Urinary System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Filters plasma.


Renal corpiscle
Kidney hilus faces ________.
Medially
glomerulus
a compact cluster of capillaries.
Length of the Renal Tubule
1 foot
The glomerulus is ____________.
A capillary network
The vasae rectae drain into (1)________ veins then to (2)________ veins to (3) _________ veins and finally to (4) _________ veins.

radial
arcuate
interlobular
renal
urea
a compound, CO(NH2)2, occurring in urine and other body fluids as a product of protein metabolism.
primary
what kind of ----peritoneal are the kidneys and most of the ureters?
The ureters are lined with __________ epithelium.
transitional
The urinary bladder empties into the _________.
Urethra
The radial arteries give off the _____________ arterioles.
afferent
The kidneys are ______ cm long.
11-13 cm.
Which ion is found intracellularly and in the vascular compartment but rarely found interstitially?
Protein
Which ion is easily diffusable and shifts between compartments to help balance charge distributions?
Cl-
tubules
a small tube; a minute tubular structure.
What moves the urine in the ureters
peristaltic contractions
The _________ enters the kidney's hilus, while the _________ and _________ leave.


Renal artery
Renal vein
Ureter
The terminal portion of the renal tubule.
Collecting tubules
Which ion is the primary positive ion of the intracellular compartment?
K+
hypothalamus
a region of the brain, between the thalamus and the midbrain, that functions as the main control center for the autonomic nervous system by regulating sleep cycles, body temperature, appetite, etc., and that acts as an endocrine gland by producing hormone
the pubic symphysis
what structure does the bladder sit directly behind?
The ureters run along the _______ wall of the bladder and enter it near its ______.
posterior; base
The distal convoluted tubule continues from ______________________.
The ascending thick limb
Shape of bladder.
Three sided pyramid with the apex pointing forward.
bladder
a membranous sac or organ serving as a receptacle for a fluid or air.
parasympathetics from pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4) cause the detrusor to contract and inhibit the internal urinary sphincter (relaxing/opening it)
what nerves help to eliminate urine? how?
sympathetics decrease urine productions through vasoconstriction of the kidney's blood supplyparasympathetics have no apparent function (except to carry visceral afferents back to the brain)basically sympathetics are on/off switches to the blood flow
how does the ANS control urine production at the kidneys?
renal papilla
what is the tip of a renal pyramid called that faces the hilum?
What is the normal color of urine
faint or pale yellow
Function of the Urinary System


Excretion of water and electrolytes from body
Removal of toxins
The kidneys are located in _________.
The upper posterior abdominal cavity
The location and quantity of which two ions determine the distribution of water at the cellular level as well as the polarity of muscle and neuron cell membranes?
Na+ and K+
the renal capsule
what is the most external part of the kidney?
What tests can evaluate kidney function
urinalysis, blood tests, and renal plasma clearance
Nephron is made up of: ____________ and _____________.


The renal corpuscle
The renal tubule
the name given to the smooth muscle with its fibers in different orientations all around the urinary bladder
what is the detrusor muscle?
When does urine enter the urethra
when both the external and internal urethral sphincters are relaxed
renal pyramids, the tissue is called "renal medulla" fail pronounced by Cole
where is the first place fully processed urine is? what is the name of this tissue type?
the right kidney is 0.5-1 inches BELOW the left because when the right migrates up it smacks into the liver
which kidney is higher? how much? why?
1) preprostatic urethra2) prostatic urethra3) membranous part of urethra4) spongy part of urethra
what are the 3 parts of the male urethra? (proximal to distal)
a valve where the ureter enters the urinary bladder
in addition to peristaltic movements, what prevents urine from flowing back into the kidney?
What does low renal plasma clearance indicate
that the substance is reabsorbed by the kidneys and not readily excreted
what does high renal plasma clearance indicate
that a substance is readily excreted from the body
the right suprarenal gland and top of the right kidney are found in the bare area
what kidney parts are found underneath the bare area of the liver?
renal vein, renal artery, renal pelvis + lymph & nerves there is NO collateral circulation to the kidney
what structures are found in the hilum of the kidney? (anterior to posterior
the left ureter which is crossed by the sigmoid colon
what urinary structure is at risk during a surgery of the sigmoid colon and rectum?
What blood tests can be used to evaluate kidney function
blood urea nitrogen test and plasma creatinine test
What is the receptor in the micturition reflex
stretch receptors in the walls of the urinary bladder
they get their blood supply from the vessels they contact: the renal arteries, gonadal, and inernal iliac
where do the ureters get their blood supply? why?
the tail of the pancreas is anterior to the hilum of the left kidney
where is the tail of the pancreas in relation to the kidneys?
Na+ dependent transport
glucose
Anatomy of System
arota-->renal artery-->kidneykidney-->renal vein-->inferior vena cava kidneys receive 25% of cardiac output
Glomerular Filtration Rate
-180L/day-125mL/min-entire plasma filtred 60 times/day
Paracellular
between cells anions and water
Vascular Components of Nephron
afferent arteriole-->glomerulus-->efferent arteriole-->peritubular capillaries (vasa recta if in the medulla)-->venules-->veins
Renal Corpuscle
glomerulus + bowman's capsule
Transepithelial Transport
Na+, anions, H2O, solutes
Neural Control
autoregulation of GFR sympathetic neurons innervate arterioles sympathetic stimulation on alpa receptor on vascular smooth muscle causes vasoconstriction, which increases BP if BP falls dramatically (below autoregulatory range), sympathetically induced vasoconstriction of arterioles decreases blood flow and GFR -helps to conserve fluid volume
Tubule Components of Nephron
bowman's capsule-->proximal tubule-->descending loop of henle-->ascending loop of henle-->ascending loop of henle-->disal tubule-->collecting duct-->renal pelvis
Reabsorption Transport Mechanisms
active (primary and secondary)passive transepithelial paracellular Na+ dependent
Nephrons
functional unit of kidney composed of renal corpuscle and associated tubules 80% found in cortex 20% found in medulla
Kidney Structure
outer cortex inner medulla contains nephrons
Urine Formation
1. Filtration=movement of fluid from glomerulus to bowman's capsule 2. Reabsorption=filtrate from lumen to blood of peritubular capillaries 3. Secretion=selected molecules from blood moved to lumen of tubules of nephron
Glomerular Filtration Pressures:1. Glomerular BP2. Blood Osmotic Pressure3. Capsular hydrostatic Pressure4. Capsular Osmotic Pressure
1. 55mmHg2. 30mmHg3. 15mmHg4. 0mmHg
what is the equation for urine excretion
excretion=filtration-reabsorption+ secretion
Urinary System Waste Excretions
metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts,and water
H+ secretion
controls pH (stable at 7.4)increase in H+ in blood=increase H+ secretion decrease in H+ in blood=decrease H+ secretion also use ventilation and buffers to remove excess H+
Two Types of Regulating GFR
1. Intrinsic Regulation2. Extrinsic Regulation
what is  the average value for the amount of urine produced and excreted daily
1.8 L
Kidney Anatomy
Right kidney is slightly lower due to large right lobe of liver
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
volume fluid filtered into Bowman's Capsule per unit ime 180L/day or 125mL/min factors that control GFR- net filtration pressure (dependent on renal flow and presence)-permeability of interface between glomerulus capillaries and bowmans capsule
Three Factors Involved in the Formation of Urine
1. Glomerular2. Tubular Reabsorption3. Tubular Secretion
do you know the other name for the glomerular capsule
bowmans capsule
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
expression of the level of nitrogenous waste in the blood* See azotemia and uremia
Physiology of Urinary System Consists of: (2 pts)
-kidneys to form urine-structures to transport urine
Extrinsic Regulation of GFR (5 pts)
-under extreme low MAP-SNS -> vasoconstraction-afferent arteriole = -efferent arteriole = blood backs up in glomerulus-extreme stress =
Secondary Active Transport of Na+/Glucose
Na+ enters with SGLT transporter down concentration gradient SGLT transporter pulls glucose in against its concentration gradient GLUT facilitated diffusion carrier carries glucose out Na+ leaves by Na+-K+-ATPase
water and salt balance in the kidney
maintains homeostatic balance of water and salt volume in the blood and tissues
what is mean by transport maximum
the maximum amount of substance that can be transported across a membrane due to the total number of transport proteins available
describe the mechanisms for water and salt control in the loop of henle?
in the descending limb water diffuses from the lumen through aquaporins then into the pertubular capillaries.in the ascending limb sodium is pumped by primary active transport from the lumen into the peritubular capillaries
can you describe the two types of nephrons
-cortical: entire nephron is located within the cortex
 
-juxtamedullary: has a long loop of henle that extends into the medulla. its loop nephron is very good at water reabsorbtion
do you know the function and mechanism of aldosterone in the kidney. where is aldosterone made/secreted
aldosterone acts on the DCT and collecting duct by turning on genes that code for sodium/patassium ATPase pumps. the pumps are used to increase sodum reabsorption, and thus water in the blood. it is secreted from the adrenal cortex
can you describe the mechanisms for substances that move from the proximal convoluted tubule cell into the extracellular fluid (and thus into the peritubular capillary)
from the PCT cell to the capillary the molecules that are not lipid soluble use facilitative transport and the sodium is pumped by primary active transport. the lipid soluble molecules use simple diffusion
urethr/o
urethra
micturation
urination
azot/o
nitrogen
glycos
sugar
meat/o
meatus
keton/o
ketone bodies
olig
scanty; few
ARF
acute renal failure
Pollakiuria
abnormally frequent urination
-uria
condition of the urine
Blood in the urine
Hematuria
polyuria
excessive quantity of urine
What does CHP do?
opposes filtration
Oliguria
Producing less urine than normal.
ket/o
keton/o
ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder.
what rests on top Kidneys
Adrenal glands
What percentage of filtrate is reabsorbed?
99%
Hydrostatic Pressure in Glomerular Capillaries
50-60 mmHg
Urine
- concentrated filtrate from kidneys that is 96% water, 4% dissolved wastes- tends to be slightly acidic- Average adult produces 1 to 2 quarts of urine per day- contains diuretic- a synonym is micturition
granular cells
located in afferent arterioles, contain renin granules, secrete renin
NAMEsome of its functions include gluconeogenoesis, producing the enyzme renin and erythropoietin, and metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
kidneys
ultrasonography
process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves
is about 50% of nitrogenous waste
urea
foley catheter
indwelling catheter inserted through the urethra into the bladder; includes a collection system that allows urine to be drained into a bag-can remain in place for an extended time
Kidneys Encased in
fibrous connective tissue overlaid with fat
All of the following functions are carried out in the renal tubules except
 
a)  filtration
 
b)  reabsorption
 
c)  secretion
 
d)  formation of urine
a
Urinary bladder
provides a temporary storage resevoir for urine
3 layers of ureter
inner mucosa
middle muscularis
outer serosa
proximal tubule
collects filtrate, has bulk absorptive function, has eosinophilic cells with central nuclei, has brush border
NAMEthese are cubodial cells w abundant micorvilli that play a role in maintaining the acid base balance of the blood
intercalated cells
cortex
in contact with renal caspule consist of cortical nephron (short)
Mesentery connecting the ileum and jejunum to the posterior abdominal wall.
mesentery proper
What is the indentation of medial surface of the liver?
hilium
____ acts on the plasma protein angiotensinogen to remove the angiotensin I fragement
Renin
ketones
chemical test used to detect ketone bodies in the urine; if positive, fats are being utilized by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs in starvation or an unstable diabetic state
Glomerular filtrate consists of
Water, Electrolytes, Soluble wastes, Nutrients, Toxins
major calyces
large branches of the renal pelvis
- collect urine draining from papillae
- empty urine into the pelvis
What is produced by the kidneys which helps to regulate blood pressure
Renin
The ___________ is the outer region just inside the renal capsule
renal capsule
What disease is likely if there is glucose present in the urine.
Diabetes
ascending thin limb
low water permeability, only present in inner medulla
NAMEAt the medullar cortex junction, these branch into the arcuate arteries that arch over the branches of the medullary pyramids
the interlobar arteries
What is Net hydrostatic pressure?
GHP-CsHP-about 35 mm Hg
What type of epithelium lines the lumen of the ureter, the bladder, and the proximal portions of the urethra?
transitional epithelium
When the body is rotated 30 degrees for an oblique (RPO/LPO) the upper kidney is ___________________to the image receptor.
Parallel
plasma like fluid of glomerlus after filtration
glomerular filtrate
scout film
plain x-ray taken to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging
What body wall does the kidney lie on?
T-12-L-3 region
Which system in the body is the primary source for electrolyte loss?
Urinary system
Intrinsic Controls: TUbuloglomerular Feedback mechanism
Flow-dependent mechanism directed by the macula densa cells. If GFR increases, filtrate flow increases in tubule and macula densa cells respond to increased NaCl by releasing vasoconstricting chemical
Retrograde Pyelography
Done by inserting a catheter as close to the pelvis of the kidney as possible and injecting contrast material.
In summary, what does the first capillary bed or glomerulus do?
produces the filtrate
Atrial Natriuretic hormone (ANH)
a hormone secreted from cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium of the heart in response to increased blood volume (and, therefore, pressure) in the right atrium; inhibits Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys and inhibits the secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary; also dilates arteries and veins
kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)
x-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
List the 2 mechanisms of renal autoregulation
1)Myogenic mechanism2)Tubuloglomerular feedback
What does JGA do?
Helps regulate the flow of fluid through the nephrons
Function of Adipose capsule
fatty mass that cushions the kidney and helps attack it to the body wall
thick ascending limb (distal straight tubule)
many mitochondria, NaCl absorption, low water permeability, the diluting segment
PCT Functions and mechanism for secretion?
Function:Secretion of H ions, ammonium ions, creatinine, drugs and toxinsMechanisms:Countertransport w/ Na+
Renal plasma flow rate
plasma that flows through the kidney each minute; calculated as the product of the renal blood flow rate multiplied by the portion of the blood that is made of plasma (about 55%)
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
x-ray image of the kidneys and ureters after injection of contrast into a vein
How is urea developed
1)Proteins are broken down into amino acids2)the -NH2 (ammonia) group is removed from each amino acid3)the liver converts ammonia to the less harmful waste urea
ACTIVE SECRETION occurs primarily at the _________ and __________ __________ ______________
proximal and distal convoluted tubules (DCT).
3 components of the endothelial capsular membrane
1) endothelium (wall of glomerulus)2) basement membrane (extracellular with slit openings)3) visceral layer of Bowman's capsule (podocytes)* ALL ALLOW ANYTHING TO PASS THROUGH EXCEPT PLASMA PROTEINS AND FORMED ELEMENTS
the filtration membrane also seems to confer (1)
eletrical selecivity on the filtration process
What are filtration slits in visceral epithelium?
-narrow gaps between adjacent pedicels
What do nephrons consist of?
A renal corpuscle and the renal tube
what are the functions of the kidneys(7)
regulate ionic concentration of the blood, regulate blood pH, regulates blood pressure and blood volume, regulates blood glucose level, maintains blood osmolarity, excretes wastes and foreign substances, produces hormones
Renal Tubule: Distal Convoluted Tubule
- just beyond the loop of Henle
what is the flow of moelcule thru the kidney
arteriole, glomerulus, bowman's capsule, proxmial convoluted tubule, loops of henle, distal convuluted tuble, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder
What are the 2 parts of a nephron?
renal corpuscle and tubular section
how do the kidneys regulate blood pressure and blood volume
through selective water loss or water reabsorption
What are some exretory functions of the kidneys? (2)
(1)reg the volume and chemical make up of the blood (2)maitaining the proper balance btwn water and salts btwn acids and bases
How is ammonia produced in the liver?
Ammonia is produced when the liver converts amino acids into glucose
What are the thick segment?
is the part of the loop of Henle that in which the epthila becomes cuboidal or even low columnar
Water accounts for what percentage in an adult male and what percentage in an adult female?
Male = 60% water - Female = 50% water
-rrhaphy
suture
-tripsy
crushing
ureter
ureter
reno
kidney
juxta-
near to
arteriole
small artery
KUB
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder
void
to pass urine
vesic/o
bladder or sac
Glycosuria
Sugar in the urine
Hematuria
blood in the urine
Tubule folds into
proximal convoluted tubule
Kidney(Renal)
Filters Blood, and Produces Urine.Receives blood from Renal Arteries and drains into Renal VeinsExcretes urine into ureter Produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin.
Renal capsule
Fibrous tissue encasing kidney
term for abnormally elevated BUN
azotemia
Then blood Empty into
inferior vena cava
What does ANP inhibit?
renin-angiotensin and ADH
renal cortex structure
outer portion of kidney
____________ are muscular tubes about 10" long that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Ureters
Congential abscence of a kidney
Renal agenesis
NAMEthis is more more efficient filter because its filtration membrane has a large surface area nd is thousands of times more permeable to wter and solutes and glomerular blood pressure is much more higher than in othe capillary beds
glomerulus
nephron
the combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney
podocalyxin
a negatively charged protein that makes up glycocalyx of pedicles
glomerulus (def)
def: filtering structure of the kidney
vasa recta
capillaries surrounding loop of henle of the jextamedullary nephrons that are responsible for concentrating the urine
Is the DCT part of the nephron?
no
ureters location in relation to the peritoneum?
retroperitoneal
Each efferent arteriole branches into a second capillary network, the _____________ _____________.
peritubular capillaries
Renal calculi
Formed from urine, which contains crystalline materials
NAMEthis produces the filtrate
the glomerulus capillary bed
NAMEthis organ processes about 180 L of blood derived fluid daily
kidneys
Autoregulation
the maintenance within the kidneys of a relatively stable glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) over a wide range of system blood pressures;
urinary catherterization
passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder
what defines renal lobules?
interlobular (cortical radial) arteries
enuresis
lack of control of urination, esp. during sleep; bed-wetting; urinary incontinence.
cystoscopy
examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
What is the functional unit on the kidney called?
nephron
location of urinary bladder
within pelvic cavity
behind symphysis pubis
____________, ____________ and _____________ transport of Na+, K+, Cl- are resabsorbed or secreted during the passage of filtrate through the loop of Henle and DCT.
Osmosis; passive and active transport
Nephrography
Kidney study in which the film is taken immediately after injection of the contrast agent to show the blush of the cortex.
NAMEthe blood pressure here is about 8 mm Hg or less
renal viens
What are urinary infections caused by females?
fecal bacteria
Kidney stones
Calcification of urineCan have pain in flank, blood in urineReferred pain to posterolateral thoraxTreat with painkillers, shockwaves or surgery
What is a nephron
A filtering unit of blood
make up of PCT
simple cuboidal epithelium with prominent microvilli
pyuria
presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
transport maximum
maximum amount of a specific type of substance that the tubules are able to reabsorb
The urinary system consists of:
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
How much blood is filtered daily by the Kidneys?
200 liters
hormone regulation for filtration formation
* hormones associated with renin-angiotensin pathway (ANP, BNP)* 3 stimuli trigger renin production- drop in blood pressure, SNS stim., decrease in osmotic concentration of filtrate at the macula densa
NAMEthis lies btwn the blood and the interior of the glomerular capsule
filtration mebrane
How many renal pyramids are typically in each kidney?
-6 to 18
Renal Pyramids
when the medulla is shaped like a pyramid in some species
nephron + collecting duct=______
embryologic origins of nephron and collecting duct?
tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
if GFR is too high, NaCl passing macula densa is too high. this causes constriction of afferent arteriole.
substances are transported from the glomerular filtrate to peritublar caps through what?
walls of the renal tubule
urinary organs
* 2 kidneys are the workhorse of the urinary system, filter* each kidney drained by a ureter* bladder is a bag/sac that stores urine* urethra, tube that drains bladder to the exterior
What is the blood flow like inthe afferent and efferent arteriooles of the renal circulation?
has high resistance
What are the hormones that play a part in controlling urine volume?
-ADH-Aldosterone-Atrial natriuretic hormones (ANH)
Blood Supply of the Kidney
Renal artery - large 20-25% of
what structures are present in proximal convoluted tubule cells that make them specialized for reabsorption/active transport?
many long microvilli, extensive endocytotic vesicles that assoc. w/endosomes, numerous lysosomes and mitochondria
What parts of the kidney contain simple squamous epithelium?
bowman's capsule and descending limb
3 areas of male urethra
1. Prostatic urethra (within prostate gland)2. Membranous urethra (passes through the urogenital diaphragm)3. Spongy urethra (passes through penis & opens via external urethral orifice
What is the renal plexus?
is a variable network of automatic nerve fibers, ganglia, and provides the nerve supply of the kidneys and the ureter
What are the components of the urinary system?
-two kidneys-two ureters-one urinary bladder-one urethra
calyx or calix
(plural: calyces or calices)
cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis
urine culture and sensitivity
isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium that propagates the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identified, and drugs to which they are sensitive are listed
What constitutes a lobe in the medulla
the medullary pyramid and its surrounding capsule
in the filtration membrane, the capillary pores allow for (1)
passage of all plasma components but not blood cells
How do signals begin and travel as bladder fills?
-stretch receptors stimulate sensory fibers in pelvic nerve-afferent fibers to sacral spinal cord-efferent fibers stimulate ganglionic neurons in wall of bladder-postganglionic neuron in intramural ganglion stimulates detruscor muscle contraction-interneuron relays sensation to thalamus-projection fibers from thalamus deliver sensation to cerebral cortex
what forms side boundaries of renal pyramid
interlobar arteries (and deep in medulla, it's lobar arteries)
What are the 4 body systems that contribute to waste elimination?
1) Respiratory - done through expiration2) Integumentary - sweating 3) Digestive - solid, through excretion4) Urinary - excreted through urination
What structure in the kidney fxns in regulating blood pressure?
The juxtaglomerular apparatus fxns in bp regulation
Name and explain the function for the different types of catheters.
Straight: Used short term to drain urine or collect a sample.Indwelling: Used when the catheter needs to stay in for longer periods.Coude: Used for male patients with an enlarged prostrate.Fem-cath: Used for females for collecting samples.
what is a marker enzyme for proximal convoluted tubule cells?
acid phosphatase b/c of the many lysosomes
What is the big differ btwn the glomerulus cappilary bed compared to all other capillary beds?
it is both fed and drained by the efferent arteriole and the afferent arteriole
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