roots, fn?
Lat. dorsi, from post cord C6,7,8 (susceptible in breast surgery), extension, medial rotation, adduction
Distal Radioulnar Joint
Point where the head of the ulna articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius.
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB)
Deep Radial Nerve (C7)Common extensor origin (lateral epicondyle)--> base of 3rd metacarpalExtension of wrist, abduction, against FCR
Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve location
cutaneous branch of the median nerve; emerges just lateral (radial) to the biceps brachii muscle and tendon in the cubital fossa
Suprascapular nerve, roots, fn, injury?
C5,6 from upper trunk; infra- and supraspinatus (rotator cuff, abduction and lat rotation); compression = lat shoulder pain (C5,6 cutaneous territory), musc atrophy
What are the muscles of the Posterior Superficial Forearm
1. Brachioradialis2. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus3. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis4. Extensor Digitorum 5. Extensor Digiti minimi6. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris7. Anconeus
Upper limb venous drainage
Radial and Ulnar veins drain in to he brachial vv., that then drains into the baslic vein, then to the axillary veins (which also revices deoxygenated blood form the cephalic veins, finally to drain into the subclavian veins
What are the muscles of the anterior deep forearm
1. Pronator Quadratis 2. Flexor Digitorum Profundus3. Flexor Pollicis Longus
How many muscles are innervated by the radial nerve
1312 in the forearm1 in the arm
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