Urinary System 4 Flashcards

renal corpuscle
Terms Definitions
renal pelvis
blood condition
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies
Acute Renal Failure
Normal glomerular BHP
few, scant (root word)
Absence of urine production.
inflammation of the urethra.
-location: distal tubule and collecting duct
-nitrogenous waste, H+, K+, and drugs are actively pumped out of blood, into tubule
kidneys, ureters, and bladder image
Kidneys Anatomical Descriptions
Paired organssublumbarretroperitoneal --> Frandson Fig 23.1 CAT kidney Mostly bean shaped
of or pertaining to hypertonia.
tubule Straightens to
form loop of Henle
Filtration at the glomerulus is inversely related to
a)  water absorption
b)  CHP
c)  arterial blood pressure
d)  acidity in urine
muscle inside the urinary bladder?
detrusor muscle
As the bladder fills, the _________________ epithelium and smooth muscle stretch, increasing the internal volume of the bladder.
Intravenous Pyelography (also known as Intravenous Ureography).A radiographic test of the function of a kidney.
NAMEthese are highly modifed epthelia branching cells found in the glomerular capsule
direct visual examination of urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)
term for blood in the urine
urologic endoscope sent through the urethra to resect (cut and remove) lesions of the bladder, urethra, or prostate
loop of Henle Coils
into distal convoluted tubule
The basic functional unit of the kidney is
a) glomerulus
b)  renal corpuscle
c) major calyx
d)  nephron
a tuft of capillaries associated with a renal tubule
outer longitudinal layer of the middle muscularis is called?
- triangular floor consisting of the openings of ureters and the urethra
Malignant neoplasm of the kidney occurring in children
Wilms tumor
NAMEthese are enlarged smooth muscle cells w prominent secretory granule containing renin
JG cells
Which is a much more efficient filter, glomerulus or other capillary beds?
R kidney anatomic relationships
LiverHepatic flexure of colonDuodenum
Wilms tumor
malignant tumor of the kidney occurring childhood
PCT reabsorbs about ___% of the glomerular filtrate
condition where the urethra exits the ventral front aspect of the penis
urethral meatus
opening in the urethra to the outside
The renal hilum lies on the _____ surface of the kidney
a) lateral
b) superior
c) medial
d) inferior
3 major steps of urine formation
glomerular filtration
rubular reabsorption
tubular secretion
At the junction of the afferent arteriole and the DCT, the ______________________, responds to blood pressure changes and to the pH filtrate.
juxtaglomerular apparatus
nephron (cont'd)
* filters material from blood and forms a waste (urine)* regulates H2O, electrolytes, and glucose that goes out* allows body to secrete organic waste products (urea, uric acid, creatinine)* made up of the renal corpuscle and renal tubule
column of Bertin
cortical tissue that extends between medullary pyramids
NAMEthis organ is found in the lumbar region from T12 to L3
Kidney transplant
Humans can live with one functional kidneyHave to use immunosuppressants for life to prevent rejection
What is cholecystopaque?
Oral contrast media for visualizing the gallbladder
ADH works as a ____ mechanism for water balance
occult blood,urine
chemical test used to detect hidden blodd in the urine resulting from red blood ceel hemolysis- indicates bleeding in the kidneys
What does the glomerulus filter/restrict?
filters=water, ions, glucose, amino acids, and nitrogenous wastes
restricts=plasma proteins, RBC's and platelets
On average, how much urine collects in the bladder when the urge to urinate appears?
200 mL
Sodium Reabsorption
Na+ most abundant cation in filtrate. Primary active transport out of the tubule cell . Passes in through the luminal membrane by secondary active transport or facilitated diffusion mechanisms
Renal Colic
Pain that extends from the flank to the abdomen or groin area.
What are principal cells?
they lack microvilli and help maintain the body's water and Na+ balance
What are renal columns?
-cortical tissue that passes between pyramids
Medulla of Kidney
second inner layer NOT most internal layer which is pelvis of Kidney
glomerular basement membrane =
lamina rara externa, lamina densa, lamina rara interna
What are the ureters, bladder, and urethra responsible for?
urine storage and secretion
renal pyramids structure
cone shaped masses of tissue in renal medulla
sodium ion reabsorption from filtrate
* active transport mechanism located along renal tubule except ascending limb of Henle* always on at the PCT, normally off at DCT* most Na+ is reabsorbed @ PCT, amount reabsorbed varies depending on ECF concentration of Na+* if Na+ levels decrease, blood pressure decreases which leads to the juxtaglomerular apparatus to secrete renin => converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I => @ lungs exposed to ACE which converts to angiotensin II
What is HPg?
is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane
What types of fibers mostly make up autonomic regulation?
-sympathetic postganglionic fibers
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a magnetic field and radio waves produce images of the kidney and surrounding structures in all three planes of the body
(juxtamedullary play signif. role in water conservation)
medullary rays consist of what?
A drop in filtration pressure stimulates _________________ to release ____________ and ______________
A drop in filtration pressure stimulates the Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) to release RENIN and ERYTHROPOIETIN
The male urethra is 6-8 inches long. The male urethra passes through the _____________ gland is labeled the ___________ urethra, in the urogenital diaphragm it is the _______________ urethra, and in the penis, it is the _____________ urethra, before reach
prostate; prostatic; membranous; spongy or penile; external urethral orifice
Renal ptosis may cause (1)
a urter to become kinked, which creates a problem bc the urine, unable to drain, backs up into the kidneys and exerts pressure on its tissue
What is Bowman's capsule?
-forms the outer wall of the renal corpuscle-encapsulates the glomerular capillaries
The renal corpuscle contains which two things?
1. Glomerulus
2. Glomerular capsule (Bowmen's Capsule)
what are juxtamedullary nephrons characterized by
longer loops of Henle along with a vasa recta
What is the function of the bladder
provides a temporary storage reservoir for urine
What is the PCT?
makes a loop called the loop of Henle then whends and twists as the DCT before emptying into the collecting duct
What happens if the GFR is too low?
Everything is reabsorbed, including wastes that are normally disposed of
% of water and % of salt get reabosrbed in the proximal convoluted tubule
65% water and 60%
hormone regulation for filtrate formation with naturetic peptides
* stimulus for ANP & BNP => increase in BP* in this story, they go to the glomerulus and increase the capillary surface area available for filtration* increased surface area, more filtrate available, increase urine output, lower blood volume, lower blood pressure
What are the two poles of the renal corpuscle?
Vascular pole (aff/eff arteriole) Urinary pole (the Bowman's Space in contact with proximal convoluted tubule)
Draw a chart of the blood flow of the renal arteries to the renal cortex
See p 1000 or notepad
how do the kidneys maintain blood osmolarity(2)
through water loss or water gain and through ionic regulation
process (suffix)
urinary bladder
urine retention
abnormally large bladder
urination; urine condition
Blood Urea Nitrogen
crush the kidney stone
kidney stones (renal calculi)
drugs that relieves spasm
ureter structure
tube leading from kidneys
NAMEthese continously cleanse the blood and adjust it composition
process of recording; radiographic imaging
waste product of muscle metabolism filtered out of the blood
The most important factor affecting the glomerular filtration rate is
a) blood osmotic pressure
b) blood hydrostatic pressure
c) capsular osmotic pressure
d) negative pressure
transitional epithelium of the ureters
inner mucosa
Urinary Bladder
temporary storage reservoir for urine
renal cortex
outer region of the kidney
NAMEthis has three distinct regions of the kidney cortex, medulla, and the pelvis
CT surrounding kidneys
Perirenal fat (deep)Renal fasciaPararenal fat (superficial)Provide protection and anchor kidneys in place
What word refers to the kidney?
one of certain small protuberances concerned with the senses of touch, taste, and smell:
renal tubule
stem portion of the nephron
extrinsic controls
regulation of systemic blood pressure results from these, often at the expense of the kidneys
true or false
Blood is carried to the glomerulus via the efferent arteriole
Kidney (Renal) location
high on posterior abdominal wall
Renal corpuscle
Glomerulus and its glomerular capsule, part of the nephron
enzyme produced in the kidney to regulate the filtration rate of blood
NAMEthis is a fibrous transparent capsule that prevents infection in surrounding regions from spreading the kidneys
renal capsule
a plasma protein produced by the liver and found in the general circulation; converted to angiotensin I by renin
interstitial nephritis
inflammation of the renal interstitium (connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules)
renal transplant
surgical procedure for replacement of a diseased kidney by a donor kidney
the presence of pus in the urine.
peritioneal dialysis
method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; catheter insertion in the peritioneal cavity is required to deliver cleansing fluid that is washed in and out in cycles
myogenic mechanism
tendency of smooth muscle to constrict when stretched (by higher blood pressure)
detrusor muscle is how many layers of smooth muscle
1. At the basolateral membrane, Na+ is pumped into the interstitial space2. Downhill Na+ entry at luminal membrane3. Reabsorption of organic nutrients and certain ions by cotransport at the luminal membrane4. Reabsorption of water by osmosis5. Lipid-soluble substances diffuse by transcellular route6. Cl-, K+ and urea diffuse by paracellular route
A nuclear medicine study of the renal area.
the glomerular capsule can also be called the (1)
Bowman's capsule
NAMEthese arise from the efferent arterioles draining from the glomeruli
pertibular capillary beds
Juxtamedullary nephron
one of two types of nephrons; consists of long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla; plays an important role in maintaining the medullary concentration gradient
potassium (K+)
a salt (electrolyte) secreted from the bloodstream into the renal tubules to leave the body in urine
intraglomerular mesangial cells- loc/fcn
w/in glomerular basement membrane, phagocytic so clean basement membrane and support it
dilation and pooling of urine in the renal pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys caused by an obstruction in the outflow of urine
kidney from outside to inside (structure)
1. cortex
2. medulla
3. pelvis
What do filtration slits in the filtration membrane allow the passage of
only tiny molecules
Function of renal fascia
outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney
How much fluid does the kidneys filter?
about 2000 liters
How much of original filtrate volume reaches DCT?
-15 to 20%
Micturation reflex
When bladder is 1/3 full, GVAs travel to sacral spinal cord via pelvic splanchnic nn.Activate PS neurons PS efferents cause detrusor m. to contract and internal sphincter to relax, allowing urination
What is the tube that conducts urine from the bladder to the outside for elimination?
The urethra
renal angiogram
x-ray of the renal artery made after injectin contrast material into a catheter in the artery
What two "pressures" regulate the movement of water and electrolytes to maintain fluid balance?
osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure
The urethra then passes through the ________________, a skeletal muscle sphincter in the ___________________.
external sphincter; urogenital diaphragm
What does filtrate contain?
everything found in the blood plasma except protiens
What is the vasa recta?
-returns solutes and water reabsorbed in medulla to general circulation without disrupting the concentration gradient
Name structural path of urine starting with formation of filtrate in glomerular capillaries.
Glomerular capillaries, glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, papillary duct, calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
What is the name of the opening on the medial border of each kidney?
the membrane of the collecting duct is permeable to __ but not ___
water not salt
13 steps in path of blood flow from the heart through a nephron and back to the heart
renal artery
segmental arteries
interlobar arteries
arcuate arteries
interlobular arteries
afferent arterioles
glomerular capillaries
efferent arterioles
peritubular capillaries
interlobular veins
arcuate veins
interlobar veins
renal vein
what is macula densa?
is a group of tall, closely packed DCT cells that lie adjacent to JG cells
Parasympathetic stimulation of the bladder causes
contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) definition
the amount of filtrate formed per minute by the two kidneys combined
What is the specific function of the nephron?
What does the keeping of plasam proteins in the capillaries do?
helps to maintian the coloid ostmoticp pressure of the glomerular blood, preventing the loss of all water to the renal tubules
What is the difference between the secretion and reabsorption of molecules?
-secretion moves molecules out of peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion instead of into peritubular blood.
What is the detrusor muscle?
3 layers of smooth muscle fibers used to empty the bladder
What is larger in the kidneys Afferent or Efferent vessels
Afferent.... the vessels that allow the entry of things.
What happens if the tubular load surpasses the tubular maximum?
in this case, the substance will begin to appear in the urine at appreciable conc.; for example, someone suffering from diabetes mellitus may experiencce high levels of glucose in the blood, when the tubular load exceeds the nephron's ability to reabsorb the glucose, it will be foudn in the urine
when and how do the kidneys regulate blood glucose levels
during times of starvation the kidneys are capable of gluconeogenesis
What are the primary functions of the gallbladder?
Storage of bile, concentrates bile as a result of hydrolysis, contracts when fatty acids or fats are in the duodenum
What do the macula densa cells do?
Respond to changes in Na+ and Cl- in the DCT
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